Abstract. Tourism industry in the Philippines has been identified as one of the powerful engines for a strong and sustained economic growth. To determine whether the Philippinetourism industry is moving towards sustainable development, this paper explores the evolution of the tourism industry in the Philippines by tracing its historical transformations and determining its typology. Four major periods has been recognized, namely: 1] pre-martial law era (years before 1972); 2] martial law era (1972-1986); 3] post-martial law era (1986-2000); and 4] 21st century era (2001-present). The eras are based on the country’s major political regimes. Corresponding events and numerous initiatives undertaken by the government agencies, non-government organizations and private sectors that significantly affect the tourism industry are described and analyzed. It is concluded that tourism is a well established industry in the Philippines that contributes to an inclusive economic growth of the country. The continued concerted efforts of all the stakeholders of the industry in the implementation of all these initiatives will surely lead to a sustainable Philippinetourism.
To assess the impact of emotional labor on job burnout among the employees of the tourism sector, the study used a non-experimental quantitative design. The primary data collection method was administered through a survey questionnaire that was mailed to the chosen respondents. These respondents were selected using a non-probability, convenience sampling technique. The participants were conveniently sampled through companies that agreed to participate in the study. The survey questionnaire included demographic questions, the ELS, and the MBI-GS. Ethical procedures were followed to ensure the confidentiality of the data collected. For the analysis, each subsection in the ELS and MBI-GS were properly scored and computed to quantify their prevalence. Regression analysis with moderation using SPSS was then performed to answer the study’s hypotheses. In the regression model, surface acting and deep acting were used as the independent variables, job burnout subscales as the dependent variables, and gender, age, and education level as the moderators.
leadership), physical resources mobilization and the existence of essential elements in the monitoring and early warning phase characterize risk management of disasters, as evident in the hotels. It is interesting to note that even the small, independent hotels that are not accredited by the Department of Tourism, also have a DRRM plan. The small sized property in this study which has no formal DRRM plan also monitors environmental conditions and utilizes external sources, i.e. local government advisories, weather forecasts and seismic activity by state institutions such as PAGASA and PHILVOLCS respectively, and flood forecasting and warning by the Project National Operational Assessment of Hazards or Project NOAH, for information and directives on impending hazards. Moreover they also undertake trainings related to safety and security. It can be said that there is generally a conscious effort amongst accommodation establishments to place safeguards against threats from hazards in place.
In view of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) with neighboring Southeast Asian nations, a proposed arrangement among ASEAN member countries designed to facilitate the freer movement and employment of qualified and certified personnel between its members, there is an urgent need to reassess the way tourism schools are doing things. With the minimum competency standards for ASEAN tourism professionals as well as an intra-ASEAN curriculum exchange program with cross training and cross-certification, tourism education institutions would have to ensure that their programs are consistent with the changed scenario in terms of the requirements for a tourism professional. Once these standards are defined and the corresponding assessment system made operational, a certain level of proficiency in terms of skills and knowledge requirements shall be required of a tourism graduate for him to become prepared for the challenges of industry.
The determinants of the long term growth performance of the Philippine economy have been the subject of considerable empirical research. Studies include, for example, Lampman (1967), Hooley (1968), Williamson (1969) and Sanchez (1983). While these studies covered different periods, they particularly addressed the 1950s through to the 1970s. They followed the Denison-Solow tradition of using a neoclassical production function to account for the sources of growth. Capital, labor and technology therefore played a significant role in explaining growth. Likewise, the estimation procedure used was non-parametric where assumed factor shares in total output were used as elasticities in decomposing the sources of the country's economic growth. Patalinghug (1984) extended the approach by including education as another factor contributing to growth. The common finding of these studies was that, for the economy as a whole, average productivity growth in the Philippines has been declining and even negative at various periods.
The offshore call centre industry started in the Philippines in 1999 when Cyber City set up an outsourcing facility at the former USAF base in Clark and has been followed by many more. The agents at these call centres handle inbound or outbound traffic via the telephone and other available channels. Today, the Philippines is an important offshore player driven by several factors such as the following: increasing government support on IT investment, large pool of graduates with English communication skills and knowledge in ICT far superior to India which has led many companies to close down Indian operations and move them to The Philippines, reliable and reasonably priced telecommunication infrastructure, low cost high quality locations, growing buyer trends on outsourcing. The industry in which the call centre industry operates is global, therefore highly fragmented and extremely competitive. As a result of intense competition, outsourced call centre services and solutions frequently are subject to pricing pressure. Philippine BPO Industry
Given that each technique has a unique assumption (except Brass’s and Preston and Coale’s methods) and some differing strengths and weaknesses, assessing the applicability of these techniques to Philippine data, and their robustness and consistency, falls under several conditions. First, if the population under study is stable and age reporting is accurate, Brass’s and Preston and Coale’s procedures are likely to yield consistent and plausible levels of completeness of death registration. If there is age-misreporting, Brass’s method is preferable, owing to its robustness to age*misreporting. Second, if the population in question is not stable, whether or not there is age-misreporting, which is likely to characterize data in developing countries, the Gray, Preston and Coale and Brass approaches are likely to reveal consistent results. Most often, results obtained with the Gray’s and Preston and Coale’s techniques or with the Gray and Brass procedures, show close correspondence, in view of the nature of their assumptions and strengths as discussed above. In most instances, the Gray approach is the most robust because it assumes non-stability and is less sensitive to age-misreporting; the Preston and Coale method may rank second for it is fairly robust to violations of stability but more sensitive to age-misreporting; the Brass technique may rank third if violation of the stability assumption is more crucial than violation of accurate age-reporting. If the reverse holds true, then the Brass approach would be preferable to the Preston and Coale procedure but not to the Gray technique. It is the extent of violations of their assumptions that leads to these three techniques yielding different results.
The growth of the Philippine BPO industry and the strong showing of the Contact Center space are considered as a driver for the development of the local animation industry. However, it may also be a hindrance to the development of the industry. As mentioned in the previous section, the animation industry does not need a large pool of workers. In fact, it needs a relatively small number of workers with specific skills in animation. In 2007, a total of 300,000 are employed in the Philippine outsourcing industry and only 7,000 or 2% of the total labor pool were employed in the animation sector. Because of the larger opportunity in employment in other sectors of the outsourcing industry, such as the Contact Center industry (198,000 employed in 2007) and Back- Office Processes (40,156 employed in 2007), investors as well as the local government have concentrated resources to developing these higher profile industries – leaving smaller yet equally promising sectors such as medical transcription and animation, seemingly overshadowed.
Years of schooling and the costs involved represent investment involved in producing a seafarer with basic qualifications. It could be expected that seafarers with a higher education level would earn more. However, seafarers completing college courses, but unable to find jobs as officers take jobs as ratings and it is this which explains apparent distortions in pay differentials by educational level. The pay profile with respect to years of work experience shows more significant differentials. These distortions may also indicate substantial problems in the Philippine maritime educational system, where commercially- run schools are necessarily focused on revenue rather than quality of output where the potential supply of qualified labour greatly exceeds the demand for it.
When presenting its revised, more leftist programme in November 1925 the Partido Obrero announced its intention to constitute three national organisations to mobilise support for its demands - a confed eration of industrial workers, a confederation of peasants, and a civico-educational league for young men and students.(1) This plan never progressed beyond the drawing board, and even before it had finally been shelved the party was pursuing the alternative strategy of winning over two leading labour and peasant centres already in existence - the Congreso Obrero and the Kalipunang Pangbansa ng mga Magbubukid sa Pilipinas. This chapter focuses on how that strategy fared in relation to the Congreso Obrero during 1926, 1927 and 1928. Throughout these three years, it may be safely assumed, the party itself remained very small, counting its active members in tens rather than in hundreds. In men like Ora, Evangelista and Manahan, however, the party had an energetic, articulate and cohesive nucleus of well- placed and widely respected cadres within the Congreso who were able to give the radical current in the Philippine labour movement the definite focus and sense of direction it had hitherto lacked. Avoiding sectarian cliquishness, they attracted broad support for many of their initiatives from Nacionalista and Democrata labourites as well as from their own co-partisans, and thereby gained an influence in the federation well beyond their small number.
FIGURE 2. TOTAL HEALTH EXPENDITURE BY SOURCE, PHILIPPINES, 1997 AND 2007
Source: Philippine National Health Accounts, NSCB
The high level of out of pocket may lead to financial catastrophe and impoverishment. Table 2 validates the large contribution of out of pocket during healthcare seeking episodes. Majority of patients from both public and private utilize out of pocket during confinement but it is significantly higher among patients confined in public facilities. Despite the presence of safety nets, donations (from philanthropists and charity organizations) would still count as one of the major sources of financing (Lavado and Ulep, 2011).
The proposed framework highlights an analysis of skills rooted on actual needs of industries and not on state-prescribed standards. Driven by the changes in global economic and economic landscape brought about by disruptive technologies, the framework proposes to reengineer the Philippine STEAM learning architecture to balance the disruption. Learning ecosystem pertains to program typology and infrastructure such as modality, and learning space. It specifically answers questions pertaining to STEAM teaching and learning, including learning assessment. Accreditation refers to the position of the new STEAM learning ecosystem relative to local and international accreditation and equivalency standards. Research and development refers to the nexus between research, learning, innovation, and development as an inherent feature of the Philippine STEAM education. Credentialing system refers to the process of establishing reputation and proficiency across programs. Sustainability refers to the mechanism to uphold ethical implementation of the new academic programs especially in managing big data. The proposed framework specifically aims to:
By letter dated February 23, 2006, Atty. Jose Mario C. Buñag, Commissioner of Internal Revenue, requested EMERGE to provide technical assistance to help the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) harmonize the Philippine tax rules and regulations with the new International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and Philippine Accounting Standards (PAS), subject to the National Internal Revenue Code, and to develop a training program for BIR tax agents and auditors that would provide them a comprehensive and uniform base of understanding of the new accounting principles and standards and their tax implications. This is the final report prepared by SGV & Company about that effort, upon completion of a 14-month program of work and training, in close collaboration with a BIR Technical Team, first to determine the tax audit implications of the new standards and develop a training module, and then to train a Core Instructor Group to roll out training in the new standards to the various BIR offices around the country.
Exchange, Inc. (the “Corporation”) approve, as they hereby approves, (a) the relocation of the Exchange's headquarter offices, majority of its management offices and unified operations to the proposed new building in Bonifacio Global City identified as “The Philippine Stock Exchange at One Bonifacio High Street” to be developed by Ayala Land, Inc., Fort Bonifacio Development Corporation and its affiliates to cover an area of 6,400 square meters of gross leasable area (“sqm-GLA”), more or less, at a cost of not more than PhP 805,369,600.00 exclusive of taxes and other fees (“Cost-PSE”) and the corresponding amendment in the Articles of Incorporation.”
Several studies have been conducted to examine the competitiveness of the Philippine poultry industry, particularly the commercial chickens (eg Jarvis, 1993; Gonzales, 1995; Mangabat, 1998; SEARCA, 1999; University of Asia and the Pacific, 1999; PCARRD, 2000; Mateo, 2001; Arboleda, 2001). It was found that the Philippine broiler industry was a high cost producer, relative to major exporting countries such as Brazil, China, Thailand and USA because of its heavy reliance on imported inputs (eg feedstuffs, vaccines and breeding stocks) Arboleda (2001). Although little research was done with respect to the cost structure, and competitiveness, of small scale duck production in the Philippines, it was thought to have a competitive advantage over commercial and imported chickens because of strong consumer preferences for its unique tastes, as well as their resistance to disease and difficult living conditions.