Philosophy of Health and Disease

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Doctor of Philosophy in Public Health. Concentrations in Global Health and Disease Prevention

Doctor of Philosophy in Public Health. Concentrations in Global Health and Disease Prevention

In-Vehicle Air Pollution Exposure Measurement and Modeling J. Wu PI: Delfino California Air Resources Board, Contract no 07-310 2008-2011 $500,000 Y Ecology of African Highland Malaria G. Yan, PI NIH/NIAID 2001-2013 $3,817,837 Y Population Biology of African Malaria Vectors G. Yan, PI NIH/FIC 2011-2015 $1,739,953 Y Molecular Markers for Anopheles gambiae Age Grading G. Yan, PI NIH/R21 2008-2011 $397,625 Y UC-Irvine Framework Program for Global Health G. Yan, PI NIH/FIC 2009-2012 $564,100 Y Vector Community Structure and Malaria Epidemiology G. Yan, PI NIH 2008-2009 $76,250 Y Insecticide resistance in Anopheles minimus mosquitoes G. Yan, PI NIH/R03 2009-2012 $178,630 Y Insecticide resistance in Culex Pipiens Pallens Mosquitoes G. Yan, PI Nanjing Medical
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Synthesis and characterisation of biomaterials for use as markers of health and disease : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry at Massey University

Synthesis and characterisation of biomaterials for use as markers of health and disease : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry at Massey University

Figure 2.1 shows the interelationship between intake of functional foods, effect and suceptibility of an individual. Rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods for assessing the intake of specific n utrients and drugs, both essential and non essential remains a challenge to health professionals.4 Errors in estimating and controlling nutrient and drug intakes, possible interactions among the nutrient or drug components and incomplete data on the content of ingested nutrients or drugs limits the usefulness of many biomarkers. The absorption process may depend on the drug's dissociating from its dosage form, and then diffusing across biological membrane barriers into the blood stream. In addition to the amount absorbed, the rate of absorption is also important. The absorption of a drug or nutrient is considered a first-order process, and the absorption rate constant of a drug is usually much greater than its elimination rate constant.5 Combining assessments of functional foods with tissue or fluid concentrations of components or metabolites may offer special insights into how genetics and other factors can influence absorption and metabolism of active ingredients and thus be useful in qualitatively determining an individual 's susceptibility and benefits . The use of biomarkers can ideally assist in the development of better definitions of risk profiles and thereby in developing appropriate strategies for prevention including modification of dietary habits.
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Doctor of Philosophy in Public Health

Doctor of Philosophy in Public Health

Re: University of California, Irvine Framework Program for Global Health I am writing to express my enthusiastic support for the Framework Program for Global Health at University of California, Irvine. The rapid globalization of world economy requires an understanding of human health and disease transmission at the global level. Two most populated countries in the world, India and China, are also experiencing the fastest economical growth. UC Irvine, with a diverse faculty and student body from all over the world, is uniquely positioned to establish such global health program. In the past five years, I have visited multiple universities, research institutions and governmental agencies in China for scholarly communication and information exchange on topics of global health. Chinese institutions welcome and support collaborations with University of California. My connection with China is just one of the examples of many on-going- collaborations with different counties among UC Irvine faculty. The Framework Program will synergize current global health research and establish new programs. It benefits UC Irvine research and education mission by placing health research at forefront of world needs and educating a new generation of students with a global vision of human health. Please let me know if I can offer any additional help to make this program a success at University of California, Irvine.
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Prevent or Cure? – A New Philosophy of Health Care

Prevent or Cure? – A New Philosophy of Health Care

health concept which would treat health in a holistic and complementary manner, i.e. in favour of creating definitions which do not only deal with the essence of the issue but also provide a broader context of its meaning in the form of a paradigm. The process of socio-ecological model has begun to displace the so called biomedical model when considering health problems. At present, the focus is not on disease but on health [3] Changes in the picture of diseases involving transition from acute to chronic diseases made it necessary to replace medical interventionism which predominated in the biomedical model with observations of population health. Moreover, it was proved that the exclusive use of corrective actions is not sufficient to fight chronic diseases effectively, and, as a result, more and more attention has been attached to preventive treatment. The subject of actions undertaken in the area of health is not a patient any more, but a healthy person, who has to take responsibility – in a much broader scope than so far – for his health condition. Being aware of the influence of lifestyle on health condition of a population makes it clear that the most significant organizational form in health care system are not medical institutions but the society, in which a person functions every day and from which an individual acquires attitudes, health related behaviours and values that are attributed to health.
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Ethical Evaluation in Health Technology Assessment: A Challenge for Applied Philosophy

Ethical Evaluation in Health Technology Assessment: A Challenge for Applied Philosophy

The integration of ethical analysis in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) has proven difficult to implement even though it is explicitly recognized as an important component of such assessments in HTA literature. When com- pared to the standardized scientific method for systematic reviews in HTA, the diversity of ethical analysis has been characterized as a fundamental bar- rier to the integration of ethics. The present paper aims to identify the theo- retical and practical differences between the approaches underpinning ethical analysis in HTA and clarify the reasons for such diversity. Our systematic re- view of HTA literature pertaining to the barriers to the integration of ethics in HTA identified nine ethical approaches: Principlism, Casuistry, Coherence Analysis, Wide Reflective Equilibrium, Axiology, the Socratic approach, the Triangular model, Constructive Technology Assessment and Social Shaping of Technology. Citations pertaining to each approach were extracted and ca- tegorized according to three constitutive components of ethical argumenta- tion established in a previous research evaluating nanotechnologies: i) the disciplinary foundation that grounds the validity of the ethical evaluation, ii) the characteristics of such evaluation, iii) the operational process involved in applying it to a particular case (i.e., its practical reasoning). This comparison shows that, 1) the difference between these approaches rests primarily on their disciplinary foundation (rooted in philosophy, philosophy/theology, or How to cite this paper: Legault, G.-A.,
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On the philosophy and content of business education courses in occupational health and safety

On the philosophy and content of business education courses in occupational health and safety

environmental issues. But to solve the occupational health problem in the first place is, more often than not, to solve the environmental health problem and it should not be forgotten that the starting point of all sustainable business development is a healthy, educated, motivated, safe and psychologically stable workforce. This last statement applies ipso facto to the management group. Firms are beginning to demand graduates skilled in O&EH&S. The inspectorate, if it is to remain viable and command respect, has little option but to keep up with this training trend: likewise those involved in OH&S education and training. Good OH&S courses will provide opportunities for students to find interdisciplinary applications for their skills and to equip themselves, through an understanding of theory articulation and paradigm shift, to participate fully in their profession as its boarders change.
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Doctor of Philosophy [Ph.D] in Health Science Online Program 2019

Doctor of Philosophy [Ph.D] in Health Science Online Program 2019

The successful applicant’s health profession may emphasize delivery of services to individual clients (e.g., Au.D., PA, PT, OT, R.N., LCSW) or be population- based (e.g., M.P.H., M.H.A.). An appropriate level of professional practice is generally recognized by health professions licensure (e.g., Au.D., R.N., PT, OT, RDH), a national certification or registration (e.g., PA-C, RVT, RRT, CRNA, FACHE), a recognized academic credential (e.g., M.P.H., M.S.N., M.S.W., M.H.A., M.B.A., J.D., M.A. or M.S. in Audiology, D.P.T., O.T.D.), or a combination of the above. The

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Role of yoga in health and disease.

Role of yoga in health and disease.

 be beneficial, but more research is required fo ore research is required for virtually r virtually every one of them to establish their benefits conclusive- every one of them to establish their benefits conclusive- ly. This is true in the process of introducing any new ly. This is true in the process of introducing any new therapy into the modern health care system and is not therapy into the modern health care system and is not surprising when we realize that the proper studies on surprising when we realize that the proper studies on yoga as a therapeutic modality are not older than a few yoga as a therapeutic modality are not older than a few decades.
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Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Public Health Sciences. Student Handbook

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Public Health Sciences. Student Handbook

4. Write dissertation proposal (after candidacy): The dissertation proposal should follow the National Institute of Health guidelines for research proposals and should contain the following sections: Specific Aims, Significance, Innovation, Approach, Environment and Bibliography. The written proposal should not exceed 25 pages. 5. Defend dissertation proposal (after candidacy): The dissertation proposal approval process consists of a public defense. The public defense should be attended by the entire dissertation committee and an additional faculty identified by the PhD Program Committee to ensure the consistency and rigor of the process. All dissertation committee members shall have read the proposal and provided feedback to the doctoral candidate prior to the presentation of the proposal. The student must present an oral review of the proposal and answer questions by the dissertation committee members, the faculty representative, and other attendees. After which the public audience will be asked to leave the room. Based on review of the proposal and the oral presentation, the committee members will provide one of the following ratings. A pass or defer rating must be based on a unanimous decision:
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Corneal nerves in health and disease

Corneal nerves in health and disease

• A wide range of pathology ranging from hyper-regeneration, aberrant regeneration, thickening, tortuosity, looping and coiling to thinning, disruption and complete absence, has been demonstrated in a number of conditions such as bullous keratopathy, keratoconus, dry eye disease, diabetic keratopahty, limbal stem cell deficiency, post-keratoplasty, refractive surgery and corneal infections.

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Interleukins in Periodontal Health and Disease

Interleukins in Periodontal Health and Disease

The term chemokines, a short form of ‘chemotactic cytokines’, was coined in 1992. All the 50 or so human chemokines that were discovered over the years have chemo-tactic activity. They constitute a large family of mediators of inflammation and immunity with similarity to cytokines, but also some clear differences. Like cytokines the chemokines are secretory proteins produced by leucocytes and tissues cells either constitutively or after induction, and exert their effects locally in paracrine or autocrine fashion. Interleukin Expression in Gingival and Periodontal Health

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From Disease- to Health Management

From Disease- to Health Management

Health - Future - Puzzle.. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC... Obesity Trends* Among U.S.. Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC..[r]

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Yoga and mental health: Applying yoga philosophy for well-being

Yoga and mental health: Applying yoga philosophy for well-being

Since Indian psychology is based on Indian philosophy it has developed many methods and techniques for experiencing consciousness in ourselves. “Indian psychology has its root in Indian Philosophy and shares its emphasis on knowing by experience. Through personal experience the achariyas (Teachers or mentors) worked out the philosophy in further details in psychological theories and applied these on themselves and their students. They found methods and processes for contacting the universal planes of consciousness form the lowest to the higher, and subsequently, studies how these planes manifest and interact in human nature. This is how Indian psychology can contribute to detailed understanding of cosmic principles and to an elaborate knowledge of psychological processes in the human being A core characteristics of Indian psychology is that it addresses the complete human beings-not only the body, heart and mind , but also soul and spirit.” 7
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Variation of immune response in health and disease

Variation of immune response in health and disease

the vaginal microbiome, making up about 85-95% of the total fungal load [2, 3]. As a consequence, this dimorphic fungus is the main opportunistic pathogen found in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), a fungal infection affecting more than 75% of all childbearing women at least once in their lifetime [4-6]. VVC not only causes significant costs for the health system and the society, but also dramatically worsens the quality of life of affected women [2, 7]. Moreover, a significant percentage of women of approximately 5-8% experience recurrent episodes of VVC (RVVC). This distressing condition is characterized by at least 3 episodes of VVC per year [5, 6]. Different predisposing risk factors have been reported to be responsible to increase the susceptibility to (R)VVC, among which diabetes, oral contraceptives , pregnancy, steroid and immunosuppressive therapy, as well as HIV, are the most common ones [2, 3, 8-11]. However, research on cohorts with different ethnical background revealed that there is most likely also a genetic component that contributes to the onset of RVVC. This argument is strengthened by the fact that most tested women having RVVC are not enervated by one of the afore mentioned risk factors [12].
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Tocopherol (Vitamin E) in Health and disease

Tocopherol (Vitamin E) in Health and disease

conditions and diseases and to maintain health, safety is an important consideration. In double-blind, placebo-controlled human studies, very few observed side effects were seen with oral daily intakes of 600-3200 I.U. for three weeks to six months. Side effects associated with vitamin E were also

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Human serum glycome in health and disease

Human serum glycome in health and disease

Altered glycosylation has been observed in cancer, such as increased branching, fucosylation and sialylation [40, 41]. Increased branching has been associated with metastasis [42] and in breast and colon cancer correlated with the disease stage [43]. Fucosylation, which results from the activity of eleven different transferases, has been thoroughly studied in the context of cancer [44, 45]. Fucosyltransferases can connect fucose to nascent glycans via four different types of linkages: α-1,2 (FucT1 and 2), α-1,3 and α-1,4 (FucT3-7 and 9) and core α-1,6 (FucT8) [44]. Miyoshi et al. [45] reported increased expression of α1-6FucT in multiple cell lines, namely lung, gastric and colon cancer. Kyselova et al. [46] observed increased sialylation and fucosylation together with a decrease of smaller N-glycan structures during breast cancer progression. Increase of antennarity and fucosylation has been also observed by Biskup et al. in ovarian cancer serum [47, 48] and ascites [49]. On the other hand, high-mannose structures were decreased in both ovarian cancer sera and ascites [47-49]. Interestingly, De Leoz et al. observed increased high-mannosylation in breast cancer in mouse and human sera when only neutral N-glycans were measured [50].
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Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture

Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture

The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, was intro- duced from Matsushima Bay in Japan to the west coast of the United States, and from there moved to the east coast. These western United States stocks are infected at low levels with the parasite Haplosporidium sp. (identical to Haplosporidium nelsoni), which has caused massive mortalities among eastern oysters (C. virginica) along the eastern coast of the United States. A highly specific and sensitive DNA probe, developed to detect H. nelsoni by in situ hybridization, also detects the Haplosporidium sp. described in Pacific oysters of the western United States and Matsushima Bay (Burresson et al., 2000). It is now known that H. nelsoni is present in C. gigas in Japan (Kamaishi and Yoshinaga, 2002) and Korea (Kern, 1976). It thus appears that H. nelsoni does not cause serious disease in Pacific oysters, and it is speculated that this pathogen was introduced into the Pacific coast of the United States through the movement of apparently healthy, but infected, C. gigas. Infected Pacific oysters were then introduced onto the eastern United States, where the parasite proved highly virulent to a new host (Burresson et al., 2000), infecting eastern oysters and causing mass mortalities. This example demonstrates the possible dramatic and unpredictable consequences of transfer- ring infected stocks.
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Dopamine and oculomotor impulsivity in health and disease.

Dopamine and oculomotor impulsivity in health and disease.

How might we predict which patients will develop such problems? Despite a better understanding of the dynamic mechanisms of basal ganglia thalamocortical interaction (Frank et al., 2007; Doya, 2008; Wiecki and Frank, 2013), related expansions in the study of decision- making and neuroeconomics (Glimcher, 2009) and increased appreciation of the behavioural and neuropsychiatric manifestations of primarily “subcortical” diseases (Ring and Serra- Mestres, 2002), there remain a lack of useful measures for the assessment and monitoring of motivational deficits. Subcortical pathology does not neatly impair discrete cognitive domains measured by commonly used cognitive tests (of e.g. language, memory or attention) that are helpful to identify focal cortical pathology (Burrell et al., 2014). Instead, basal ganglia disease causes non-specific impairments in many or all of these processes (Damasio, 1983; Cummings JL and Benson D, 1984; Crosson, 1992; Brown et al., 1997; Booth et al., 2007; Kotz et al., 2009; Obeso et al., 2014). The interconnectedness of subcortical structures makes them likely to cause dysfunction in multiple “cortical domains”. For example, the basal ganglia have particularly strong connections with the frontal lobes. Consequent importance in executive function (Brown et al., 1997; Elliott, 2003) is demonstrable in the effects of basal ganglia dysfunction upon cognitive tests sensitive to frontal lobe damage (Cummings, 1993).
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Philosophy (PHIL) Philosophy

Philosophy (PHIL) Philosophy

PHIL 3830 Deconstruction and Hermeneutics 3:3:0 * Prerequisite(s): (PHIL 1000 or PHIL 100H or PHIL 2050 or PHIL 2050H or PHIL 205G or PHIL 2110 or PHIL 2150 or Instructor Approval) and University Advanced Standing Studies the interpretive methods of deconstruction and hermeneutics, two important traditions to emerge in late 20th century philosophy. Analyzes various works from the history of philosophy through the frameworks of deconstruction and hermeneutics. Tracks the difference between knowledge and understanding, particularly through the writings of Jacques Derrida and Hans-Georg Gadamer. Includes the study of other relevant traditions such as post- structuralism, French feminism, and literary criticism.
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The philosophy of comparative philosophy

The philosophy of comparative philosophy

By attempting to examine thinkers and texts both from a contextualised and decontextualised position, comparative philosophy can provide a greater depth to the understanding of the think[r]

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