Philosophy of Mind, science

Top PDF Philosophy of Mind, science:

Putting the Philosophy of Science into Mind: Knowing Minds By Models

Putting the Philosophy of Science into Mind: Knowing Minds By Models

unless she has changed her mind about what she expects from me, or unless I have actually been kidnapped or sent to the hospital, or unless she has won the lottery this evening, or become absorbed in her own work and lost track of other things.” We have to have information, perhaps guesses, about her mental states (e.g. what she wants and believes) in order to say anything about her other mental states (e.g. her anger) and in order to generate a conclusion. And we also have to have some way of representing the myriad possibilities that could affect those mental states as well as the liklihood of those obtaining. In this case, I have to have a take on these things in order to say whether my wife will feel slighted, and thus angry. In short, there are numerous possibilities that could either serve as the cause of her mental state, or that could be viewed as interfering with the outcome that our application of the folk psychological theory has predicted. The result is that the laws leave too much to be accounted for, and mindreaders cannot make a “definitive interpretive conclusion” since they would not be able to tell when these “all things being equal” conditions are met (Goldman 1995, 79). But contrary to this result, we often do make definite interpretations. This problem suggests that mindreaders do not employ theoretical generalizations or laws akin to those found as part of a theoretical structure.
Show more

34 Read more

Philosophy of Science in Italy

Philosophy of Science in Italy

results in semantics, philosophical logic and philosophy of mind. Paolo Parrini was a student of Giulio Preti, the Italian philosopher who struggled the hardest to open Italian philosophy to a logical-scientific forma mentis, and, in my view, the only post-war Italian philosopher worth knowing abroad. Parrini, even before visiting Pittsburgh, at the same time as the late lamented Alberto Coffa (the dates are clear), opened an important new seam of critical and historical reassessment of scientific philosophy in the Twentieth century. This now attracts eminent scholars from all over the world, all working together – even when there are disagreements of interpretation – in a spirit of co-operation and dialogue, favoured by their common point of reference at the Pittsburgh Archive. I should also mention a new generation of young Italian scholars, visiting here in Pittsburgh, who are now following brilliant careers and are appreciated all over the world. However, it is the Florence Center for the History and Philosophy of Science, which I have directed since 1985, that has benefited most from collaboration with Pittsburgh; through the promotion of joint successful initiatives, the exchange of visiting scholars, the mutual assistance to students and researchers, and above all for having brought the most outstanding figures in the fields of philosophy of science and history of science to Italy. My only regret is that our common friend Marcello Pera, another leading scholar who sharpened his tools and refined his learning here in Pittsburgh, after sowing his ideas amongst his students in Pisa, decided to leave philosophy and take up a much more important post, namely, that of President of the Senate of the Republic. A pity for philosophy and a pity for politics too, because it is my firm conviction that Pera has gone into politics by the wrong door (but you can’t learn
Show more

14 Read more

Review Essay: Species of Mind - The Philosophy and Biology of Cognitive Ethology

Review Essay: Species of Mind - The Philosophy and Biology of Cognitive Ethology

Skepticism at the idea that animals think, reason and are conscious seems to have been the ‘official’ view throughout the duration of western culture. Aristotle had thought of reasoning as the capacity to ‘perceive universals’, and had understood this as a distinctly human capacity. After this, as many have pointed out, the Christian account of creation seemed to drive human and non-human forms of existence even further apart. One may think that the more recent scientific displacement of humans from the centre of creation may have aided the idea of the continuity of mindedness across the species, but in this century science had tended to cut both ways in relation to this question.
Show more

6 Read more

Graduate Biomedical Science Education Needs a New Philosophy

Graduate Biomedical Science Education Needs a New Philosophy

However, in our view, it is not sufficient to merely prescribe critically philosophic elements for inclusion in graduate curricula to reform the educational framework in science. Instead, what is needed is a combination of rationalism with critically reflective practice (64, 65); genuine meaning making in a relevant, active learning context (66–69); and passionate engagement (70) to create powerful learning experiences. To develop a mindset of reflective practice, students should have frequent opportunities to exercise the various facets of critical thinking, comprising challenging assumptions, evaluation and reasoning, creative problem solving, and communication (71, 72). To apply these skills in relevant contexts, previous reform efforts in higher education have emphasized how important it is to “teach science like we do science” (73, 74; see also http://www.biophysics.org/Publications/News- letter/PastIssues/December2011/56thAnnualMeeting/tabid/3731/Default.aspx); be- sides becoming accustomed to rigorous research methodology, students need to de- velop an unvarnished, realistic view of the frequently erroneous decision-making processes and daily research practices in the biomedical sciences (73, 74). It is thereby critical to create an awareness of the epistemic limits of science (75, 76) and address error sources such as logical fallacies or sloppiness in experimental design (12, 13, 77, 78), just as much as cases of misconduct (79). On the other hand, there must be sufficient room for learning from the fun side of scientific blunders, serendipitous discoveries (45, 80), and success stories. To facilitate authentic expe- riences (69), learners could use self-chosen projects of their interest or aspects of their thesis work to apply central scientific concepts such as deductive and induc- tive reasoning. Moreover, students may be given opportunities to practice mind- fulness, self-awareness, and communication skills in real-world situations such as community outreach settings (81, 82).
Show more

12 Read more

Realism and evidence in the philosophy of mind

Realism and evidence in the philosophy of mind

This strategy is a relatively recent development in the philosophy of science, which suggests a way in which the same evidence can be used to generate both a general and a specific hypot[r]

424 Read more

Plato's philosophy of science

Plato's philosophy of science

In conclusion, th en , th e Timaeus i s n o t a v e h ic le o f P la to n ic d o c trin e b u t a s e t o f views, some we may a sc rib e t o P la to and some n o t, t h a t we must judge th e philosophi c a l worth of o u rse lv es. Running through th e Timaeus th e re i s a c o n tr a s t o f th e 27c-29e view point and passages developing and rephrasing i t a g a in s t o th er sugg estio n s a s t o how th e i n t e l l i g i b l e and th e s e n s ib le , reason and p ercep tio n and our minds and th e world r e l a t e t o each o th e r, and i t w i l l be th e ta s k o f th e follow ing ch ap ters t o develop and in v e s tig a te t h i s c o n tr a s t. This reading o f th e Timaeus has th e advantage o f being in l in e w ith P l a to 's FWP, o f making some sense o f th e r e la tio n between th e in tro d u c tio n and th e r e s t o f th e work, of giv in g th e whole work some coherence, and o f narrowing th e gap in s ty le and concerns w ith o th e r l a t e works. I t a ls o opens up se v e ra l very in te r e s tin g in te r p r e ta tio n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I f th e epistem ology of 27c~29d i s n o t P la to 's c u rre n t one, what i s suggested by th e r e s t o f th e Timaeus and how do th e d isc u ssio n s o f flu x and th e p la c e o f th e human mind in th e u n iv erse f i t in w ith t h i s ? What a re th e im p lic a tio n s fo r P l a t o 's philosophy o f scien ce ? The next c h ap ter w i l l re tu rn to
Show more

292 Read more

Does Matter Matter? Should We Mind the Mind? —Can Philosophy Be Reduced to Neurophysiology?

Does Matter Matter? Should We Mind the Mind? —Can Philosophy Be Reduced to Neurophysiology?

Also here, science plays a significant role. Physics decomposed the concept of matter into field equations, functions of probability, equivalence with energy and other concepts, being as much real objects as products of our mind, so that matter has become in fact only an empty name (Korzeniewski, 2014). The process of decomposition of the concept of (self-) consciousness (spirit) into other con- cepts performed by neurophysiology is also significant, although it has not ad- vanced that far. Nevertheless, the apparently sharp opposition between the mind and matter seems to vanish gradually, being “dissolved” in the sea of the sur- rounding concepts. Matter seems to be to an increasing extent (at least within theoretical physics) a product of the human mind, while all known evidences in- dicate that the mind emerges from the functioning of (sufficiently and appro- priately complex) material systems (human brains). I propose one of possible ways how this can happen. As the development of science proceeds, the mind- matter opposition matters, and scientists mind it, still less and less. The same applies to many other concepts and problems, with which philosophy struggled for centuries, and which were shown by science as empty or apparent. Therefore science, by escaping from the conventionality of culture, enables us to de-my- thologize many aspects of our culture. At the same time, science (especially neurophysiology and psychology) suggests that the conceptual network is a more adequate tool for formation of a relatively faithful representation of the world than language. Language, being anyway a part of the conceptual network, is a very efficient tool that allows an easy, but far from perfect, operation and manipulation with concepts within the entire network. However, this does not mean that human thinking has a linguistic nature and occurs primarily at the linguistic level (Korzeniewski, 2013b, 2015b).
Show more

65 Read more

Philosophical understanding and its relevance to their field of research

Philosophical understanding and its relevance to their field of research

philosophers are concerned. Majority of people subscribe to traditions and customs. Having said that there is no area in domain in which philosophy cannot ask questions, there is therefore need for philosophical thinking about education and not just the scientific thinking if education is to be meaningful and useful to the one being educated because he who has studied philosophy is more likely to view things with a wide in depth analysis of evidence as opposed to he who has not. This is so because the mere accumulation of knowledge does not lead to understanding because it does not necessarily train the mind to make a critical evaluation of facts which entails consistent and coherent judgment. This therefore calls for the critical creative dimension of education. In other words in as much as educational science primarily looks at education in economic terms, manpower needs and job opportunities, educational philosophy looks at the deeper meaning and significance of education which is tied to the meaning of life, particularly human life. This implies that educational philosophy does not equate the use and value of education to monetary terms as the scientist would do. Given that the term education is a multidimensional concept, this paper aims at highlighting the four dimensions by placing emphasis on holistic education based on those four dimensions.
Show more

9 Read more

Economics as a Science of the Human Mind and Interaction

Economics as a Science of the Human Mind and Interaction

have no doubt that economics students will profit from exposure to different perspectives and ideas. Pluralism could not only help to fertilize teaching and research and reinvigorate the discipline. Rather, pluralism carries the promise to bring economics back into the service of society. Three forms of pluralism must be at the core of curricula: theoretical, methodological and interdisciplinary. Theoretical pluralism emphasizes the need to broaden the range of schools of thought represented in the curricula. It is not the particulars of any economic tradition we object to. Pluralism is not about choosing sides, but about encouraging intellectually rich debate and learning to critically contrast ideas. Where other disciplines embrace diversity and teach competing theo- ries even when they are mutually incompatible, economics is often presented as a unified body of knowledge. Admittedly, the dominant tradition has internal variations. Yet, it is only one way of doing economics and of looking at the real world… An inclusive and comprehensive economics education should promote balanced ex- posure to a variety of theoretical perspectives, from the commonly taught neoclassically-based approaches to the largely excluded classical, post-Keynesian, institutional, ecological, feminist, Marxist and Austrian tradi- tions—among others. Most economics students graduate without ever encountering such diverse perspectives in the classroom. Furthermore, it is essential that core curricula include courses that provide context and foster reflexive thinking about economics and its methods per se, including philosophy of economics and the theory of knowledge. Also, because theories cannot be fully understood independently of the historical context in which they were formulated, students should be systematically exposed to the history of economic thought and to the classical literature on economics as well as to economic history. Currently, such courses
Show more

11 Read more

Rorty and the Problem of Consciousness.

Rorty and the Problem of Consciousness.

quite rightly regard it as an embarrassing reminder of a past in which philosophy tried to hold back the tide of science. For this particular problem is merely the residual debris of a long and sorry story which began when the Greeks, surrounded by their prodigious achievements in art, literature and politics, began to wonder why human beings were so special. What, they wondered, was the magical ingredient which made them capable of such glorious things, and thereby raised them above the level of the brutes? They found what they were looking for with an innovative notion of mind, which they started to think of as a supernatural faculty capable of soaring above mundane affairs to glimpse the higher things, like the universal truths of geometry; one of the achievements their intellectuals took most pride in. By utilizing this faculty, then, they supposed that we could look beyond lines roughly drawn in the sand, for the purposes of illustrating geometrical propositions, and focus instead on the eternal truths, insulated from time and chance, which those imperfect lines were simply reminders of. This idea of an ability to gaze on the higher things with our immaterial mind’s eye, while turning it away from the grosser things which our material eyes inform us about, resonated with the Greek temperament well enough to convince them that this story provided a worthy account of their dignity.
Show more

12 Read more

The Science of Self, Mind and Body

The Science of Self, Mind and Body

Most philosophical definitions of self (Descartes, Locke and Hume) are expressed in the first person (Gaynesford, 2006). The philosophy of self defines the essential qualities that make one person distinct from all others. The self is the agent being the source of consciousness, and responsible for the thoughts of mind and actions of body of an individual, enduring through time. The particular characteristics of the self determine its identity. Descartes who has been dubbed as the “Father of the Modern Philosophy” is best known for the philosophical state- ment “Cogito ergo sum” (English: I think, therefore I am) (Wikipedia, 2012).
Show more

8 Read more

The Chinese room argument: Dead but not yet buried

The Chinese room argument: Dead but not yet buried

Considering thought experiments in general, Brown (1991) writes: “. . . there is very little literature on the subject of thought experiments” (p. x), a situation which has changed but little in recent years (see Sorenson 1992, Bunzl 1996, Arthur 1999 and Gendler 2000 for particular contributions). Brown credits Wilkes (1988) with allowing that thought experiments are useful in physical science but not in the philosophy of mind (pp. 28–31). The problem is that the latter “take us too far from reality”. Thought experiments work by evoking intuitions, with which discussants are invited to agree. Although these can be useful in many cases, these intuitions can also be misleading. Wilkes’s concern is that imaginary cases (in the domain of personal identity) which are wildly implausible and/or lack sufficient background definition can evoke unreliable if not erroneous intuitions.
Show more

17 Read more

Causation and the mind: Metaphysical presuppositions in the philosophy of mind

Causation and the mind: Metaphysical presuppositions in the philosophy of mind

Having done so, I will go on to suggest that the proof in question may not be worth chasing: the industrial strength realist is trying to explain how the predicates o f our fundamental theory hook onto perfectly natural properties, but the metaphysician has only got his objective ontological picture o f property causation off the ground by presupposing the Natural Properties Principle, which asserts the existence o f the entire ontology o f sparse properties. The main support for the Natural Properties Principle, however, was by inference to best explanation, based upon its utility within systematic philosophy, and it cannot have much utility in explaining anything outside metaphysics if the entire sparse property ontology is epistemologically sterile. Although the Natural Properties Principle may be an indispensable assumption o f certain metaphysical theories, it has created an huge epistemological problem for the philosophy o f science. At this point I begin to get misgivings about the metaphysical theory o f objective sparse properties, the magnitude o f which Hume might have been proud: what if the project o f industrial strength scientific realism is a project o f trying to find a fit between science and some coherent, consistent and yet 'false and adulterate' metaphysics? We do not, after all, worry too much that our scientific account o f the world's causal interactions does not fit in with an ontology o f Leibnizian monads. Perhaps, with Hume, it is time to 'subvert that abstruse philosophy and metaphysical jargon, which, being mixed up with popular superstition, ...gives it an air o f science and wisdom'.^^ To put the point less grandly, I will suggest acceptance o f the metaphysical account o f sparse properties, especially as it is applied to account for the metaphysics o f causation, should be withheld until alternative options have been thoroughly explored.
Show more

168 Read more

Continental Philosophy Commons Esthetics Commons History of Philosophy Commons Metaphysics Commons Philosophy of Language Commons , and the Philosophy of Mind Commons

Continental Philosophy Commons Esthetics Commons History of Philosophy Commons Metaphysics Commons Philosophy of Language Commons , and the Philosophy of Mind Commons

and particularly poignantly, even if naively, in the Hapsburg empire (Vienna school). For Wittgenstein, the seemingly comprehensive descriptions available to natural science on the one hand (the totality of factual propositions), and to logic on the other (the totality of analytic propositions) mandated the eviction of metaphysics: it left metaphysics without its own object of study 30 . This is the crisis of philosophy—it no longer has any claim to positive epistemological content, and this already constituted the solution to the problem. Although immediately consequential for philosophy, such a crisis also has its manifestations in the competing claims of two epistemological approaches to the question of scientific apodicticity, regarding science's own well-founded basis, exemplified by the well-known conflict between the formalists and the constructivists played out in mathematics and in logic 31 . By setting this out, we don't mean to suggest that the Tractatus adheres to the coordinates of the problem as staged by its expressly mathematical dimensions. On the contrary, these dimensions affect the Tractatus only to the extent that it bears exclusively on philosophical questions. Wittgenstein was thus, up to that point at least, unique in his use and contribution to the project of modern logic: his logical concern is only ever philosophical. In this respect, the Tractatus comes to light as the last great work in the rationalist tradition, and of the 17 th century tradition of the treatise. What does Wittgenstein do with the crisis, and why does the Tractatus—in its
Show more

107 Read more

THE ARCHITECTURE OF A SCHOOL SYSTEM ACCORDING TO THE THEORY OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

THE ARCHITECTURE OF A SCHOOL SYSTEM ACCORDING TO THE THEORY OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

the papers presented in this volume also try to connect science and research with education and application of science in everyday practice. at the university of maribor, faculty of natural science and mathematics with support of the experts in the field of philosophy of mind, cognitive science, psychology, neuroscience, artificial intelligence and education try to establish a group of “neuro-educators”. the aim of this group will be to promote further international co-operation among scientists from different disciplines involved in the study of Philosophy of Mind and Cognitive Modelling in Education. the overall objective is to produce an integrated approach to problems of connection education with the contemporary knowledge from the area of philosophy of mind, cognitive science, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive modelling and artificial intelligence. presented papers are first attempt to reach such aims.
Show more

8 Read more

Methodological Individualism and Holism in Political Science: A Reconciliation

Methodological Individualism and Holism in Political Science: A Reconciliation

The closest precursor to our analysis can be found in Sawyer’s (2002, 2003, 2005) defence of “non-reductive individualism” in the social sciences, an approach that “accepts that [fundamentally] only individuals exist but rejects methodological individualism” (2002, p. 537). Sawyer was one of the first to embark on a comprehensive translation of relevant ideas from the philosophy of mind into the philosophy of social science. Here, we address the methodological debate in political science, which has not yet taken on board the insights from related philosophical debates. We develop a refined taxonomy of different forms of individualism and holism and look at where political scientists appeal to them; and we offer a novel characterization of phenomena that require non-reductionistic explanations, drawing on recent work in the study of “mental causation”, especially on higher-level causal relations that are robust to changes in their microrealization (List and Menzies 2009).
Show more

49 Read more

On Redundant Hypotheses in Inductive Fields of Inquiry

On Redundant Hypotheses in Inductive Fields of Inquiry

also the belief inherent in any scientific exploration that “everything” has a rational explanation (hypothesis (ii), namely causality). As any astute reader must have noticed, the problem with the latter hypothesis again hinges in the word ‘everything’. As discussed above in Section 2, this is a vaguely defined term and has got an irrational basis. It is true that such beliefs are of course important to make progress and such an optimist approach is what motivates the explorer of truths. Any philosopher, who is at the same time a physicist, who knows that all such beliefs are dogmas, herself believes in them when she comes down to work as a physicist in her day-to-day life, otherwise she wouldn’t expect to make progress. Also, the hypothesis (i) is logically redundant in nature because even if some physicist does not believe in having an ultimate end goal, then also she can continue to work and make progress for the sake of pursuit of truth, with no effect in results being obtained by her even if she is a non-believer (in the above sense). The hypothesis (ii) states that science can explain everything (the principle of causality) and this is so inherent in the paradigm of scientific thinking that not believing in this will lead to acute skepticism in her, making her first question the issue that whether or not a rational explanation is even possible or not, thereby making progress lethargic.
Show more

11 Read more

Experimental Philosophy of science

Experimental Philosophy of science

from a selection bias: Philosophers of science are guaranteed to find some cases that support their views even if many other cases actually undermine them. As Faust and Meehl put it (2002, S187), “for nearly any descriptive or normative program, no matter how sound, the proponent can find many supportive instances.” In fact, philosophers of science should be unimpressed when a single case or even a few cases are presented to support a given theory. The empirical methods discussed in the remainder of Section 4 are meant to complement the case study method by addressing these shortcomings (bibliometric methods) or by replacing it (cliometric methods).
Show more

35 Read more

A Critical Relation between Mind and Logic in the Philosophy of Wittgenstein: An analytical study

A Critical Relation between Mind and Logic in the Philosophy of Wittgenstein: An analytical study

that it is just an ultimate fact about human beings that they find certain a priori inferences natural. Logicians are chiefly concerned with language used informatively in affirming or denying propositions, formulating arguments, evaluating arguments, and so on. Many other purposes are also served by language, however, and its informative use may be better understood when contrasted with other uses. The great philosopher of analytical tradition and notable logicians, insisted rightly in his work ‘philosophical investigations, 1953) that there are countless different kinds of use of what we call ‘symbols’, ‘words’, ‘sentences’. Among the examples suggested by Wittgenstein are giving orders, describing an object or giving its measurements, reporting an event, speculating about an event, forming and testing a hypothesis, presenting the results of an experiment, making up a story, play-acting, singing, guessing riddles, telling a joke, solving a problem in arithmetic, translating from one language into another, asking, cursing greeting and praying. Thus we can say that, Mind and logic is an approach in the philosophy of mind which explores mind, its analysis, its functions, and the task of inductive and deductive reasoning in the operations of the mind. While both inductive and deductive processes are scientific, both the processes are dependent on each other’s. Mind is a software part of brain which is its hardware part. The attributes of mind are thinking, imaging, doubting, memorizing. There is no permanent place of mind but ordinary we argue that mind resides in brain. Mind is three dimensional and its structure as the persons enhances in age the structure and the functions of the mental processes also increases. Philosophy of mind not only explores the nature of mind but it also explains the theories like monism
Show more

6 Read more

Teaching a Practical Philosophy of Mind: Design & Illustration of a Philosophy-Based ELA Curriculum Model.

Teaching a Practical Philosophy of Mind: Design & Illustration of a Philosophy-Based ELA Curriculum Model.

Renowned literacy scholar Louise Rosenblatt (1904 - 2005) committed her major works (1938; 1978; 2005) to the purpose of merging literacy instruction and American philosophy. Implicit in her reader response theory, which she grounds in American pragmatism, is her search to align literacy instruction with philosophy’s deepest goals: knowledge of self; knowledge of nature and reality; and mindfulness of the methods and logic readers use to form understanding. Like her pragmatist inspirers—John Dewey (2000), William James (1977), and Charles Sanders Peirce (2011)—Rosenblatt takes intense interest, finds compelling beauty, and sees practical value in exploring the workings of the mind. However, despite Rosenblatt’s prominence and the enduring appeal of her ideas, and despite the continuing influence of American pragmatism on literary theory (Connell, 2008), education researchers have generated a relative paucity of work on the questions of how and why pragmatic literary theory may improve English Language Arts (ELA) instruction. Only five articles from the past ten years explore this subject directly and with sophistication.
Show more

365 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...