Experiential learning is an educational approach that has been associated with different fields including musiceducation, but rarely with philosophy. Our project consisted of a philosophical experience in action using the work of the Canadian composer R. Murray Schafer. In his Soundscape concept, all sounds in an environment become part of the music that surrounds us. Pre-service student teachers were introduced to his philosophy of musiceducation through experiential learning rather than through a traditional lecture. Additionally, we followed three of them as they taught grades 3, 9 and 11. Our goal was to see to what extent experiential learning of philosophy could be an appropriate pedagogical tool in higher education. Our research question was: How can student-teachers construct their own understanding of a philosophy of musiceducation after having experienced it from the perspective of a student and of a teacher? The following data were examined through collaborative thematic analysis of 1) an open question, 2) their own music composition following Shafer’s guidelines, and 3) their experience of teaching the children. Participants were able to explain in their own words the main components of Shafer’s view on musiceducation, they described how they could use this vision in their own teaching and they identified spe- cific outcomes (creativity, freedom, motivation and critical thinking) from using this approach. The conclusion was drawn that the experiential learning framework can be an appropriate tool for instructing topics that have tradi- tionally been seen as purely theoretical.
The theme for this year’s conference, “In Search of a National Philosophy of MusicEducation” is long overdue because before any meaningful educational planning and implementation can be undertaken some questions need to be asked. Answers to such questions would guide the whole educational enterprise. Four broad questions guide efforts at curriculum planning: Why?, What?, How? and Who? Taken in that se- quence their effective handling would guarantee a great measure of success and profit, especially in educa- tional reforms. Of the four questions, the first “Why?” poses the most challenge, and therefore, is rarely asked, especially in our part of the world. Even when it is asked all relevant and pertinent factors are not patiently and assiduously brought to bear on issues before action is taken. The frustration that results from not asking “why” before taking action, presumably, has driven us to this theme. It’s like we started running, and did run for quite a distance. before stopping to ask ourselves where we were going and why. Conse- quently. the threat to our place ill the curriculum posed by the educational reforms has shocked us into the rude realization that, in fact, “the problem of ‘how’ music should be taught can be treated meaningfully only after careful consideration has been given to ‘why’ music should be taught”. We are now being forced to “justify our inclusion”, and this is where a philosophy becomes necessary. So today, after so long a time in faithfully trying to impart musical knowledge and skills, we have at long last stopped to ask ourselves the questions we should have asked even before we started the race. Answering these queries must of ne- cessity involve a lot of “talking about” music, but unfortunately when issues of this nature arise the reaction from some music educators is “we’ve been talking a lot. Let’s start doing something”. I think we’ve not even talked enough about music and musiceducation yet, or at least we’ve not been asking the right ques- tions. We are now beginning to do so, This would help us to formulate a philosophy that suits our purposes. Such a philosophy must have its root in African thought and values, and should embrace the beliefs, ideals, meanings, and values relating to music as understood and practiced by us.
As Elliott and Reimer both believed, in order to discern the value of musiceducation, we must first understand the value of music. As the main premise of my current philosophy of musiceducation is that music is valuable because it is key to experiencing and understanding feelingful experiences, it is vital to first describe the complexity of feelingful experiences. Emotions are not always immediately and accurately discernable; I would argue that they rarely are. Even in moments where people have a general sense of their emotions, it is difficult to perfectly pinpoint and articulate linguistically the feelings they are experiencing. For example, there have been times in my life in which I have known with absolute certainty that I love someone, without being able to discern what sort of love that may be. David Upham once described to me Reimer’s metaphor of an ocean of love, filled with buoys that represent particular types of love, such as paternal love or friendly love. 4950 In an ocean, buoys are markers for notable parts of the sea. For example, a buoy
The result of all of these changes was the rapid growth of numbers of young people taking music and the transformation of the music department’s largely classical sound- world to one which included folk, rock, pop and jazz. The multi-instrumental nature of the classroom activities and the mixed ability range of the pupils made further demands on music teachers, many of whom were ill-prepared to deal with the new order. Consequently, a Central Support Group in Music (1986), set up under the direction of the Scottish Consultative Council on the Curriculum, in collaboration with local authorities, was directed to produce a significant body of materials to aid teachers. Both curricular and staff development materials gave teachers at least the basis on which to plan and implement the new course. A guiding principle of these developments was to ensure that the philosophy was embraced and that an integrated, practical approach was achieved.
The Neuva School, a private school in San Francisco, uses a Self Science Curriculum with topics such as social development, life skills, social and emotional learning, and others. In an interview with Daniel Goleman in 1993, Karen Stone McCown, the founder of the Neuva School and the developer of the Self Science Curriculum said, “Learning doesn’t take place in isolation from kids’ feelings. Being emotionally literate is as important for learning as instruction in math and reading” (Goleman, 2005, p. 262). This demonstrates the viewpoint that non-cognitive skills are worthwhile for all students to learn, not just students who have limited exposure to learning these skills. Other schools have adopted a similar philosophy using the PATHS (Promoting Alternate Thinking Strategies) curriculum, which is an emotional literacy program targeted at helping to reduce violence and crime. All students take part in the classes on impulse control, feelings, recognizing hostility, and anger management, not only those who are at higher risk for a trajectory toward violence and crime (Goleman, 2005).
accredited and have sustainable development. The education and development strategy initiated since 1916 has always included the goal of providing precise knowledge of music to students and provide equal opportunity to students and staff in their professions by creating a variety of art divisions such as academics, theatrical, musical performances and operas. Conservatories are also tools in the development of the country where the quality administration of musiceducation and profession art skills are transmitted to students and inspire audiences to achieve and discover excellence (Santos, 1996).
Music; joy, sadness, etc. it is an important tool in expressing emotions, recognizing different cultures, and communicating socially and culturally, but it is a cultural resource and a scientific research area(Babacan, 2011). Music, feelings, thoughts, impressions and designs, and other facts with the contribution of certain situations, facts and events, a certain purpose and method, according to a certain understanding of beauty by combining, processing and explaining with formatted sounds is an aesthetic whole. It is the only language that everyone can understand and understand (uçan, 2005). Music is considered as one of the most effective and important tools that should be used in the education of All children and it is seen as an important tool that affects the language development, emotional and social development of children positively (canakay, 2006; yıldız, 2002).
In common with other subject areas, the middle stages of secondary Musiceducation will be divided into a Preparatory year (S3) and a Course year (S4), proceeding from the ‘broad general education’ in Expressive Arts in S1 and S2. The design and structure of the Preparatory year will be at the discretion of schools and colleges, facilitating the development of Music programmes that refl ect localised strengths and expertise. In the Course year, students will study at one of three levels: National 3 (broadly equivalent to Foundation/Access under the existing structure), National 4 (General/Int 1) or National 5 (Credit/Int 2). Regardless of level, students will complete three units: Performing Skills, Composing Skills and Understanding Music. All will be internally assessed with external verifi cation from the Scottish Qualifi cations Authority. On satisfactory completion of these modules students will proceed to assessment for the course award comprising a recital on one or more instruments in ensemble and/or solo context. Performance will be assessed by school music staff at National 3 and National 4 level, and by a visiting assessor at National 5. Notably, the performance examination will have a broader scope than has been the case and will include elements of refl ection on repertoire and personal development. National 6, replacing the existing Higher level, retains the features of its predecessor. Additional minor developments include a revised concept list (forming the basis of the Understanding Music unit) and an emphasis of content over duration in the Composing Skills unit.
If it is part of the purpose of musiceducation to develop young musicians 43 (The Music Manifesto, DfES, 2004), then issues arise which spring from the debate which has been highlighted earlier in this thesis as to precisely what or who a musician actually is. The definitions range form anyone who is engaging in musical activity (Jaffurs, 2004) to those who are considerably more skilled as composers or performers (Rogers, 2002; Fletcher, 1989). This thesis concerns the relationship between a music teacher’s experience and education (their biography) and how this impacts on classroom practice. Wrapped up with this relationship is the hypothesized understanding that biography can influence beliefs and values - our identities - especially (for the purposes of this thesis) in regards to what it is to be a musician and what musicians need to learn, and that these values in their turn, will also impact on the nature of what is taught (or not) in the classroom (Dolloff, 1999; Welch et al, 2011). This current research has been of an exploratory nature which has grown out of the day-to-day work of an ITE tutor at work with his trainees and observing music teaching and learning in schools – both of his trainees and their teacher-mentors. It has sought to gain some insight into these relationships and to postulate what some of the implications for current practice on the potential for developing musicianship in young people might be. In attempting to explore these relationships, it is clear that one approach to research will not be sufficient but that a multi-faceted methodology will be necessary as the investigation will range from observation of classroom practice to interviews which will seek to delve into participants’ life-histories, to a wider survey of beliefs and value systems across a wider population. Four research methods have been the principle sources of data for this study: sorting activities (in the form of two single-question surveys), survey in the form of a questionnaire, observations of teaching, and interviews.
• For me, this discussion raises fundamental questions of what diversity should look like that goes well beyond a token response to crude, supposedly measurable, quotas set by government. We need to be talking about the barriers and enablers to diversity. Music HE faces particular challenges, given that many of our students arrive equipped with skills, some of which they have only acquired through a relatively privileged education. We know that a significant barrier to diversity is inequality of opportunity that starts in early childhood and which is particularly exacerbated in relation to music … such inequalities continue among on-course students when those without parental support are obliged to work long hours alongside their studies in order to pay their rent, etc. And this impacts disproportionately on underprivileged students, BME and other. Clearly, there are some things we have the power to change, others that we can influence and yet others that we have no power over at all. We may have limited influence on government policy on musiceducation or social inequality but there are things that we do have control over.
music; and 78% value instrumental/ vocal performance as the most important musical competency. In discussing the education of musicians, Spruce & Matthews (2012) argue that, despite efforts to include music from a range of cultures and traditions, education and its learning methods are still rooted in the Western musical tradition; and Saunders & Welch (2012) suggest that teachers are not generally equipped to teach the wider range of musics that might form part of a school curriculum. In considering examples where teachers seem to contradict this ‘norm’, it is notable that one trainee teacher, whose first degree was in ‘world music’ and whose principal instrumental skills were on guitar and tabla, was the one most frequently observed (throughout his training year) incorporating aspects of non-Western music into lessons – perhaps one example that explicitly illustrates the effect of teacher biography on teaching practice. Further, there is the example of the trainee teacher whose own background in popular music and with a rather inconsistent personal educational experience, founded strongly on peer-to- peer learning and self-determination, was observed to be using informal learning approaches in the classroom with some confidence (eg teaching and learning based on the ‘Musical Futures’ approach; http://www.musicalfutures.org).
better communication and interaction between colleagues and teachers resulting in better Concentration and motivation for conviviality and learning. In this sense, it is important to emphasize the asserted by Levitin (2010) when he says that the musical stimulus moves several areas of the brain and neural systems and the fact of the individual (any individuals, including what has ASD and/or other disturbances) hear or making music, causes intense brain activity, and this activity contributes to human intellectual development. Therefore, there is a consonance between what this author affirms and what the EE responded about the benefit of music and musical activities among students with ASD. Antão et al. (2006) consider music a valuable instrument not only in the communication process but also of rehabilitation, literacy, sensitization and improvement of various aspects of life, thus resulting in the inclusion of these individuals in any environments. The World Music Therapy Federation considers that music therapy, as an intervention in educational environments with individuals with ASD, is valuable as it aims to create favorable conditions for quality of life, physical and social wellbeing, individuals with ASD (Sampaio et al., 2015). It was expected, therefore, this convergence of conceptions among the music therapist’s respondent with the one advocated by the Federation.
All but one of the must requirements are met, unfortunately there is no possibility to let background music play or add sound to the path. The main reason for this is that instead of creating a path between elements, the elements are numbered and played in that specific order. Only one of the should requirements is met, namely when an object or a drawing is changed/adapted, it will play its new sound so that you get direct feedback on how an element has changed. For the could requirements two are sort of met, there are multiple examples for teachers, not very extensive so the examples could function as inspiration rather than examples and further on in the program explanation on how to continue numbering and presenting is written down. The requirements that are not met will be discussed in future work.
4. See the Note above. For example, within classical music, it is only in the last eighty years or so that women have been allowed to play in orchestras alongside men; and even then they have mainly been restricted to strings and woodwind. Some orchestras are still largely or even entirely male. Another example would be in jazz, which contained only a very small minority of women from its inception and is still male-dominated. See e.g. Dahl (1984). In popular music and rock, although journalists enjoy writing about the ‘female rock revolution’, any number-count will quickly show that women still mainly take up the traditional roles of singing and playing keyboards and stringed instruments. See e.g. Gaar (1993).
The need of the integration of performing art in teacher education curriculum is a new focused toward learning without burden. The Kothari Commission Report of 1964- 66 emphasized that “in an age which values discovery and invention education for creative expression acquires added significance. Adequate facilities for the training of teachers in music and the visual arts do not exist. The neglect of the arts in education impoverishes the educational process and leads to a decline of aesthetic tastes and values”. The National Policy of Education 1986 emphasized that the important school education is to foster understanding of cultural and social system of different parts of the country. Follow up taken in 1986 and program of action prepared in 1992 and mentioned cultural perspective interlinking education promotes personality development and helps to enhance potentialities of the child. It is also supported in the three previous National Curriculum Framework(NCFs)of 1975,1988 And 2000 that to encourage and arouse students curiosity it is important to the principle of the teaching is focused on drama, music and drawing etc. Paradigm shift toward the art education integrate in school curriculum.
Results of Past Modification: The musiceducation coordinator should meet with the instructors of these classes each semester to ensure that these methods classes include discussions of pedagogy and the National Standards in MusicEducation. Because all of these classes have similar content and course requirements, they have been standardized to 1-credit hour each. Previously, MUS 2402 Brass Methods and MUS 2412 were offered for 2-credits. NOTE the change in course number.
At University of Massachusetts Boston Track I (Undergraduate) is for persons who have not yet completed a Bachelor of Music (or Bachelor of Arts in Music) degree. Track II (Post B.A.) is for those who already hold such a degree and who are seeking licensure without receiving an additional degree. Track III is for those seeking music licensure through a Master of Education degree program. The initial contact person for all three programs is:
A quality musiceducation is a necessity for all students, because of the many intrinsic and extrinsic values that the study of music has for all mankind. Most important among these is music's potential for letting human beings share and communicate thoughts and feelings that transcend the written or spoken word—expressions of the spirit that make us uniquely human and bind us together as a people and a world of cultures. In addition, the study of music is beneficial for its many other outcomes, some of which include the development of social behaviors, such as cooperation and multicultural sensitivity; personal behaviors, such as self-discipline and self-esteem; and educational behaviors, such as integrated and “whole brain” learning. While music has as its basis a complex body of knowledge, making it worth to be called an academic subject, the study of music also enhances all areas of the school curriculum, making music central to the core of all education. Throughout history, advanced societies have included the study of music for their young people in order to prepare them for a life that is rich and varied. Music and a quality life are for everyone. (Phillips, 1998, p.10)
to con tinually grow and expand one’s talent and personality right up to the adulthood, is, from the point of view of healthy formation, an natural systematized space, in which a child can unwillingly learn how to make use of free-time actively and meaningfully, and how to differentiate not only aesthetic values, but also the social and moral ones. Properly organized and institutionalized education that actual network of primary art school enables, form the young generation artistically as well as personally. Orientation and exploitation of space for personal creative self-realization – that child discoveres in art – is later analogically transferred into social and working space. Primary art schools participate significantly on the prevention of socio-pathological phenomena, so they are not just schools that educate and professionally prepare pupils for their career in the field of art. They represent schools that contribute predominantly to the formation of human resources on high quality level.
This sketchy analysis—which can be used as a basis for further investigation— displays important features of Di Scipio’s Audibles ecosystemics. Each moment (each sample) depends on various aspects, which are comprised of present and previous spaces. None of the samples or sound events are ever fully realized or well-delimited. In other words, they are never an object (a “sound object”) or an image, a point in front of us, in time and in space. They appear to be a moving articulation: a constantly acting and accomplishing metamorphosis. This short analysis attempts to grasp this complexity, to show the multiplicity of interleaved live roots, and to link various movements: those we can listen to (sounds) and those that are inaudible (DSP data). Finally, the analysis of Di Scipio’s Audible Ecosystemics gives a glimpse of a forgotten aspect of music. More than any other art, music consists not only in a design of (sound) apparitions or creations (temporal and spatial “sound images”, which can be analyzed— whereby “analyze” means “breaking down” or “dissecting”), but in a design of disappearings or disintegrations (whereby “analyze” means “rebuilding”). The various process, the different delays and loops, which we can observe in the Audible ecosystemics studies show not only recurrences but also disappearing spaces. Sound is always both the emergence and the breaking-up of many movements. Agostino Di Scipio’s music—especially his Audible Ecosystemics—is a good example for emergent sound structures. In these specific structures, we can never study listening—which is music’s subjective side—and the computer processing—its objective side—independently. We should always confront and question “conflicting sides”. The notion of movement—and the question “what is moving inside what we are listening to?”—allows us to link these different processes and to focus on the instability of the emergent construction.