Several publications have shown that reductions in SBE in some plants lead to modification of phosphate content. Transgenic potato plants with reduced SBEII and SBEI activity were shown to have up to 6-fold increases in phosphate con- tent, along with a high amylose content (Jobling et al., 1999; Schwall et al., 2000; Blennow et al., 2005). Suppression of all SBEs in barley resulted in a 99% amy- lose endosperm starch, which was associated with a 2.2-fold increase in GWD expression (Carciofi et al., 2012). Another study on barley identified an approx- imately two-fold increase in starch phosphate in SBEIIa transgenic lines (Regina et al., 2012). While Xia et al. (2011) did not measure starch phosphate content, it is tempting to hypothesise that similar increases in phosphate content may have occurred in their maize lines; indeed, the authors of that study mention the pos- sibility of such a change and postulate that such changes may alter the avail- ability of starch to endo- and exoamylases. Rather than altered starch structure modifying the starch degradation rate and thus reducing coleoptile length, could phosphate presence in starch and liberated oligoglucans during germination be the important factor in this work? Is it at the next level of starch conversion to simple sugars, the breakdown of oligoglucans, that attention needs to be drawn toward?
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Wetlands have always been at one time or other a community dumping site of waste of industrial commercial agricultural, municipal or domestic origin and hence threatened by accelerated sedimentation. Kerala notwithstanding its limited geographical extent supports a rich diversity of wetland ecosystems. Ashtamudi lake in Kollam district is the second largest estuary backwater complex in Kerala next only to Vembanad lake. It is either being polluted, drained or filled up to give way for development .The encroachment ,mining and reclamation in many locations leads to loss of biodiversity as well as changes in the ecosystem functioning. An attempt was thus made in the present study to estimate the variations of phosphate content in the upper and lower extremes of water of the Thekkumbhagam creek of Ashtamudi estuary. The study recorded a maximum PO4.P value during the monsoon and a minimum during the pre-monsoon period. Higher concentration of PO4.P during monsoon season might have been due to the large inputs of domestic sewages, fertilizers from the adjacent agricultural lands, poultry waste, prawn processing wastes, slaughter wastes, hospital wastes etc. The high PO4.Pconcentration is an important feature associated with sewage and industrial pollution in this creek and hence PO4.P concentration could be taken as an index to identify the extent of pollution in this study area. This contribution attempts to evaluate the variations in phosphate phosphorous content along with reminding the need for the conservation of this wetland.
Abstract: Phosphate is the biggest part of detergent. Constituent subtances exceeding Phosphate concentrate could contaminant the environment. One of methode to reduce phosphate content is adsorption using an adsorbent from pineapple leaves. This research intend to know effect of time and weight adsorbent of pineapple leaves. Pineapple leaf adsorbent who has been activated using 15% HCl. Adsorption process do with phosphate concentrate 2 ppm, 4 ppm and 6 ppm variation using adsorbent 2 gr, 4 gr and 6 gr with time duration 60 minutes. Phosphate concentrate analysis with spectrophotometry devices. 2 ppm concentrate using adsorbent as much as 6 gr obtaining the biggest reduction a number of 99,2 %. Results from characteristic pineapple leaf adsorbent gained 6.2% moisture, 6.8% ash content, fly ash 14.7%, fixed carbon 78.1% and adsorption againts iodine 19%. This result showing that active carbon has been qualified refers to SII No . 0258-79.
anesthesia. Under 2% halothane anesthesia (n = 4), 1% halothane anesthesia (n = 5) and norepinephrine infusion (n = 4), rats developed rate-pressure products of 19.5 +/- 1.6, 32.0 +/- 3.5, and 48.5 +/- 2.0 X 1,000 mmHg/min, respectively. Adenosine triphosphate content was not affected by inotropic state, ranging from 24.3 +/- 1.1 to 25.6 +/- 1.1 mumol/g dry weight, but creatine phosphate content varied inversely and reversibly with cardiac
The dissolution of phosphate content of ore increased with increasing the temperature up to 30 °C then begins decrease (Figure 6), accomplishment that maximum decreasing of pH and increasing of redox potential occuring at 30°C so the optimum incubation temperature by Nocardiopsis dassenvillei was 30 °C at which dissolution of phosphate content of ore reaches to 32.2% which occurred optimum growth for Nocardiopsis dassenvillei and adapted to their indigenous environment so their metabolic activites were linked to the temperature of the environment (Sadaf Shahab, 2008, Varsha 2002). The growth of Nocardiopsis dassenvillei at 30°C refered to mesophilic bacterium which grows best in moderate 32T temperature 32T , neither too hot nor too cold, 41T (Willey et al 41T , 2008).
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monitored in an open chest sheep preparation using a 31P magnetic resonance surface coil over the left ventricle. Newborn lambs (aged 4-9 d, n = 5) underwent exchange transfusion with adult blood to reduce blood-borne 2,3-diphosphoglycerate contamination of the heart monophosphate and phosphomonoester resonances, thus allowing determination of these phosphate concentrations. The blood-exchanged newborns and mature controls (aged 30- 60 d, n = 5) were infused with 0.4 N hydrochloric acid to decrease pH from greater than 7.35 to less than 7.00. Simultaneously, intracellular and extracellular pH were determined from the chemical shifts of the respective phosphate peaks and compared to arterial blood pH. Findings were as follows: (a) diphosphoglycerate contribution to the cardiac spectrum was found to be negligible, (b) significant decreases in cytosolic phosphate (P less than 0.03) and phosphomonoester (P less than 0.01) content occurred with maturation, and (c) large decreases in extracellular pH (greater than 0.5 U) in both groups were similarly associated with only small changes in intracellular pH (less than 0.1 U). Change in cytosolic phosphate content implies that alterations occur in the phosphorylation potential with resulting effects on regulation of myocardial respiration, and cardiac energetics.
all the antennas was further used to perform single concentration (750 nM) nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) assay (GTP, ATP, ITP, UTP, and CTP), and thereafter nucleotide titration (0.5-32000 nM) using various phosphate containing analytes (ATP, ADP, AMP-PNP, CTP, cAMP, cGMP, GTP, GDP, GMP, ITP, UTP, UDP, and sodium poly-, tri-, di-, and monophosphates). Signal stability was monitored performing multiple measurements between 5 min and 120 min. Based on these experiments, we selected antenna 1 (4-hydroxy-6-(trifluoromethoxy)quinoline- 3-carboxylic acid) to form the complex with Tb(III)-N1 (Probe 1).
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In this study, the experimental information provided is useful for optimising the hospital compounding of PN solutions containing calcium and phosphate ions. The solubility of calcium phosphate depends on several variables such as pH or the concentration of amino acids and glucose, however, the most relevant factor is the nature of the salt (organic or inorganic). It is impossible to establish rules to predict the precipitation and each composition should be studied individually. Our study was performed in various conditions initially from those particularly prone to precipitation (low concentration of amino acids and glucose – composition “1”). Our data provide evidence that even in these worst-case conditions, a wide range (above the therapeutic range) of PN solutions with up to 80 mmol/L of organic calcium ions and 60 mmol/L of organic phosphate ions are stable for 30 days at 4°C and following 24 h at 37°C. Consequently, the limits included in our prescribing software were increased, allowing the prescription of compositions of PN solutions with calcium and phosphate ions up to 80 mmol/L and 60 mmol/L, respectively. This study helps physicians in daily practice who are no longer limited in their prescriptions of calcium and phosphate ions. A second useful aspect of this study is economically advantageous – giving curves within safe zone allows the use of inorganic salts which are much cheaper than organic calcium and phosphate salts. The third advantage is that it overcomes the shortage of organic salts which very often occurs in hospital practice and prevents the safe administration of PN solutions.
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Experimental animals. The experiments were performed with 6–8- wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. After arrival at the Animal Care Facility, the animals were first stabilized on a control diet for 5 d, and they were then placed on high phosphate (1.2% Pi) or low phosphate (0.1% Pi) diets, which were otherwise identical in their mineral, elec- trolyte, protein, carbohydrate, fat, and calorie content (Teklad, Madi- son, WI). The rats were trained to consume their diet between 10:00 a.m. and 12:00 noon each day. By the second day all rats consumed the amount of diet (16–20 g) which they usually eat during a 24-h pe- riod when fed ad libitum. The rats were pair-fed the high or low Pi di- ets for seven consecutive days.
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The renal dietitian plays a pivotal role in managing high serum phosphate levels in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Reducing the phosphate content of the diet is essential in treating hyperphosphataemia although this does not come without challenges. By successfully managing phosphate as part of a team, the outcome should be to reduce mortality through preventing
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Mitchell and Donald reported that repeated application of poultry litter can increase the soil carbon content along with nitrogen and phosphorus . With addition of poultry dung, there was increased phosphate content [2, 23] where in case of arsenic contaminated soil, the or- ganic carbon, nitrate and phosphate content was found lower than control which may be due to their utilization by microbial components in soil.
The measured physical chemical parameters of the waters include temperature, pH and DO (Dissolved Oxygen) in situ and nitrate, phosphate and chlorophyll-a exsitu. Temperature is measured directly using a thermometer. Acidity (pH) measurement uses the elec- trometric method with a pH device. Determination of DO value is done by titration and dilution method using the following equation *2+:
Phosphorous is second only to nitrogen as an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development (Schefferet al., 1998). Soil is rich in insoluble mineral and organic phosphates but deficient in available orthophosphate (Pi) (Dadarwalet al., 1997). Phosphorus is a vital component of ATP, the "energy unit" of plants. ATP is formed during photosynthesis, has phosphorus in its structure. Soil amendment with phosphatic fertilizer, produced via chemical processing of rock phosphate ore, is therefore an absolute requirement in order to feed the world's population. For over one hundred years, workers have recognized the ability of soil microorganisms to solubilize Pi from insoluble (i.e. nutritionally unavailable) organic and mineral phosphates (Whitelaw, 2000). Wide ranges of microbial
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In this study, the effect of anhydrous calcium phosphate, an efflorescent pharmaceutical powder of reduced moisture content, ideal for moisture-sensitive materials; and the comparative binding effects of maize starch, polyvinylpyrrolidone and gelatin were investigated in the tablet formulation of the deliquescent crude extract of the leaves of Vernonia galamensis (Asteraceae). Materials used include; anhydrous calcium phosphate (BDH chemicals Ltd. Poole, England), maize starch and gelatin (May and Baker, Germany). Granule and tablet analyses were carried out according to standard procedures in the BP 2007. Preparations of the binders at varying concentrations of 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% w/v were used to produce the granules by wet granulation method and compressed into tablets at 26.25KN. The mechanical strengths and drug release properties of the designed tablets were assessed using the crushing strength- friability, disintegration time ratio (CSFR:DT) and dissolution rate. An increase in binder concentration led to an increase in crushing strength, decrease in friability and increase in disintegration time of the tablets. Anhydrous calcium phosphate used as diluent along with polyvinylpyrrolidone as binder produced the best quality tablets in terms of the CSFR: DT ratio and dissolution rate as compared to the diluent used with maize starch and gelatin as binders.
During the preparation process of a phosphate conversion coating, the critical and important program is the components in phosphating bath, and the composition of the prepared phosphate conversion coating depends on the bath components, which usually contains five parts: film-forming agent, inhibitor, complexant, accelerator and additive [11-13]. Lian et al.  applied zinc oxide and phosphoric acid as film-forming agent, sodium fluoride and organic amine as inhibitor, tartaric acid as complexant, sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate as accelerator, and a zinc phosphate conversion coating was prepared on magnesium alloy AZ91D surface. The prepared phosphate conversion coating had typical phosphate microstructure, and the coating was composed of Zn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , Zn, AlPO 4 and
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Sorting and morphoscopic observation under binocular (mineralogical analyzes) have isolated mainly coarse category coprolites. These are long recognized as having a fecal. We were able to detect a wide variety of forms the most common and are more fragile than the pellets if they are found in a fragmentary state and abraded. This fact supports the hypothesis of reworking during transport to the origin of phosphorite accumulations. In addi- tion, it should be noted that the systematic observation of these biological remains that size fish mark the impor- tant organic role and quantitative importance in the morgue during the genesis of phosphates. In addition, the examination under binocular phosphate grains identified spherical pellets morphological and/or sub-spherical. Presumably, the throttling is at the origin of calibration provided sediment grains whose size and mostly in the region of 100 m ᵤ. Furthermore, the larger of the same characteristics that the pellets are few grains.
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The result indicates that nitrate and phosphate were utilized by the indigenous microorganisms which may have influenced the residual concentration of the hydrocarbon content. Suggesting that the oilfield wastewater can serve as a source of nutrient in soil thereby enhancing the activity of biodegraders present in contaminated samples.
NMR is an analytical method based on the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei, the magnetic moments of which can be made to process coherently in an applied magnetic field by the application of radio frequency pulses. This gives rise to detectable signals which can be used to produce a spectrum. When NMR spectrums are run under quantitative conditions, protons give rise to responses that are directly proportional to their concentrations. If the areas of the known weights of the sample and reference standards (of known purity) are measured, then the assay or the content of the sample can be calculated from the equation 1. It is important that the absorptions for the both sample and reference standard are properly phased and completely resolved. This method should give content or assay that is accurate to ±2% at 95% confidence level.
The present investigation is to formulate matrix type Trans dermal drug delivery system of a Nicotine using different polymers such as Ethyl cellulose, Eudragit RL 100 by solvent evaporation technique. The prepared patches were evaluated by Compatibility study, Physical appearance, Thickness uniformity, Weight uniformity, Tensile strength, Folding endurance, Percentage Moisture content, Percentage Moisture uptake, Water vapour transmission rate, Drug content uniformity, In vitro drug release studies. From the results of the drug content determination, it was assured that there was uniform distribution of drug in the patches and the deviations were within the acceptable limits. Release study of Nicotine patches indicated that the drug release from the formulation varies with the different compositions of polymers. Among all the prepared formulations, formulation containing PVA and EC (1:1) showed better drug release of 76.76 ± 1.83 after 24 hrs. By reviewing the results obtained, on the basis of the in vitro characterization it was concluded that Nicotine can be administered transdermally through matrix type TDDS developed in our laboratory. Transdermal patches consisting of the polymers PVA and EC along with PEG 400 as plasticizer and Tween 80 as permeation enhancer demonstrated sustained release of the drug for 24 hrs.
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Figure 5 cI and 5cIII as 3-D graph, based on the fitted second-order polynomial equation (10). From the response surfaces, it can be observed that the phosphate concentrations have more direct interaction with surfactant concentration rather than with soil: solution ratio. As the concentration of the surfactant as well as the phosphate increases, the As(V) removal increases, as explained in Section 3.5. High concentration of phosphate signifies large number of ions that can extract As(V) from Al and Fe-bound fractions of soil, as observed by other researchers (Alam et al. 2001; Zeng et al. 2008). The maximum desorption efficiency was predicted to be 76% for the mixture of soapnut (1.5%) and phosphate (150 mM) in this work. However, the phosphate concentration and soil solution ratio has no such relationship. High phosphate concentration of 150 mM works well at low soil: solution ratio of 0.10, showing up to 75% desorption while high phosphate concentration of 150 mM at high soil: solution ratio of 0.30 shows desorption of up to 66% only. This is discussed in Section 3.6.
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