Photography As a Research Method

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Dear Critics: Addressing Concerns and Justifying the Benefits of Photography as a Research Method

Dear Critics: Addressing Concerns and Justifying the Benefits of Photography as a Research Method

As I gravitated towards this method, there was an excitement around the kind of data photography could lend to the construction of a more holistic understanding of children and families. It was during the planning of my first photography-based study that I shared my camera ideas with a colleague. Her response was simple and direct: "Good luck getting that through IRB [Institutional Review Board]." The comment was delivered with a great deal of sarcasm, and was my first warning that this kind of research would invite some obstacles. Her response provided one explanation as to why photography is rarely used in studies in the field of education—the challenges associated with research approval. In fact, this colleague was not alone, a number of individuals encouraged me to abandon methods related to photography in fear that it would delay my research plans. [5] The lack of agreement about the ethical and moral issues associated with the use and presentation of photographic data has prevented the widespread use of this useful and valuable research method (BANKS, 2001; PITT, 2014). Globally, ethics committees differ greatly in how they review and process study protocols; and therefore, approval is given variably (REDSHAW, HARRIS & BAUM, 1996). Even within the United States, the Common Rule is not implemented uniformly in reviewing and approving human subjects research (LIDZ et al., 2012). With visual methods, it can be an onerous process of gaining ethics approval and consent, as well as finding sites and participants who are willing or eager to participate in a photography-based project (PITT, 2014; YATES, 2010). Authors rarely address the ethical review process; and instead, focus on describing how they obtained permission (e.g., CLARK-IBANEZ, 2004) almost creating the illusion that IRB is not an obstacle in conducting research using visual methods. A recent study found that although many visual researchers voice concern about ethical regulations, few researchers actually have authentic stories related to their personal work (WILES, COFFEY, ROBISON & HEATH, 2012). On the contrary, I have a story to share. [6]
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Researching the photographic representation of popular music using autoethnography as a research approach

Researching the photographic representation of popular music using autoethnography as a research approach

This paper presents an example of autoethnography as a research method in photography. I will use my research on photographic representation of popular music to examine the viability of autoethnography as a framework for practice-based research. I focus on the notion of subjectivity, still so contested by proponents of traditional research methods, to show how autoethnography can open up a potential for in-depth political and cultural enquiry that is authentic and ethical. Enquiry via this reflexive method pays due attention to the circumstances of individual cultural production and to its wider cultural, social and affective impacts. I will argue that autoethnography is a valid and effective means of questioning practice and the contexts in which practice exists, thus contributing to knowledge in the cultural field. In this paper, I give practical insights into the process of personal, theoretically-informed writing, exploring how I came to this approach and why.
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Photography: An Expression Of Ethnography

Photography: An Expression Of Ethnography

Abstract: The Photograph is considered with ability to structure “articulated visual statements” of the community to generate explanatory models for analysis and interpretation. Leverage Photographs systematically illustrates the characteristics with a wide variety of material categorized with narrative reflexive and scientific approaches drawn on photographs. These still images are intended to use in marketing, publicity, promotions, and advertisements to keep a record for the research purposes. Photography is a collaborative and creative research tool as expression of ethnography expounds anthropological interest with the skills of still images as a research method by using different approaches. Images analyzed to inform a deeper understanding of user behaviors, interactions with objects and environments, interpretation of artifacts and to invoke social change with time-based imaging. Photographs raised the impact on the interpretation of photographs concludes with an examination of the emic and etic qualities of research and to widespread and inform with the portrayal of photographs. I will focus on how photography is an expression of ethnography and used in research as a tool of representation to analyze images from field research, effectively utilizing them as a key source of data, powerful insights that bring research to its full potential.
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'Show me how it feels to work here': Using photography to research organisational ethics

'Show me how it feels to work here': Using photography to research organisational ethics

One of the ways in which Strati advocates this shift of focus is through attention to “the corporeal nature of the organizational action of persons operating in organizational settings based on the five senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch” (2001: 14). However, as a cursory glance through most methodological texts will show, there is little written about how we might go about this ‘sensory’ research – Antonio Strati being a notable exception. Strati goes on to call for a ‘new’ approach to studying organizations which is “based on the evocation of knowledge, on mythical thinking, and on the criterion of plausibility” (2001: 9) in order to “make it possible to conduct empathic-aesthetic analysis of organizations as social contexts, as opposed to the logico- rational and almost exclusively cognitive study of them” (ibid.). Research approaches he has suggested include ‘imaginary participant observation’ (1999) which involves an empathetic and imaginative engagement with the observed activities and recounted stories of the respondents as they go about and describe their organizational roles and experiences. Likewise, Pasquale Gagliardi (1996), writing on both the collection of ‘aesthetic data’ and the dissemination of findings from it, advocates the use of “allusive, poetic language” (1996: 576) to convey the richly nuanced nature of aesthetic experience. Whilst these ideas are a welcome recognition of the researcher as a source of data in their own right, and a celebration of research as an aesthetic activity in itself 2 : “Researchers who analyze organizational life using the aesthetic approach… must begin by arousing and refining their own sensory and perspective faculties” (Strati, 2000: 17), thus relying heavily on the intuitive and aesthetically responsive skill of the researcher in this regard, and, moreover, on the expressive capabilities of both respondents and researcher alike. Moreover, language is largely an inadequate medium through which to articulate aesthetic experiences, save for the gifted poets and novelists among us. As Suzanne Langer – speaking here about emotion – reminds us:
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Telling migrant stories in collaborative photography research: Photographic practices and the mediation of migrant voices

Telling migrant stories in collaborative photography research: Photographic practices and the mediation of migrant voices

There has been some work on the role of various visual media in participatory research (for example, Mitchell, 2011; Pink, 2006; Sutherland and Cheng, 2009). These have not necessarily been concerned, however, with articulating how the very practice of photography in collaborative research might mediate such voices. It is this gap in the literature that I intend to address. To do this, I use the case of Shutter Stories: A Photography Exhibition on the Life of Indians and Koreans in Manila (which I will refer to throughout the rest of this article as Shutter Stories). This was a research project I initiated but worked on collaboratively with the five Indian and four Korean migrants whose works were featured in the exhibition, and two photography scholars from a top university in the Philippines. This project was meant to create an ‘interruption’ (Pinchevski, 2005) in the way the Philippine capital of Manila, a 12-million strong mega-city, has symbolically marginalized its two most visible migrant groups: its 114,500 Koreans and its 67,000 Indians (MOFAT, 2009; Salazar, 2008).
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Visual data in qualitative research: The contribution of photography to understanding the mental health hospital environment

Visual data in qualitative research: The contribution of photography to understanding the mental health hospital environment

Overall, the focus groups were useful to begin to explore how groups interpret visual images without supporting text. This is where this study’s novel contribution partly lies; whilst groups have been asked to discuss photographs they have taken as part of research projects (e.g. Strack, Magill and McDonagh, 2004; Lopez et al., 2005; Hergenrather, Rhodes and Clark, 2006.), focus groups have less often taken place with participants who have not taken the photographs, apart from in cases where professional, media or catalogue images are used. This is very different to using images which have been produced by people trying to convey their feelings towards an environment. The focus groups in this study showed that the process of meaning making was shaped by a number of factors, possibly including stereotypical views, and that even a small amount of contextual information allowed focus group participants to speculate considerably about the motivations behind each photograph and the feelings of the photographer. It is important that researchers are reflexive and explicit about exactly how much information is given to participants in this type of research. If focus group participants had not known that the photographs had been taken by service users in a mental health hospital their interpretations are likely to have been very different, as nothing in the photographs made it clear that the setting was a mental health hospital. Therefore one way that this part of the study could have been further developed was to run another focus group with participants who received no contextual information regarding the photographs whatsoever. Unfortunately, this was not possible within the time constraints of the study, but would make an interesting follow-up project.
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Discuss the development and artistry of pictorial photography

Discuss the development and artistry of pictorial photography

Since the birth of photography, photography and painting have been closely related. Eastern and Western scholars have been studying the relationship between the two. The collision between painting and photography is an important driving force for the development of modern art. There are many similarities between the two arts, but in some places they have distinct characteristics. Picturesque photography combines some characteristics of photography and painting and is innovative. This study mainly discusses the relationship between photography and painting, the development of pictorial photography and the change of artistic form language and pictorial photography in the information age. Photography has had a tremendous impact on the art of painting, which has given birth to new ideas for the transformation of traditional paintings. The development of pictorial photography has also seen a new direction for the photography industry. Hundreds of fang and diversity are still trends in modern and future art. Pictorial photography will, in the future efforts of the family, jump out of the shackles of mechanical reproduction, making photography more free and beautiful.
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Digital photography for assessing the link between vegetation phenology and CO 2exchange in two contrasting northern ecosystems

Digital photography for assessing the link between vegetation phenology and CO 2exchange in two contrasting northern ecosystems

The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the digi- tal repeat photography as a method for monitoring the phe- nology of boreal vegetation at high latitudes, (2) investigate the [r]

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Lanzl, Christina A.
  

(2013):


	Doug and Mike Starn, Doug und Mike Starn: Evolution from photography to public art, Von der Fotografie zur Kunst im öffentlichen Raum.


Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Geschichts- und Kunstwissenschaften

Lanzl, Christina A. (2013): Doug and Mike Starn, Doug und Mike Starn: Evolution from photography to public art, Von der Fotografie zur Kunst im öffentlichen Raum. Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Geschichts- und Kunstwissenschaften

Today,  most  permanent,  two-­‐dimensional  public  art  installations  are  created   through  digital  processes  that  engage  the  medium  of  photography.  Public  art   projects  range  from  paintings  or  other  genres  photographed  and  reproduced  in  the   form  of  a  tile  or  mosaic  mural  to  works  designed  with  software,  often  incorporating   and  altering  photographic  raw  material.  The  Starn  brothers  studied  and  applied   themselves  to  the  classical  craft  of  black-­‐and-­‐white  and  darkroom  photography  at   the  cusp  of  the  digital  transformation.  Due  to  their  penchant  for  monumental  scale,   their  threshold  to  the  introduction  of  digital  photographic  processes  in  their  work   was  high,  commencing  instead  with  first  efforts  on  a  scanner  in  their  Black  Pulse   series  (2000-­‐2007)  (Ill.  21-­‐25).  Upon  acceptance  of  the  MTA  commission  in  2005,   Doug  and  Mike  fully  entered  digital  photography,  because  the  scale  of  the  project,   combined  with  communication  needs  of  working  with  a  large  agency,  international   design  and  fabrication  necessitated  this  step.  The  timing  was  right,  thanks  also  to   the  improved  technology  available.    
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Action research as a research method

Action research as a research method

This essay will analyze and discuss action research in detail. First of all, it will address the question “what is action research’’ and this definition about action research will be described from its scope and situation including an analysis of different perspectives provided by different people. Secondly, the main characteristics of action research will be discussed. In this section, I will discuss the advantages as well as disadvantages of action research from different aspects. By doing this, the quality of action research will be discovered. Then, I will analyze the procedure of conducting an action research. Some strategies for data analysis in action research will be put forward in this section and a consideration of ethical implication will be also taken into account. Finally, the main ideas of this article will be concluded plus a view of my own understanding on action research.From this article, it understands that action research methods are extremely important to us in educational area. They can help educators to improve their investigation as well as develop education itself. To Chinese education, action research can be widely used in order to improve its own situation.
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A Method for Determining Batillaria attramentaria Distribution Using Aerial Balloon Photography and a Vegetation Index Camera: Demonstration at the Yatsu Tidal Flat, Chiba Prefecture

A Method for Determining Batillaria attramentaria Distribution Using Aerial Balloon Photography and a Vegetation Index Camera: Demonstration at the Yatsu Tidal Flat, Chiba Prefecture

Located in Chiba Prefecture, the Yatsu Tidal Flat is an important stopover for birds migrating between cold regions such as Siberia and warm regions such as Southeast Asia and Australia. Its importance led to its selection in 1993 as the first tidal flat in Japan to be registered under the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (the Ramsar Convention). However, the Yatsu Tidal Flat has in more recent years wit- nessed blooms of Ulva spp. (sea lettuce) and an increase in exotic species such as Batillaria attramentaria (Japanese mud snail) and Mercenaria mercenaria (hard clam), fueling concerns that the increasing spatial domination of the tidal flat by such species and competition with other species for food may drive a decline in the habitat’s self-cleaning capabilities. For this study, we fo- cused on Batillaria attramentaria , which is now so widely distributed in the Yatsu Tidal Flat as to preclude reliable monitoring via aerial photographs or satellite imagery. Accordingly, we tested the utility of a simplified method for obtaining data on the distribution of Batillaria attramentaria by using aerial balloon photography and a vegetation index camera capable of generating NDVI data. Our results show that under certain conditions, this method can indeed be used to determine Batillaria attramentaria distribution.
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MIXED METHOD RESEARCH: CONCEPT AND DESIGNS IN MIXED METHOD RESEARCH

MIXED METHOD RESEARCH: CONCEPT AND DESIGNS IN MIXED METHOD RESEARCH

According to Robson (2002, p. 59), “the object of the descriptive research is to portray an accurate profile of persons, events or situations”. The researcher needs to have clear idea of the topic before collecting the data. Explanatory study is used for identifying the issues and with analysis of statistical or quantitative data relationship is established between variables and qualitative data provides the explanations, hence it is similar to descriptive research. In both the cases new ideas are not discovered (Saunders et al., 2009). Robson (2002, p. 59) states that with exploratory research one can find out “what is happening; to seek new insights; to ask questions and to assess phenomena in a new light”. On the contrary the nature of the research work is exploratory as the researcher has very limited knowledge and needs to explore more information from the curriculum developers, principals, teachers, students of the school. Exploratory study is useful to clarify the doubts and also provides in depth understanding of the concept which helps to understand the issues. Thus, researcher believes that the concept can be best understood by the exploratory research, by reviewing journals,
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Digital Photography in Dentistry

Digital Photography in Dentistry

Photography has become an integral part of daily life. The days of film are just about gone and the desire for instant photography review is almost present everywhere. It is widespread and is present in every sphere of human activity right from research to entertainment and from documentation to creating stunning pictorial work of art. It has always been considered an invaluable part of dentistry. It plays a vital role not in academics but also in clinical practise. With the advancement in digital technology, imaging has become easier and more readily accessible. It serves as documentation forensic evidence. It plays an essential role in dentist patient communication and gaining confidence. It acts as a way of expressing idea.
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Diameter Measurements of the Upper Parts of Trees Using an Ultra Telephoto Digital Photography System

Diameter Measurements of the Upper Parts of Trees Using an Ultra Telephoto Digital Photography System

As a result of actual measurement sat forest sites, we confirmed that measurements of an upper diameter could be simply performed on the spot using linear regression (between the conversion length per pixel on a pic- ture and object distance) created by preliminary measurements in unobstructed and flat locales. The measure- ments had an accuracy (~3% of the error) largely consistent with preliminary measurements in clear and flat land, although the precision varied according to parameters such as the target tree shape (e.g., root swelling), stand-structure, topographical conditions. Since the measurement principle of this method is essentially based on an optical system, we presumed that the error was, in most cases, caused by photography conditions. Further- more, the measuring distance to the target point directly affected the calculation of the diameter. In the case that the maximum error of measurement was caused in the forest site, the decline in precision for the photography and range finding to the objective point were inferred to be the main reasons for the errors; obstructions such as leaves and twigs or branches were thought to be responsible for the inconsistencies. Additionally, we found that a difference occurred in the measurement operating efficiency between flatland forest and forest on a slope be- cause of the installation of the measurement system and prospect conditions. However, we maintain that these problems can be improved as our familiarity with the operations increases.
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Apart and a part : reading the art of Susan MacWilliam in context

Apart and a part : reading the art of Susan MacWilliam in context

of the conflict created a context of shifting and multiple truths, a condition in which histories were continually reconstructed in order to gain political ground. The levels of prolonged violence gave rise to competing and distorted recastings of these histories which have never been fully resolved. 86 The original hearings that took place after the Bloody Sunday events, conducted by a Lord Widgery in 1972, were so skewed in favor of the British military as to render their findings virtually moot. 87 Herron and Lynch make it clear that even under ideal circumstances the Saville Report would never be able to fully clarify or produce an agreed-upon version of truth about the events of Bloody Sunday. Hope for anything along the lines of "truth" is scaled-back to an impoverished expectation for a reduction of lies. 88 This sense of a web of complexity and contradictory “truths” has been a part of MacWilliam’s work since she began working in the medium of video and photography, with her emphasis on the inherent ambiguities produced in “evidentiary” photography. The world of occult and paranormal research is a world of contested meanings, far-flung imaginaries, fraudulent “evidence,” magical thinking, always further destabilized by the possibility that within the vortex of the fantastic lies a stranger-than-fiction truth.
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Preprint: Crowdsourcing and Analysing Wildlife Tourism Data from Photographs Shared on Social Media

Preprint: Crowdsourcing and Analysing Wildlife Tourism Data from Photographs Shared on Social Media

Photography is a long-established tool in scientific research, with a strong foundation in anthropology. The cameras ability to create a permanent visual record of a moment in time makes it capable of achieving accurate and automatic documentation (Basil, 2011; Collier, 1957). The recorded information can then be explored beyond a literal image to also investigate emotive and social elements. Over time, as society has become increasingly digital and the taking of photographs has become instant, the application of this approach has gained greater relevance and momentum in modern research (Zhang, et al., 2012). The photo-elicitation technique epitomised this evolving application of photography in social research. Traditionally, photo-elicitation is based on the idea of inserting a photograph into a research interview and asking interviewees to comment on the photographs. Harper (2002) hypothesised that the basis behind this process is that the parts of the brain involved in processing visual information are evolutionary older than the parts involved in processing verbal information. Harper (2002) further speculated that this causes our discussion around images to evoke deeper elements of consciousness than through verbal inquiry alone. The photovoice technique developed by Wang and Burris (1997) branches off from photo- elicitation and empowers participants to engage more deeply in the process through the requirement that photographs be participant-generated as opposed to researcher-generated. Photovoice puts emphasis on action-orientated results (Given, et al., 2011) by giving
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The Success Factors Of Entrepreneurs In Photography Industry

The Success Factors Of Entrepreneurs In Photography Industry

Same goes to an entrepreneur in photography industry. Nowadays, there are many entrepreneurs born in photography industry, but just a few of them were successful. In photography industry, it has many types of photography such as wedding photography, journalism photography, modeling photography, sport photography and so on. Photography needs knowledge and skill. For photographers, it is divided into three levels which is beginner, semi-professional and professional photographer. Many of them stuck at the half way to become champions because of many factors. This research created to find the success factors of an entrepreneur.
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OFFLINE HANDWRITTEN SIGNATURE RECOGNITION USING HISTOGRAM ORIENTATION GRADIENT 
AND SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE

OFFLINE HANDWRITTEN SIGNATURE RECOGNITION USING HISTOGRAM ORIENTATION GRADIENT AND SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE

In order to calculate the performance of Shahad. A.H method and use the new distance to encrypt the image, the researchers use the mean square error(MSE) , Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) ,Correlation Coefficient and Structural Similarity Index(SSIM). Table 1 showed the performance results which demonstrated the efficiency of Shahad. A.H method of coding with mean square error(MSE) , Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), while table 2 showed the performance results which demonstrated the efficiency of (Shahad. A. H )method of coding with Correlation Coefficient and Structural Similarity Index(SSIM),
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Investigatoin of a Method to Increase the Sensitivity of Counter-Current Immunoelectrophoresis Using Direct-Contact Photography

Investigatoin of a Method to Increase the Sensitivity of Counter-Current Immunoelectrophoresis Using Direct-Contact Photography

Staining the the test CIE two by was ultraviolet performed dilutions serial formed precipitate produced when by the Amido 10B increased the film sensitivity by tion when to the film less[r]

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Surplus-Value: Surplus Image

Surplus-Value: Surplus Image

What is crucial is the very appearance of some form of accessibility. It is essential for photography that, to an extent, reality appears to be understandable and reachable. The real frustration is that it is not. It is apparent that today the terms of this frustration are often ignored. Improvements in imaging technology are one example whereby a claim is made to be able to produce more realistic images. Furthermore, I suggest the absence of being able to really experience reality animates a kind of drive to photograph it. As Freud argued in Beyond the Pleasure Principle (2015), the human subject is defined through a constitutive loss. Photography, like the Freudian subject, is determined by a satisfaction that comes from repeating this loss, by the reiteration of one failure after another. I argue the potential, and ultimate realisation, of that failure that drives photographic representational practice. The success of photography therefore becomes dependent upon its ability to fail to adequately represent. In this way, I claim photography is situated at the very limits or, potentially, even beyond the limits of representation. It satisfies our desire for images by how it constitutes itself as the obstacle of its own efforts. In other words, the only satisfaction it actually achieves is ultimately created by the continual repeating of the failure of representation. What is important is not the final outcomes – the photographs themselves – but the means by which such outcomes are not achieved; in this journey failure is written into the process. This is, of course, also the structure of desire for the commodity in capital.
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