Photovoltaic Materials

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Hierarchical Classification of the Photovoltaic Materials by Data Analysis Method

Hierarchical Classification of the Photovoltaic Materials by Data Analysis Method

In this study, we regroup all essential parameters of the photovoltaic materials, which influence the solar cell performance. The method “Analyses in Principal Components” is one method of the statistical analysis, which allows us to visualize the table of data and to present them in diagram. This method is based on the notion of the distance. Once these distances are calculated, we dispose the individuals (materials) on a diagram, in the same manner as the characters (photovoltaic data). This results in a classification of the different photovoltaic materials according to their characteristics and performances.
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Superacid derived surface passivation for measurement of ultra long lifetimes in silicon photovoltaic materials

Superacid derived surface passivation for measurement of ultra long lifetimes in silicon photovoltaic materials

Effective lifetime at an excess carrier density of 1015 cm−3 normalised by that of the first measurement versus time since first measurement for 5 Ω cm n-type float-zone silicon with a thick[r]

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High-resolution monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy of organic photovoltaic materials

High-resolution monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy of organic photovoltaic materials

PCBM. The superior energy resolution of the Nion UltraSTEM 100 MC ÔHERMESÕ microscope (35 meV energy resolution in the beam conditions used here) improved the resolution of the peaks in the raw spectra and made it possible to measure spectral features below 2 eV, including an O-H bond stretch at approximately 0.4 eV. However, for the materials being investigated no new peaks were measured in the imaginary part of the complex dielectric function, indicating that, for these specific materials, the data collected on an FEI Titan 3 60-300 Image-Corrected S/TEM (175 meV energy resolution in the beam conditions used here) can be processed to obtain the same electronic information as for data collected on the Nion. We have demonstrated how monochromated STEM-EELS data can be manipulated to extract the absorption coefficient. It is concluded that monochromated STEM-EELS in the valence loss region shows great promise for determining optical properties with high spatial resolution even in beam sensitive materials.
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Emulation Of Different Photovoltaic Materials And Technologies Using PV Array Emulator With Linear Quadratic Regulator

Emulation Of Different Photovoltaic Materials And Technologies Using PV Array Emulator With Linear Quadratic Regulator

[7] Z. Rasin, M. Fazlur Rahman, M. Azri, M. Hairul Nizam Talib, and A. Jidin, ―Photovoltaic Emulator for Grid-connected Quasi- Z-Sorce Inverter,‖ International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems (IJPEDS), vol. 9, no. 4, p. 1976, Dec. 2018, doi: 10.11591/ijpeds.v9.i4.pp1976-1988.

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Tuning oxygen impurities and microstructure of nanocrystalline silicon photovoltaic materials through hydrogen dilution

Tuning oxygen impurities and microstructure of nanocrystalline silicon photovoltaic materials through hydrogen dilution

As a great promising material for third-generation thin-film photovoltaic cells, hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin films have a complex mixed-phase structure, which determines its defectful nature and easy residing of oxygen impurities. We have performed a detailed investigation on the microstructure properties and oxygen impurities in the nc-Si:H thin films prepared under different hydrogen dilution ratio treatment by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and optical transmission spectroscopy have been utilized to fully characterize the microstructure properties of the nc-Si: H films. The oxygen and hydrogen contents have been obtained from infrared absorption spectroscopy. And the configuration state of oxygen impurities on the surface of the films has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicating that the films were well oxidized in the form of SiO 2 . The correlation between the
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Charge dynamics in organic photovoltaic materials : interplay between quantum diffusion and quantum relaxation

Charge dynamics in organic photovoltaic materials : interplay between quantum diffusion and quantum relaxation

in OPV devices, therefore, requires first the dissociation of Coulombically bound Frenkel excitons into interfacial charge transfer (CT) state excitons (D + A − ) and then the separa- tion of electron-hole pairs into free electron and hole carriers (D + +A − ). Because of the low dielectric constant, the binding energy of CT excitons in organic materials is typically an or- der of magnitude larger than the thermal energy. However, experimental evidences indicate unequivocally that the charge generation process occurs on ultrafast timescale within a few hundred femtoseconds in OPV cells. 4–8 Understanding how the tightly bound electron-hole
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PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION

PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION

Table 5.1. Solar cell efficiencies achieved by the principal semiconductor technologies We have already seen earlier in this section that, in addition to crystalline silicon, much effort is focused on the manufacture of thin-film devices which have lower material requirements. We have also seen, on the example of dye sensitised solar cell, that photovoltaic materials are no longer restricted to semiconductors. Furthermore, there is considerable research activity into purely molecular materials. A number of research groups have demonstrated solar cells based on conducting polymers, often in combination with fulerene derivatives as electron acceptors to create the p-n junction. There is much to look forward to if their success matches the achievements of the LED technology.
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Characterisation of organic materials for photovoltaic devices

Characterisation of organic materials for photovoltaic devices

core interactions and to space the molecules within the film [58, 61–63]. The size of a dendrimer can be increased by adding to the existing den- drons, in a fractal fashion. The number of dendron ‘layers’ is known as the generation number of the dendrimer [61]. Increasing the genera- tion of the dendrons around the core will increase the separation of the cores [58, 61]. For the case of LEDs, it is important to reduce core-core interactions as this produces luminescence quenching [61]. Lumines- cence quenching is desireable for solar cells to reduce loss mechanisms by re-emission of light. However, since thin film solar cells are excitonic devices [64–66] requiring charge separation, core-core interactions can also be detrimental as excitons could be quenched by these interactions before charges are separated (see section 2.8.1 for a fuller description). Chapter 5 details the characterisation of several types of dendrimer and their usefulness as photovoltaic materials.
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Organic:inorganic heterojunctions for photovoltaic devices

Organic:inorganic heterojunctions for photovoltaic devices

The five devices that gave the best photovoltaic response were tested for their response to a varying load. The I(V) and Power(V) graphs are shown in fig 5.47 to fig 5.51 for designs 7 to 15 respectively (filled squares represent power, empty squares represent current). The photovoltage was measured at different resistances from kilo ohms to mega ohms, and the resultant current and power calculated. The current was obtained by calculation as the values were near the bottom limit o f the measurement equipment, and therefore were subject to large errors. The calculated fill factors and efficiency Values are shown in table 5.13. The device area was 9mm by 0.5mm and the light input was lOOOW/m . The results for designs eleven and thirteen were affected significantly by noise, possibly due to the fast decay/slow recovery o f the photocurrent. As the result is much better for design nine, which has a much smaller photovoltage, the noise for designs eleven and thirteen is unlikely to be due to low signal to noise ratio. The fill factor results general show a decrease o f current with increasing voltage (as should have been seen reflected in the bottom right quadrant o f the I(V) spectra o f illuminated cells) and a peak power somewhere in the middle o f the voltage scale corresponding to the ideal load resistance for the cell and the point from which can be calculated the fill factor o f the device. The fill factor results were not fitted to some equation, instead, the data point giving maximum power was chosen and the fill factor and efficiency
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Advantage of Photovoltaic Power Generation

Advantage of Photovoltaic Power Generation

In grid-connected application, the DC power from solar cells runs through an inverter and feeds back into the distribution system. Grid-connected systems have demonstrated an advantage in natural disasters by providing emergency power capabilities when utility power was interrupted. Although PV power is generally more expensive than utility-provided power, the use of gridconnected systems is increasing.The cost of producing electric power with photovoltaics is about $0.18 per kWh, two to four times as much as utility-provided power. There are special cases when photovoltaic power is more economical than power produced and distributed by conventional means. More than 100 U. S. electric utilities have used photovoltaic power to economic advantage. Also, the interest in green power is great enough to override economic concerns in some cases. For example, the City of Austin’s Solar Explorer Program allows subscribers to voluntarily support local photovoltaic generating projects with a surcharge to their electric bill [15, 25].
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A Novel Photovoltaic Powered Reverse Osmosis with Improved Productivity of Reverse Osmosis and Photovoltaic Panel

A Novel Photovoltaic Powered Reverse Osmosis with Improved Productivity of Reverse Osmosis and Photovoltaic Panel

The water captured thermal energy while cooling the photovoltaic panel. The heated water was passed to the domestic RO membrane element through a cartridge filter to remove the suspended solids if any. The rise in permeate water flow was observed with time as the feed water temperature increased with time. Table 1 and Figure 3 demonstrates that the permeate water flow rate increased by 38.82% when the water temperature increased from 35 o C to

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Modeling Of Photovoltaic Module

Modeling Of Photovoltaic Module

As cell temperature increases, the open-circuit voltage decreases substantially while the short-circuit current increases only slightly as shown in fig.10. Photovoltaic, perhaps surprisingly, therefore perform better on cold, clear days than hot ones.

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A review on concentrator Photovoltaic system

A review on concentrator Photovoltaic system

Concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) are a photovoltaic technology that generates electricity from sunlight. Contrary to conventional photovoltaic systems, it uses lenses and curved mirrors to focus sunlight onto small, but highly efficient, multi- junction solar cells. In addition, CPV systems often use solar trackers and sometimes a cooling system to further increase their efficiency. Ongoing research and development is rapidly improving their competitiveness in the utility-scale segment and in areas of high isolation. This sort of solar technology can be thus used in smaller areas. There are two fundamental reasons to concentrate. The first reason is cost. Areas for, optics in a concentrator system are less expensive than the photovoltaic cell. The basic concept is that if the amount of cell area per unit cans be reduced, then the overall cost of the system will drop. In the case of high concentration, it is common to find a cell of 1square centimetre being fed from an optical system that captures more than 500 square centimetres of sunlight. To a first approximation, most solar cells are linear in operation; they will put out proportionally more energy with increasing sunlight, so in the above example, the photovoltaic cell will transform 500 times more energy in the concentrator than it would if simply exposed to the direct sun. This means that the cell, per unit of energy, costs 1/500 as much. The second reason lies with manufacturability and reliability. Solar Concentrator systems are mechanical assemblies, and can make use of inexpensive, field-proven materials and manufacturing techniques, such as are used in the automotive and disk drive industries.
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A Remote Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory

A Remote Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory

There has been a tremendous increase in the use and development of remote labs over the past decade. At Government polytechnic Ahmednagar, remote experimentation has been made possible through the use of a scalable and generic platform-the Instrumentation Engineering department iLabs Shared Architecture (ISA). With this middleware infrastructure, students in the College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology have been able to remotely access and share scarce laboratory resources. Presented in this paper, is the design and implementation of a remote Solar Photovoltaic laboratory based on the ISA. In the laboratory design, a solar simulator which provides irradiation matching , is used to provide constant irradiation to a solar panel. A National Instruments Educational Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Suite (NI ELVIS II+) prototyping board is used for data acquisition to obtain current and voltage values from the solar panel. The user interface to the Solar PV lab is a LabVIEW Virtual Instrument (VI), on which interactive controls for the Solar Simulator are exposed. A live video feed is also incorporated into the client user interface to enhance user interactivity and remote access to the VI is implemented within the interactive ISA. Graphs are plotted to illustrate the variation of irradiance and angle of incidence with solar panel characteristics. The data obtained can then be compared to theoretical predictions.
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MATLAB MODELING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL

MATLAB MODELING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL

The functioning of a photovoltaic array is impacted by temperature, solar irradiance, shading, and array configuration. Frequently, the PV arrays get shadowed, wholly or partially, by the moving clouds, adjacent buildings and towers, trees, utility and telephone poles. The situation is of especial interest in case of big PV installations such as those used in distributed power generation systems. Under partly shaded conditions, the photovoltaic characteristics get more complex with more than one peaks. Yet, it is very critical to understand and predict them in order to draw out the maximum possible power. Here, we present a MATLAB-based modeling and simulation scheme desirable for studying the I-V and P–V characteristics of a photovoltaic array under a non- inhomogeneous insolation due to partial shading. It can also be used for acquiring and evaluating new maximum power point tracking methods, especially for partially shaded conditions. It can also be used as a means to study the effects of shading patterns on PV panels having different forms. It is followed that, for a set number of PV modules, the array configuration (refers to the number of series and parallel connections) importantly allows on the maximum usable power under partially shaded conditions
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Electricity Meter in the age of Photovoltaic

Electricity Meter in the age of Photovoltaic

Unfortunately the reality is that Photovoltaic solar energy DC/AC converters and other end user appliances emit harmonics resulting in unbalance of the electricity grid, Harmonics can nearly double the amount of current on the Neutral wire, no more balanced network, therefore energy meter should measure the current on the Neutral wire as well be of “1.5 Element” [One Volte meter and Two Ampere meters] type, see Figure 13.

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Defluoridation by Nano-Materials, Building Materials and Other Miscellaneous Materials: A Systematic Review

Defluoridation by Nano-Materials, Building Materials and Other Miscellaneous Materials: A Systematic Review

ABSTRACT:The ground and surface water sources are getting polluted by various hazardous contaminants added in them due to industrial wastewater and leaching of harmful metals from surrounding rocks and layer presents around it. The fluoride is one of the pollutants focused worldwide due to its hazardous effects on human, plants and animals. The fluoride in present in less concentration helps in the development of teeth and enamels whereas in large amount causes dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis and non-skeletal fluorosis like muscle fibre degeneration, low haemoglobin levels, deformities in RBCs, excessive thirst, headache, skin rashes, nervousness, neurological manifestations, depression, gastrointestinal problems, urinary tract malfunctioning, nausea, abdominal pain, tingling sensation in fingers and toes, reduced immunity, repeated abortions or still births, male sterility, etc. The problems caused by fluoride on large extent are spread widely in many parts of the world where the fluorosis is epidemic in more than 20 countries across the globe. In India, ground water of around 19 states is affected by fluoride pollution. The limitation of fluoride in drinking water as per World Health Organization is 1 and 1.5 mg/l. The defluoridation of water through adsorption process is well known economical method apart from coagulation-precipitation, ion-exchange, membrane processes, electro dialysis and electrocoagulation. The present paper deals with the short review on defluoridation of water by adsorption using nanomaterials, building materials and other miscellaneous materials as high fluoride uptake and low-cost adsorbents.
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INTRODUCTION TO PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY

INTRODUCTION TO PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY

This configuration is known from the laboratory, but may be the best choice also for (pilot) production. A cluster system has all the advantages of a multi-chamber system. The transition from laboratory experience to production is as small as possible. Modifications in the layer sequence or changes in the number of the layers of the solar cell structure (e.g. from a single junction to a tandem or triple junction) can be made as desired. Apart from this the capital cost is low, because transport and isolation chambers can be shared by many deposition chambers. If a sufficient number of chambers are connected to the transport chamber, production can be continuous even if one of the deposition reactors is down for maintenance. This is in contrast to in-line systems, which must be shut down completely if one of the chambers needs maintenance. The area requirement of a cluster system is very modest. The flow of reactive gases is only needed when there is a substrate in the deposition chamber, thus cutting down the base materials usage. Profiled and graded layers are much more easily made than in the case of in-line systems.
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INTRODUCTION TO PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY

INTRODUCTION TO PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY

Therefore, do not confuse solar cells with solar collectors. The direct conversion of solar radiation into electricity is often described as a photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion because it is based on the photovoltaic effect. In general, the photovoltaic effect means the generation of a potential difference at the junction of two different materials in response to visible or other radiation. The whole field of solar energy conversion into electricity is therefore denoted as the “photovoltaics”. Photovoltaics literally means “light-electricity”, because “photo” is a stem from the Greek word “phõs” meaning light and "Volt” is an abbreviation of Alessandro Volta’s (1745-1827) name who was a pioneer in the study of electricity. Since a layman often does not know the meaning of the word photovoltaics, a popular and common term to refer to PV solar energy is solar electricity.
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MODELING AND SIMULATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

As the photovoltaic module exhibits non linear V-I characteristics, which are dependent on solar insulation and environment factors, the development of an accurate power electronic circuit oriented model is essential to simulate studies on the photovoltaic integrated system. A circuit based model of photovoltaic array (PV) suitable for simulation studies of solar [power system is proposed in this paper. The model is realized using power system block set under MATLAB/SIMULINKdetailed modeling procedure for the circuit model with numerical values is presented. The proposed model was found to bebetter and accurate for any irradiance and temperature variations. The proposed model is very use full for PV engineers and expert who requires a simple, fast and accurate PV simulator to design their systems .
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