Phyllanthus niruri whole plant

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ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL OF WHOLE PLANT OF PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI

ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL OF WHOLE PLANT OF PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI

The present study focused to study the antidiabetic activity of the whole plant of Phyllanthus niruri in validated animal models of diabetes. The crude powder, 95% ethanolic, 50% ethanolic and aqueous extracts of whole plant of Phyllanthus niruri leaves were orally administered to normoglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats. 95% ethanolic extract showed marked improvement on oral glucose tolerance post sucrose load in normal rats and significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose level of STZ- induced diabetic rats. Administration of 95% ethanolic extract showed marked antidyslipidemic effect on high fructose high fat diet fed Syrian golden hamsters. Further, the isolated fractions, the aqueous, n- butanol, chloroform, and hexane soluble fractions of 95% ethanolic extract of whole plants were investigated for their antihyperglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats. Of these, hexane fraction showed significant antihyperglycemic activity on STZ-induced diabetic rats at a single dose (100 mg/kg body weight). In a multiple dose study, hexane fraction when given to STZ-induced diabetic rats continuously for 30 days, the level of percent glycated hemoglobin (%HbA1c), blood glucose, hepatic and renal function markers were found towards normalization and improvement in serum insulin level and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were also observed. The marked improvements in OGTT and serum insulin levels were also seen in neonatally STZ-induced diabetic rats. The hexane fraction effectively increased the glucose uptake by L-6 myotubes and inhibited the activity
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Standardization of Protocol for in vitro Micropropagation of Phyllanthus niruri:An Important Medicinal Plant

Standardization of Protocol for in vitro Micropropagation of Phyllanthus niruri:An Important Medicinal Plant

further crop improvement. It overcomes the barriers in conventional vegetative propagation and fulfils the demand for large scale cultivation in a short period by rapid multiplication. We can speed up the production rate of the average plant by approximately 10,000 times and a large number of productive plants can be multiplied routinely through tissue culture 2 . Phyllanthus niruri L. is an important medicinal plant belongs to family Euphorbiacese (Fig 1.1). Genus Phyllanthus having species more than 600 plants were known for the presence of phytochemicals and their pharmacological importance. It is commonly found in the region of tropical and subtropical and the countries like India, China, Brazil, Peninsula, Egypt and Argentina. It has been widely used as a medicine for many diseases like diabetes, jaundice, dropsy flu genitourinary infections, skin diseases etc. It is reported that plant shows anti- tumor and anti-carcinogenic activities and has a great potential to the treatment for hepatitis B viral infection by which this plant develop more interest among pharmaceuticals. The plant of
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Larvicidal Activity of Anopheles Subpictus and Culex Quinquefasiatus Mosquitoes from Crude Plant Extract of Phyllanthus Niruri

Larvicidal Activity of Anopheles Subpictus and Culex Quinquefasiatus Mosquitoes from Crude Plant Extract of Phyllanthus Niruri

The plant is of medicinal importance for numerous ailments like dysentery, influenza, vaginitis, tumors, diabetes, diuretics, jaundice, kidney stone, dyspepsia, antihepatotoxic, antihepatitis-B, antihyperglycemic and also as antiviral and antibacterial (Chopra et al. 1986). Phyllanthus niruri extract has been shown to inhibit DNA polymerase of hepatitis B virus and related hepatitis viruses (Blumberg et al. 1990) and the extract of this plant contains several bioactive molecules such as lignans, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, flavonoids, glycosides and tannins (Rajeshkumar et al. 2002). Phyllanthus niruri was used for treating liver ailment (Kapur et al.1994) and possess hypolipidemic (Khanna et al. 2002), antiviral (Jayaram et al. 1997), anticarcinogenic (Rajeshkumar et al.2002), antioxidant (Harish and Shivanandappa, 2006), antinociceptive and antispasmodic activities as well as its role in the inhibition of calcium oxalate formation in kidney (Santos et al.1995, Qian-Cutrone et al. 1996, Freitas et al. 2002).
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Development of Standardization parameters of selected herbs used in the treatment of diabetes

Development of Standardization parameters of selected herbs used in the treatment of diabetes

The traditional system of medicine is so ingrained in our culture that, about 75% of the Indian population depends on this indigenous system for relief. With such a huge section of an ever increasing population relying on herbal remedies, it is imperative that the plant products which have been in use for such a long time be scientifically supported for their efficacy. Diabetes a metabolic disorders is most frequent occurring disease in India. The present paper deals with the investigation of standardization parameters of Eugenia jambolana (Bark), Phyllanthus niruri (Whole plant), Momordica charantia Linn. (Seeds) and Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (Leaves). In these study physicochemical parameters, extraction and preliminary photochemical screening was reported.
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Ecofriendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaves extract of Phyllanthus niruri (L.) and their antibacterial properties

Ecofriendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaves extract of Phyllanthus niruri (L.) and their antibacterial properties

Green nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field for the production of functional nanoparticles of gold, silver, zinc, etc, [1]. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) possessed many noteworthy biological roles in the fields like therapeutics (antimicrobial, anticancer, antiparasitic, antidiabetic and antioxidant activities) [2]. Over the past few decades, the use of plants with different applications in medicine and industry has been growing increasingly in the world. In recent years, many environmentally friendly methods have been employed in the synthesis of nanoparticles [4]. The biological methods for AgNPs synthesis using bacteria, fungi, proteins, polypeptides, nucleic acids and plant extracts are simple, nontoxic, affordable and environmentally friendly. These biological methods can be used to generate nanoparticles with acceptable size and morphology [5]. Phyllanthus niruri Linn. Belongs to Euphorbiaceae family and it is a small herb having wide range of medicinal properties, and it is used widely across the world. In Indian ayurvedic and Unani system it is used for Jaundice, ulcers, skin diseases, diabetes, chest pain and urinary complications. Its taste is bitter and acts as astringent and show laxative effect
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A Comparative Study on Antibacterial Activity of Herbs with its Nanoparticle

A Comparative Study on Antibacterial Activity of Herbs with its Nanoparticle

In this study herbal extract were prepared from selected herbs using methanol as a solvent. Their antibacterial activity was checked against E.coli and S.aureus by well diffusion method. Plectranthus amboinicus and Sida cardifolia showed good activity against E.coli than Pongamia pinnata, Acacia nilotica and Withania somnifera. Phyllanthus niruri and Plectranthus amboinicus showed good activity against S.aureus than Acacia nilotica. Based on ZOI of the three herbs viz., Acacia nilotica, Phyllanthus niruri and Plectranthus amboinicus, the herbal nanoparticle was prepared using sodium alginate and calcium chloride with herbal extract. The antibacterial activity of herbal nanoparticle was checked against E.coli and S.aureus by well diffusion method. Herbal nanoparticles showed lesser activity against both tested organisms. On comparing the herbal extract with its nanoparticle, herbal extract showed better activity than herbal nanoparticle. The antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri was checked against E.coli, Klebseilla pnuemoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhirium, Candida albicans, Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. Silver nanoparticle had been prepared for extract and their antimicrobial activity was checked at different concentrations. At higher concentration the silver nanoparticle showed good activity against bacterial strains. Silver nanoparticle showed lesser activity against fungus mainly against Fusarium sp. On comparision with silver nanoparticle and plant extracts, silver nanoparticle showed potent antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticle may be because of usage of silver nitrate for preparation of nanoparticle.
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Evaluation of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Phyllanthus Niruri and Its Effect on Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxicated Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Evaluation of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Phyllanthus Niruri and Its Effect on Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxicated Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Phyllanthus niruri are originated in India, usually occurring as a winter weed throughout the hotter parts. The Phyllanthus genus contains over 600 species of shrubs, trees, and annual or biennial herbs distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of hot hemispheres. Unfortunately, there remains a great deal of confusion among scientists regarding plant identification and many cases, plant misidentification make evaluation of published information difficult. P. amarus and P. sellowianus are often considered a variety of P. niruri, or no distinction is made among these three species in published clinical research. Often time’s one name is indicated tube synonymous with another and, sometimes, both names are used interchangeably as if referring to one plant. It became so confusing that, in the 1990s, a major reorganization of the Phyllanthus genus was conducted (which classified P. amarus as a type of P. niruri). Phyllanthus niruri is an herb of Euphorbiaceae family that grows upto 60 cm. Phyllanthus means “leaf and flower” because the flower, as well as the fruit, seems to become one with the leaf. Phyllanthus nirui is a common kharif (rainy season) weed found in both cultivated fields and wastelands.
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Green Synthesis and Characterization of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Phyllanthus Niruri Extract

Green Synthesis and Characterization of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Phyllanthus Niruri Extract

Studies on green synthesis of nanoparticles moves forward a lot on these days. The present work involves the green method of synthesizing iron oxide nanoparticle from Phyllanthus niruri leaf extract. Furthermore, the green synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles were characterized and its antimicrobial activity was investigated. A characteristic comparison with chemical method of synthesis is also done, for iron nanoparticles. The characterization of nanoparticle includes the IR, UV-Vis, surface morphology and size determination using TEM, SEM, and XRD. The analytical studies revealed that the synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles from these two different methods have almost identical size and morphology. The synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles showed significant antimicrobial activity against the microbes, E. coli and P. aeroginosa. The studies concluded that the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles using plant extracts is more beneficial as it is an economical, energy efficient, low cost and environment-friendly process than the bio hazardous chemical synthesis. The present investigation may be a definite contribution to green chemistry in general and nano synthesis in particular.
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Evaluation of anti inflammatory and gastric anti ulcer activity of Phyllanthus niruri L  (Euphorbiaceae) leaves in experimental rats

Evaluation of anti inflammatory and gastric anti ulcer activity of Phyllanthus niruri L (Euphorbiaceae) leaves in experimental rats

Due to the mounting concentration in the alternative therapies in current years, herbal products have become popular [6, 7]. P. niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae), leaves extract is one such herbal drug currently undertaken in this study primarily to explore its anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic potential in animal model. P. niruri can be found in the tropical regions of Asia and America. The common names of the plant are stonebreaker or seed-under-leaf. P. niruri is a chief plant in the Ayurvedic tradition to treat stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney and spleen conditions. The medicinal use of the plant in disorders includes dysentery, influenza, vaginitis, tumors, diabetes, jaundice, dyspepsia etc. The various extracts of the plant also proved to act as antiviral and antibacterial agent [8–10]. Indigenous women have also used the plant for menstruation and uterus problems [11]. Many active phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, lignin, polyphenols, tannins, coumarins and saponins have been recognized from various parts of P. niruri. Extracts of this herb have been proven to have therapeutic effects in many preclinical studies. Phyllanthus niruri has been reported to be an effective anti- inflammatory [12], analgesic [13], gastroprotective [14], anti-diabetic [15], hepatoproctive [16–18], anti-malarial [19, 14] and antispasmodic [20]. In Bangladesh, P. niruri grows all over the country. According to a previous study, the aerial part of this plant has been reported for its anti- inflammatory activity [12]. Besides, it has been stated that the leaves of P. niruri contain profound amount of flavo- noids and polyphenolics [21] which possess significant
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 CHEMOPREVENTION EFFECT OF CURCUMA AERUGINOSA IN DMBA-INDUCED CYTOKINES PRODUCTION

 CHEMOPREVENTION EFFECT OF CURCUMA AERUGINOSA IN DMBA-INDUCED CYTOKINES PRODUCTION

The member of Zingiberaceae, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. (C. aeruginosa) has been recognized as medicine for cancer. However, not enough effort has been invested on this herb as chemoprevention agent on cancer development. In this current study, we investigated the influence of C. aeruginosa extracts as a chemo-preventive agent in Wistar rat induced by 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). As methods, female Wistar rats were treated with three C. aeruginosa extract doses (CA1: 40mg/ 200g BW; CA2: 80mg/ 200g BW; CA3: 120mg/ 200g BW) in the entire course of the experiment, and were induced with DMBA after one week of administering the extract. As comparison, commercial drugs containing Phyllanthus niruri L. were being used as positive control group, while the group given only DMBA represents the negative control group. Based on experiment, we found that the administration of C. aeruginosa during experiment promotes an increasing in TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-12 levels. The dose of 80mg/ 200g BW (CA2) appeared to be best potential dose as chemo-preventive agent represented the smallest tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity at the end of the experiment. Moreover, this plant also efficient to eliminate the cancer cells at the beginning of the tumor until the metastatic phase.
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Formulation and evaluation of Antiurolithiatic herbal tablet

Formulation and evaluation of Antiurolithiatic herbal tablet

Phyllanthus niruri originated in India, usually occurring as a winter weed throughout the hotter parts. The Phyllanthus genus contains over 600 species of shrubs, trees and annual or biennial herbs distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical areas. Phyllanthus niruri is a herb of Euphorbiaceae family that grows upto 60 cm. Phyllanthus niruri is an annual herb which grows in the wild after first showers of monsoon in Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, etc. states of India. Extracts of this herb have been proven to have therapeutic effects in many clinical studies. Phyllanthus niruri is an important medicinal plant. The plant is widely used for the treatment of hepatic disease, oedema, dropsical condition, and urinary troubles.
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In-vitro assessment of antibacterial properties of some wild herbaceous species of euphorbiaceae against pathogenic strains

In-vitro assessment of antibacterial properties of some wild herbaceous species of euphorbiaceae against pathogenic strains

Increasing bacterial resistance is prompting resurgence in research of the antimicrobial role of herbs against resistant strains. A vast number of plants have been recognized as valuable resources of nature antimicrobial compounds. In the present study antibacterial properties of leaf extracts of four wild herbaceous species of family Euphorbiaceae i.e. Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia microphylla, Croton bonplandianum and Phyllanthus niruri were evaluated in vitro against two pathogenic bacteria E. coli - ATCC10536 and Staphylococcus aureus - ATCC 25923. Leaf extracts were prepared in three solvents i.e. Ethanol, Methanol and Hot water, which toxicity in graded concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% crude extracts have been assessed in-vitro by measuring zone of inhibition for both pathogen applying well diffusion method, comparing with the toxicity of standard antibiotics. Extracts of Phyllanthus niruri and Croton bonplandianum showed more significant result rather than Euphorbia microphylla, and Euphorbia hirta against both pathogens, while better in E. coli than S. aureus. Ethanol extracts was found most effective for inhibiting bacterial growth, whereas the ZOI in case of 100% methanol extracts of Phyllanthus niruri, showed superior phytotoxic activity; however, based on the size of ZOI antibacterial properties was found in corresponding manner – Antibiotics > Phyllanthus niruri > Croton bonplandianum > Euphorbia hirta > Euphorbia microphylla. Wild as well as herbaceous plant extracts offer considerable potential for the development of new agents effective against infections currently difficult to treat.
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SCREENING FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME  MEDICINAL PLANTS

SCREENING FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS

The crude alcoholic extracts of seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. (Fabaceae), roots of Tinsospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers. (Menispermaceae), entire plant of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Cleome viscosa L. (Capparaceae) were subjected to phytochemical studies as well as antibacterial activity for the assessment of inhibitory effects of the alcoholic extracts of these plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris by agar well diffusion method. The results of the primary investigation revealed the occurrence of few major groups of plant metabolites in these plants are proteins, reducing sugars, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, phenols and glycosides. Comparatively maximum amount of total phenol was noticed in Phyllanthus niruri and moderate in Pongamia pinnata. The amount of total protein content in these plants was found to be almost uniform. Qualitative separation of thin layer and paper chromatography methods showed the presence of alkaloid and amino acid bands respectively. The different concentrations of Pongamia pinnata seed extract showed higher activity and produced inhibition zones against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. Tinospora cordifolia showed significant activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Where as, the Phyllanthus niruri and Cleome viscosa were found to be broad spectrum of potent antibacterial activity against all the five studied pathogens. The results of current study are leading to the conclusion that these plants would serve as sources of novel antibiotic agents.
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Incidence and Susceptibility of Beta-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae to Extract from Phyllanthus niruri

Incidence and Susceptibility of Beta-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae to Extract from Phyllanthus niruri

Abstract- Antibacterial resistance to common antibiotic has increased overtime; there is thus the need to look for an alternative medicine to stem the trend. This study reported incidence of β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumonia from patients. The antibacterial activity of crude aqueous and ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus niruri was also investigated against some test bacteria. Antimicrobial activities were analyzed using agar diffusion method. Experiments were performed in triplicate and reported as mean ± standard error of mean and difference was analyzed using one way ANOVA at p≤0.05. Sixty five percent (65%) and 25% of urine and wound samples were positive to β-lactamase producing K. pneumonia respectively. The highest zone of inhibition (22.0mm) was observed in a concentration of 0.5g/mL from ethanolic extract against K. pneumonia. While the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous and ethanolic extract of the plant was evidenced in 0.2g/mL and 0.1g/mL respectively. From the foregoing this study has shown that P. niruri extract have potential to be remedy for infectious disease caused by β-lactamase producing K. pneumonia.
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ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI AGAINST DIFFERENT HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIAL STRAINS

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI AGAINST DIFFERENT HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIAL STRAINS

P. niruri has several benefits as a herbal medicine. The plant has been found to have hepatoprotective, antilithic, pain-relieving, anti-fungal, diuretic, antispasmodic, hypoglycemic, antiviral and anti-bacterial actions (Paithankar, 2011). The therapeutic action has been investigated with respond to following diseases: diarrhea, dysentery, dropsy, mouth and throat infection, veneral diseases, pimples, eczemas, gangrene, malaria, syphilis, ulcer, urethral secretion, hepatic diseases and gastro-intestinal disorders (Tona et al; 2004).

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Ability of Potassium Factor in Phyllanthus niruri Infuse for Calcium Salt Solubility in Kidney Stones by Ex Vivo

Ability of Potassium Factor in Phyllanthus niruri Infuse for Calcium Salt Solubility in Kidney Stones by Ex Vivo

One of these plants is Phyllanthus niruri from the Euphorbiaceae family. This plant grows wild in moist and rocky environment with green stem, the leaf blade rounded to complement the elongated egg and green fruit. Phyllanthus niruri tastes somewhat bitter, cool, and as astringent [2] Kidney stones frequent occur in tropical countries. Tropical weather causes dehydration so thickening urine sediment into rock easily formed. Another factor of kidney stones are content of salt in the urine and metabolic imbalance in the body that cause salts in the urine precipitate and form crystals [3,4].
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Protective role of phyllanthus niruri extract against thioacetamide induced liver cirrhosis in rat model

Protective role of phyllanthus niruri extract against thioacetamide induced liver cirrhosis in rat model

The treatment of the rats with the ethanol extract from the plant PN has proven to be a useful strategy against the pathophysiological and biochemical changes induced by the hepatotoxin TAA in the rat model of cirrhosis (Figures 1 and 2 and Tables 3, 4, and 5). We however note that the PN extract reversed the toxicity produced by TAA in a dose dependent manner, where 200 mg/kg was more e ff ective than 100 mg/kg of dose. Nevertheless, in the rats treated with PN, the bodies weighted more and livers and spleens weighted less compared with those of the cirrhotic rats. The treatment ultimately resulted in decreased liver to body weight ratio, which was closer to that of the controls (Table 3). Visual evaluation and histopathological analysis demonstrated that the liver structure and architecture remained nearly intact and con- tained lesser fibrosis and lower number of nodules than the cirrhotic rats (Figure 2). Biochemical analysis indicated that parameters of interest read closer to the levels measured from the control rats. The data in Table 5 indicates that the extract treated the rise of the serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and bilirubin, and the decline in the levels of albumin and total protein. The reduction seen in the levels of these enzymes in the treated rats hinted that the PN extract has stabilized the hepatocytes membranes and interrupted the release of enzymes from liver into blood. The lowered bilirubin levels supported this action since it implied more stable erythrocyte plasma membranes were present in the treated rats. These findings are consistent with those of Harish and Shivanandappa [7] who found that aqueous and methanolic extracts of P. niruri showed inhibition of membrane lipid peroxidation, scavenging of DPPH (1,1- diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl) radical and inhibition of reactive oxygen species in vitro. Also pretreatment with PN inhibits carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced formation of lipid
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Isolation and characterisation of medicinal compounds from Phyllanthus Niruri L

Isolation and characterisation of medicinal compounds from Phyllanthus Niruri L

Looking back at the long history of the ancient medicinal practice, this plant is famous for the elimination of renal stone and, accordingly, named as ‘renal stone breaker’ remedy. Not surprisingly, Phyllanthus niruri L activity in the treatment of urolithiasis has become one of the areas of interest for researchers for over the past 50 years. Yadaf and co-workers (2011) suggested that the action of Phyllanthus niruri L in preventing renal stone formation can be attributed to the diuretic, anti-spasmodic and vaso relaxant effects of the extracts. The aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri L demonstrated a potency in inhibiting the growth of matrix calculus and reduced the formation of stone satellites, thus prevents the development of crystal growth (Freitas et al., 2002). Although the same study reported that Phyllanthus niruri L extracts showed no effect on the urinary excretion of calculus promoter elements (calcium and oxalate) or protective elements (citrate and magnesium), the extracts significantly increased the concentration of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The higher level of GAGs is correlated to the larger size of calculi formation. Accordingly, the result suggested that the anti-lithogenic effect of Phyllanthus niruri L extracts is not related to the inhibition of these substances, but might be attributed to the alteration of crystal adhesion to the epithelium due to the modification of the binding sites of crystal surface (Campos and Schor, 1999, Freitas et al., 2002).
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Comparative Studies on Phytochemical Analysis of Callus and Wild Plants of Phyllanthus niruri with Special Reference to Phyllanthin

Comparative Studies on Phytochemical Analysis of Callus and Wild Plants of Phyllanthus niruri with Special Reference to Phyllanthin

The main objective of the present study was to induce callus form nodal explants of Phyllanthus niruri and, compared the quantification of Phyllanthin in callus and naturally propagated Phyllanthus niruri. For callus initiation, different sterile plant parts were transferred on MS medium supplemented with auxins either alone like 0.5-2.0 mg/l 2- 4 D or with varied concentration and combinations of cytokinins like 0.5 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l KN. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus niruri plant and callus were prepared and performed its phytochemical analysis. The total flavonoids and polyphenol were investigated to quantify the presence of polyphenol compounds in callus extract and plant extract. The quantification of Phyllanthin in plant extract and callus extract were performed by HPLC. Maximum callus (90.5%) induction from stem/leaf segments on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D with 0.5 mg/l BAP (6- benzylaminopurine) within 25 days which was fragile in morphology. Preliminary phytochemical revealed the presence of various secondary metabolites in different extract of plant. The concentrations of flavonoids polyphenol in ethanol extract of callus were higher compared to crude plant extract. Further Phyllanthin content in callus was found to be significantly increased in response to field grown plants.
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Antibacterial Properties of Extracts of Indian Medicinal Plants: Syzygium Alternifolium, Phyllanthus Niruri and Rubia Cordifolia

Antibacterial Properties of Extracts of Indian Medicinal Plants: Syzygium Alternifolium, Phyllanthus Niruri and Rubia Cordifolia

In conclusion the negative result does not mean the absence of bioactive compounds nor is the plant inactive. Active compounds may be present in insufficient quantities in the crude extracts to show activity with the dose levels employed. Lack of activity can thus only be proven using higher doses. Alternatively, if the active principle is present in high enough quantities there could be other constituents exerting antagonistic effects or negating the positive effects of bioactive agents.

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