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Biodiesel Production from Unrefined Palm Oil on Pilot Plant Scale

Biodiesel Production from Unrefined Palm Oil on Pilot Plant Scale

Abstract: As global warming and climate change issues are defying modern society sustainable development; biofuels, biodiesel included, are among promising solutions. Biodiesel is generally produced from renewable vegetable oils and animal fats via acid or base catalyzed transesterification. Depending on regional availability, biodiesel production feedstocks vary from vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, soya oil, palm oil, and jatropha oil, to used cooking oil and animal fats, with each type of feedstock presenting its own process challenges rooting from its chemical composition. This paper reports about biodiesel production from crude palm oil on a pilot plant scale, subsequent to a laboratory scale investigation of biodiesel synthesis from various vegetable oil feedstocks. Prior to transesterification, pretreatment processes have been applied due to the fact that crude palm oil as a biodiesel feedstock possesses a high free fatty acid (FFA) content, water, solid impurities and waxes, all of which hinder an efficient transesterification if not dealt with accordingly. Those processes are mainly filtering, water evaporation, and FFA esterification which is done with 99.9% methanol and 96% sulfuric acid as a catalyst. In fact, the acid esterification process successfully handles the raw palm oil despite its high FFA content of 16.9%, and biodiesel is produced from that feedstock with a yield of 90.4%. A two steps transesterification is carried out using potassium methylate 32% in methanol as a catalyst and anhydrous methanol too. Laboratory analyses have also been used to monitor the process and assess the final product quality. Furthermore, biodiesel cold filtering and top layer intake tank systems of a filling station, both proved to be efficient at helping to obtain a refined product by getting rid of suspensions appearing in biodiesel at room temperature due to sterol glucosides and waxes.
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Methylene Blue decolorization and Mineralization by Means of Electrochemical Technology at Pre-pilot Plant Scale: Role of the Electrode Material and Oxidants

Methylene Blue decolorization and Mineralization by Means of Electrochemical Technology at Pre-pilot Plant Scale: Role of the Electrode Material and Oxidants

The use of EO has shown promising results on the complete abatement of POPs in synthetic and real effluents such dyes [11,13,18], drugs [6,19-21], pesticides [22-24] and others [25-31]. However, these experiences have been commonly carried out at bench scale [2]. Hence, MB has been selected as model target pollutant to test the applicability of the designed flow filter-press cell electrochemical reactor. In this work we report the EO treatment of MB at pre-pilot plant scale by using both Ti/Pt and Ti/IrO 2 -Ta 2 O 5 anodes at different applied current densities. Moreover, the
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Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fish Frames Using Pilot Plant Scale Systems

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fish Frames Using Pilot Plant Scale Systems

Preceding work [4] involving a laboratory scale hy- drolysis model, investigated the behaviour of the most appropriate enzymes on a well defined substrate, with particular interest in the overall rate of hydrolysis and the molecular weight distribution of the final hydrolysate at different degrees of hydrolysis. This work provided in- formation for the selection of the most suitable hydroly- sis parameters (i.e. substrate concentration, substrate/en- zyme concentration ratio, pH and temperature) used dur- ing the pilot plant experiments.

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A Review Scale Up Fermentation Procedure

A Review Scale Up Fermentation Procedure

Due to the larger size and scale of industrial fermentation setups it is vital to succeed beforehand studies of possible complications, due to increase in scale, and to sort out ways to tackle them. Scale up studies are executed at the laboratory or pilot plant scale to generate data that can be used to anticipate and construct the large scale industrial fermenters with ample confidence that it would function according to all its expected behaviors. Hence, scale up studies not only help understanding the technical components of a large-scale fermentation setup but also reduce the economic risk involved in the case of direct investment on large scale production.
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Jordanian natural Zeolite use as sorbent for removal lead from aqueous solutions

Jordanian natural Zeolite use as sorbent for removal lead from aqueous solutions

Attili, 1992 has evaluated the Jordanian phillipsitic tuff for applications in water softening, removal of ammonium and toxic heavy metal ions in laboratory and pilot plant scale Al-Rash[r]

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Phosphorus Degradation Capability of Aspergillus terreus on Nigeria’s Agbaja Iron Ore

Phosphorus Degradation Capability of Aspergillus terreus on Nigeria’s Agbaja Iron Ore

3. Uwadiale, G. G. O. O. and Nwoke, M. A. U.; Beneficiation of Agbaja Iron Ore by Reduction Roasting- Magnetic Separation: Semi Pilot Plant Scale-up and Establishment of Residence Point of Phosphorus, National Steel Council, Metallurgical Research and Tests Division, Jos, Nigeria, June 1983.

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Design and Development of a Process for the Production of Aloe Lemon Drink and Studies on Its Shelf life

Design and Development of a Process for the Production of Aloe Lemon Drink and Studies on Its Shelf life

Conclusions from the study - Design and development of the pilot plant for production of aloe lemon drink has been completed. Process parameters for the production of aloe lemon drink have been optimized before pilot plant study. Local technologies have been applied for the completion of the work, in the view of reducing fixed cost of the plant. At the first phase, the result of the work was not satisfactory. After getting satisfactory result, the process had been upgraded for pilot plant scale. The cost of the product had been reduced. The developed drink is a good source of protein, carbohydrate, fat, minerals and vitamins and can be used safely as health drink at low cost.
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A pilot study to understand feasibility and acceptability of stool and cord blood sample collection for a large scale longitudinal birth cohort

A pilot study to understand feasibility and acceptability of stool and cord blood sample collection for a large scale longitudinal birth cohort

A limitation of this study is that it was carried out in specific late pregnancy clinics in a central London teach- ing hospital, and the women recruited might therefore not be representative of pregnant women in the general population. Moreover, some selection bias is possible, with those women who participated being more likely to find the study acceptable. For a small number of partici- pants, some data items were missing. Due to the scale of this pilot we were not able to include women who needed a translator to understand the study materials. For women who consented to take part but did not pro- vide a samples, we were unable to determine whether this was because their changed their minds or because they lacked an opportunity to provide the sample.
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Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

Sludge digester reactor: The pilot scale reactor consisted of 128liter glass Reactor. The reactor dimension was 0.4*0.4*1m (w*L*h) as shown in fig (2a&2b&2c) with 0.4*0.4 m top glass cover sealed with rubber to prevent gas escaping. top cover was prepared by 5 openings, a sludge feed opening with inlet pipe extended under water surface level to allow sludge feeding without gas escaping, an opening for the motor and the mixer, an opening for sensors and heaters electrical cables, an opening for gas outlet, in addition to an opening for feeding of PH control solutions.
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DESIGNING RAPID SAND FILTER BY USING COCONUT SHELL FOR A VILLAGE

DESIGNING RAPID SAND FILTER BY USING COCONUT SHELL FOR A VILLAGE

Areas of the developing world are populated with poor people unable to fulfill the basic needs for Clean water and India is one of them . Water treatment plant is being designed for proper filtration of water. Treating it properly after all treatment process or trying to manage the good condition in water. It has being planned to implement this design scheme in the village under the sanction of Village Panchayat and other govt.bodies. Rapid sand filters are very common in all conventional water treatment plants. The major problem associated with it is stratification, which restrict the complete utilization of sand bed used. Higher filtration rates even can be achieved. However, the use of such techniques is limited in India due to unavailability of filter materials apart from sand. Capping of existing rapid sand filters can be the promising method of improving the performance of rapid sand filters. Capping is a process of covering the filtration media by appropriates caps such as Anthracite coal, Bituminous coal, Crushed coconut shells, etc. The attempt is made to study the effect of capping of RSF by the use of coconut shell as a capping media by pilot scale study. The pilot scale study has shown very encouraging results. Comparative study shown that higher rate of filtration is possible along with higher filter run and less backwash requirement.
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Cell And Tissue Culture   Laboratory Procedures In Biotechnology pdf

Cell And Tissue Culture Laboratory Procedures In Biotechnology pdf

Spinner Flask Culture PROCEDURE:Culture of suspension cells in a spinner flask Discussion Background reading Pilot-scale Suspension Culture of Hybridomas an Overview Pilot- and large-sca[r]

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Milk separation and pasteurisation : the impact of separating temperature, and order of separation and pasteurisation, on the composition of skim milk, cream and separator sludge : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degre

Milk separation and pasteurisation : the impact of separating temperature, and order of separation and pasteurisation, on the composition of skim milk, cream and separator sludge : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Food Technology of Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Table A8-6 Crude protein content results - ANOVA of Pilot Plant sludge data Table A8-7 True protein content results - ANOVA of Pilot Plant sludge data Table A8-8 Casein content results - ANOVA of Pilot Plant sludge data Table A8-9 Whey protein content results - ANOVA of Pilot Plant sludge data Table A8-10 Casein/whey protein ratio results - ANOVA of Pilot Plant sludge data Table A8-11 pp5 (HPLC) results - ANOVA of Pilot Plant sludge data

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Sensitivity Analysis of the UNO Activated Sludge Model

Sensitivity Analysis of the UNO Activated Sludge Model

Rojas (2004) found the numerical values of the kinetic constants of La Motta’s model by trial and error, first using the UNO 1D Activated sludge Model to predict the value of effluent characteristics, and then comparing these results with the actual values observed at the pilot plant. Rojas accepted the set of kinetic constants that yielded the closest agreement between the observed and the predicted effluent characteristics. A similar approach was used by La Motta et al. (2007), who performed a sensitivity analysis on the predicted values of the final effluent TSS and total COD to test the effect of changing the kinetics constants using the recirculation ratio of 0.377 at 45 minutes of retention time at the Marrero Wastewater Treatment Plant. The following kinetic constants were reported.
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Pilot Plant Batch Distillation pdf

Pilot Plant Batch Distillation pdf

The operation of a batch distillation column, even pilot-scale equipment, is often as technically involved as operation of an industrial-scale column, and the same amount of care in start-up and safety proced- ures should be taken. Whether designing a new col- umn or revamping an existing one, the necessary safety and physical properties data such as S ash and ignition points, S ammability and toxicity must be compiled for each component in the mixture. Predic- tive equations or experimental values for the vapour pressures of all components and binary equilibrium data should be compiled together with parameters of equations of state or activity coef R cient models when- ever available. Other physical properties to be in- cluded are liquid and vapour heat capacities, heats of vaporization and viscosities.
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Time-Dependent Desalination Tests for Small-Scale SWRO Pilot Plant Installed at Urla Bay, Turkey

Time-Dependent Desalination Tests for Small-Scale SWRO Pilot Plant Installed at Urla Bay, Turkey

factor of 4% and salt rejection stayed nearly constant. Surprisingly boron rejection has increased slightly when two membranes were used in the system. Based on the collected operational data, variations in flux, salt and boron rejections could be observed more conveniently for long-term applications under constant applied pressure, 55 bar. Furthermore, long-term reliability of the pilot SWRO system for continuous operation using natural seawater has been established. Considering the scarce literature based on pilot-plant tests using natural seawater, this work is believed to provide adequate knowledge on the time-dependent behavior of boron removing RO systems prior the scaling up of such pilot plants.
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Scale-down of a bioprocess sequence for the recovery and purification of an intracellular protein

Scale-down of a bioprocess sequence for the recovery and purification of an intracellular protein

1.6). This approach enables important process information such as product yield and purification to be examined and also any interactions between the different operations can be seen. Thus, the aim of this chuter was to determine how well the pilot scale performance, in a process context, could be predicted when the amount o f material available was limited and thereby restricting the investigations to small scale systems, laboratory scale and scale-down. The laboratory process was run in two ways which differed only for the centrifugation stages. For one laboratory process (Lab ‘high g’) die centrifuge steps were run at high RCF for a long period. The second qiproach applied the adapted Sigma theory concept used in Section 6 to each of the centrifugation steps so that the same Q/Z values (corrected for centrifuge efficiency) used for pilot scale and scale-down runs were employed. The second approach might be expected to be a better mimic of pilot scale performance, however, the first approach was deemed justified since it is widely used in the literature (Foster et al, 1976; Richardson et al, 1990). The scale-down and pilot scale processes were also run in two fashions, the difference being in the type of solids discharge employed, with both partial and fiill discharge methods being investigated. With partial dischaiges the disc stack centrifuge bowl is held open only long enough for solids to be discharged whereas the bowl liquid is retained. With full discharges the bowl is held open for longer and both solids and bowl liquid are discharged.
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Comparison of four outdoor pilot-scale photobioreactors

Comparison of four outdoor pilot-scale photobioreactors

Background: Microalgae are a potential source of sustainable commodities of fuels, chemicals and food and feed additives. The current high production costs, as a result of the low areal productivities, limit the application of micro- algae in industry. A first step is determining how the different production system designs relate to each other under identical climate conditions. The productivity and photosynthetic efficiency of Nannochloropsis sp. CCAP 211/78 cultivated in four different outdoor continuously operated pilot-scale photobioreactors under the same climatological conditions were compared. The optimal dilution rate was determined for each photobioreactor by operation of the different photobioreactors at different dilution rates.
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Basic Needs as a Predictors of Prospective Teachers' Self actualization

Basic Needs as a Predictors of Prospective Teachers' Self actualization

The scale was developed by Türkdoğan and Duru [30] in order to identify the level of prospective teachers’ meeting the basic needs. Pilot study of scale were conducted on a total of 671 Pamukkale University students from different departments of the Faculty of Education. Analysis indicated that the scale consists of 33 items and has a five factor. The students rated items on a 7-point likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strogly agree). The informations about sub-factors of scale were presented in table 1.

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Factors affecting the production of a single-chain antibody fragment (SCFV) by Aspergillus awamori in stirred tank reactors

Factors affecting the production of a single-chain antibody fragment (SCFV) by Aspergillus awamori in stirred tank reactors

A comparison o f the results obtained in terms o f product concentration and specific yield are shown in figures 3.39 and 3.40 and in table 4.1. It is evident from these graphs that the maximum product concentration was 50 % higher in the pilot scale. This had an effect on the specific yield o f the product that was also increased by almost 50 %. Maximum volumetric and specific productivities were doubled at the pilot scale (table 4.1). Maximum product concentration in the two scales was obtained 48 hours after inoculation in the laboratory scale and 42 hours after inoculation in the pilot scale. Growth characteristics and morphology o f the microorganism remained similar to those at the laboratory scale fermentations. However, after 42 hours and until the end o f the fermentation, the concentration o f the scFv decreased by 30 %, to 112 mg L '\ Protease concentration was similar to the values observed at the laboratory scale (fig. 3.41). Circulation times were calculated for the two scales in order to see whether there was a smaller circulation time in the pilot scale, resulting in an increased exposure o f the microorganism to high shear and thus decreasing the rate o f scFv production. The circulation times were calculated using the equation used by Smith et al. (1990):
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Murdoch engineering pilot plant: Modelling and control design of the three heated tanks

Murdoch engineering pilot plant: Modelling and control design of the three heated tanks

The control system in the pilot plant is facilitated by the Honeywell Experion C300 software as a distribution control system. It has a server and one or more clients; those are Experion C300 Controller interface and Experion C300 Station software. Indeed, Controller interface act as a hub between the process instruments and station software with which read or write operation of the process instruments are done by the operator using the Experion station software. Furthermore, by using the suitably designed program, it is easy to operate the plant either in the manual (with an operator) or automatic (without an operator) mode [8].
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