the currents to travel in the outer portions of the cable and thus increasing the skin' effect. Other researchers have also noticed the relationship between inter-strand resistance and the loss ratio. Arnold (4), who introduced a stranding factor to account for the decrease in resistance in a stranded cable, noted that the stranding factor depends on the surface condition of strands, the lay of strands, core impregnation and the tightness of insulation. Me y e r hof f and Eager ( 6 ) noted that the stranding factor was in fluenced by cable treatment and the type of binder used. The AIEE Committee found that such uncontrollable factors as strand oxidation and handling have an effect and that even cables manufactured by the same company exhibited dif ferent characteristics. This Committee recommended that the a.c. resistance could be reduced by insulating strands to increase the transverse resistance and they found that coating the strands with varnish did reduce the loss ratio.
With the CityCable the advantages of pipetype cables and XLPE cables are combined. The cable has been developed especially for use in urban cable networks for retroﬁ tting and new installations. Major design details have been determined to take account of the use of existing cablepipe lines. The CityCable concept of nkt cables allows the cheap reconstruction of old pipetypecable circuits and the economical and safe instal- lation of new cable connections in crowded city areas.
Aside from the cable, joints for connecting adjacent cable sections and terminations for connecting cables to other equipment, along with other accessories, are needed to complete the cable system. Link boxes with grounding links, sheath voltage limiters and features to permit cross bonding, plus associated bonding cables and ground continuity conductors, are needed for extruded cablesystems. Shipping container-sized dielectric oil pressurization plants (HPGF systems uses a much smaller, nitrogen gas cabinet) and cathodic protection systems are needed for HPPT cables, and fluid reservoirs are needed for SCFF cables. Vaults (e.g., “manholes”) typically, 8ft wide (2.4m) x 7ft (2m) tall x 16-33ft (5-10m) long, depending on voltage and system type, are used for most joints in North America, although direct buried joints are possible and common in other parts of the world. Near terminals, HPPT cables require special trifurcators to separate the three cable phases in the steel line pipe into three separate stainless steel pipes.
A reliability analysis using Advanced First Order Reliability Method was performed on ten straight pipe components with different size and schedule. ASME Code Eqn. 9, i.e. Eqn. (1.1.1), was the design equation investigated. The straight pipe component was modeled with Elbow 31 of ABAQUS finite element analysis code to include possible ovalization. As was the case in the sensitivity analysis, the finite element analysis process was integrated and automated using iSIGHT. Both elastic-perfectly plastic and bilinear kinematic hardening materials were considered. Twice-the-elastic-slope and ultimate moment were used as the failure criteria for service level C and D. Outside diameter, pipe wall thickness, material yield strength, and ultimate strength (if applicable) were treated as independent random variables subjected to Lognormal distribution. Monte Carlo sampling technique was employed to generate five-hundred-point samples. The results were compared to those from a previous closed form solution. Similar trends were observed from both sets of results. The reliability index was shown to be insensitive to the ratio of pipe diameter and wall thickness. For service level C, at least 99% of
The moulded GM-X coupling socket has two parts. The sealing ele- ment is formed by the first part of the coupling socket. The second part centres the male pipe end. This coupling socket design creates stable and strong connections between pipes and fittings and cannot be bent out of place – to guarantee a very high level of tightness between the pipes and the coupling socket. The tightness limits specified in local regulations for laid pipelines is complied with. All of the connections with fitted sealing elements withstand internal and external overpressures of 0.5 bar. Additional measures to prevent axial displacement must be applied to pipe- lines which are subjected to higher pressures. See the table below.
The cable trays shall be of ladder type / perforated steel section slotted angles as mentioned. The trays shall be complete with plates, Ts, elbows, risers, and all necessary hardware. The trays shall be galvanised as per IS 2629. The cable trays shall have suitable strength and rigidity to provide adequate support for all cables. It shall not present sharp edges, burs of projections, injurious to the insulation of the wiring and cables. The trays shall be adequately protected against corrosion and shall be made of corrosion resistant material. It shall have side rails or equivalent structural members. There shall be a continuous earth strip running on either side of the tray for earthing. X. CABLE SUPPORT SYSTEM:
4. The by-pass meter assembly shall consist primarily of a bronze water meter in series with a bronze double check valve. The meter shall be the total registration type with accurate registration between one and twenty (1 and 20) GPM flow rates. The by-pass double check shall consist of independent modular center stem guided check assemblies with guiding surfaces located in the threaded-on-body bronze caps. The by-pass double check shut-off valves and test-cocks shall be resilient seated ball valves with full flow characteristics. The static pressure drop across the by-pass double check assembly shall be approximately two (2) psi less than the mainline check valves to assure proper operation.
Water hammer or pressure surge is the sudden rise or fall in pressure caused by an abrupt change in the fluid velocity within the pipe system. The usual cause of these flow changes is the rapid closing or opening of valves or the sudden starting or stopping of pumps, e.g. during a power failure. The most important factors which influence the water hammer pressure in a pipe system are the change in velocity of the fluid, the rate of change in velocity ( valve closing time ), the compressibility of the fluid, the stiffness of the pipe in the circumferential “hoop” direction and the physical layout of the pipe system.
HOBAS GRP Irrigation Systems distinguish themselves from other pipe materials by their composition and the unique production process. They are made of chopped glass fiber and mineral reinforcing agents which are enveloped by unsaturated polyester resins that create a bond between them. The pipe wall is built up from the outside inwards in a rotating mold. Once all the materials have been fed into the mold, the speed of rotation is increased. Spinning at a pressure of 30 to 70 bar presses the material against the mold wall, which removes the gas, compacts and cures it. This centrifugal casting process ensures that the pipes are circular, void free and have a uniform wall thickness over their entire length.
The licensee must, at their own expense, ensure that no interference is caused to licensed or otherwise authorised radio services as a result of the operation of the digital cable relay system (unless as a result of a malfunction of another Licensed users equipment) and must act speedily and promptly to rectify such interference when it is brought to their attention. Where the Commission deems it necessary the licensee may be instructed to cease using the Programme Service Multiplex(es) on their system.
The three main functions of bioretention systems are managing hydrology (managing the quantity of stormwater runoff), pollutant removal (managing the quality of stormwater runoff) and amenity (improving appearance) (Water by Design 2014). In urban areas high volumes of stormwater runoff occurs with short, sharp peak flows (FAWB 2009a). Bioretention systems manage this sudden quantity of stormwater by detaining runoff, allowing infiltration into surrounding soils and providing slow release of remaining treated runoff into waterways, reducing degradation and erosion. With correct sizing, bioretention systems may reduce peak flows by around 80% for storms less than 1 year Average Recurrence Interval (ARI). In addition runoff volumes are reduced on average by around 30% and runoff from small events may often be completely absorbed, reducing the frequency of flow into waterways. Hydrologic benefits of bioretention systems will be provided indefinitely as long as the filter media retains its hydraulic conductivity (Water by Design 2014).
The original concept of using cable stays can perhaps be dated back to ancient Egypt. In the construction of sailing ships, inclined ropes hanging from a mast were used to support a basin beam (Troitsky, 1977). Similarly, in some tropical regions, bamboo sticks were used to support pedestrian bridge deck and with the other end of the sticks attached to a tree. Although simple bridges with deck supported by inclined bars or chains were designed in the 17 th century (Leonhardt and Zellner, 1991), the first cable-stayed bridge, Roeblings Bridge, was not constructed until the 19 th century. However, limited by the availability of high strength materials, analysis methods, and construction techniques, the idea of cable-stayed bridge was abandoned for some time. The rebooming of cable-stayed bridge occurred after the Second World War, when German engineers faced the challenges to replace many bridges destroyed during the war by innovative and inexpensive solutions. In the past two decades, the span length of cable-stayed bridges has been increasing rapidly. The Russky Bridge in Russia, the world’s longest cable- stayed bridge at present, has a central span length of 1104 m with the longest cable being 580 m; whereas the second longest cable-stayed bridge, the Sutong Bridge in China, has a central span length of 1088 m (Weber and Distl, 2015). The world’s tallest bridge, the Millau Viaduct Bridge in southern France, also belongs to the family of cable-stayed bridge. It has an impressive height of 343 m. The growing popularity of cable-stayed bridges is due to its aesthetic, ease of deck erection, economics, small deflection and effectiveness in poor soil condition in comparison to suspension bridges (Bimson, 2007).
The aim of this study is to analyze of the cable-glass systems which are used on the glass curtain wall according to their types, degree, architectural and structural effects. The suspended glass system with pre-stressed cable truss (SGSPCT) is widely started to apply after the 1980’s with Serres building. The advantages of these systems are to provide the transparency on the façades and speedy construction process with minimum materials. The disadvantages are: more expensive than other systems and so many details for the joints and load distribution calculations. There are three dif- ferent architectural design typologies of the SGSPCT system. These are distance bridging systems, between floor sys- tem and independent body. These three different typologies can be seen on the same building at the same time. This system has been known as complex structure systems. The twenty five glass buildings which are designed in different systems have been analyzed during this study. After these analyses the five glass buildings which are designed with cable-truss system have been selected for scope of the study. These selected buildings have been included of three dif- ferent cable-truss system typologies and degree. The methodology of this study is literature survey and building analy- ses method. The written and visual documents involve books, theses, reports, articles, magazines, drawings, internet sources and applied connection details of the glass buildings. The selected five glass buildings have been detailed ana- lyzed with their architectural drawings, photographs and details. The study consists of five chapters including the intro- duction chapter. The general information of the glass building and cable-glass system has been mentioned in the first chapter. The structural features, details and analytical information on systems have been explained of the selected buildings in the second chapter. The detailed analyses of these selected buildings have been done according to their schematic drawings with the plans, sections and load distribution in the third chapter. The fourth chapter is discussion section. In this section, cable-truss systems have been compared with their advantages and disadvantages to the other systems. The fifth chapter is the last chapter, many advantages of cable-truss systems have been concluded that the use of glass substrates.
Information Communication Technologies are the core of a new life that has made a new entity, the Information Society with a specific education system. From this viewpoint the Information Society and the way of learning is deemed to be as different from ancient, industrial and agricultural epochs. Since the 1950's, the advent of computers brought high hopes of the power of technology to revolutionize and ameliorate education systems. In this article we have tried to analysis how ICT and digital revolution have influenced education system by focusing on the advantages of new system of learning that has been produced by new information and communication technologies. At the end of article we have elucidated digital divide and key factors to bridge the digital divide between developing countries and developed ones. Keywords: Education, Developed and Developing countries, Digital divide, Information Society, Information Communication Technologies and Internet.
In 1976  tested 23.3 m segments of various cables with fixed ends held under constant tension in a uniform flow. They found that as the Strouhal frequency approached the cables natural frequency, the phenomena of lock-in occurred. The maximum Reynolds number tested was 6850, and maximum mode number achieved was 7. There were only 2 accelerom- eters used to measure model displacements. A second set of experiments were performed by  in 1983 at Reynolds up to 22 000, using the same apparatus, and results showed that the drag coefficient reached values larger than 3. Again, only the seventh mode was achieved, and only 7 pairs of accelerometers were used over the 23.3 m model length. Reference  hung a 267 m Kevlar cable over the side of a vessel and found that the vibration response of a long cable was essentially that of an infinite string and single mode lock-in was not observed in a shear current. Only 3 accelerometers were used to determine modal displacements and there were problems reading the in- flowing current correctly. Reference  conducted sheared current tests on an instrumented cable arranged horizontally across the width of a 17.7 m canal. The test cable was a 0.028 m diameter rubber hose with 6 pairs of accelerometers along the length and a maximum mode number of 11 was achieved. Reference  conducted large scale tests involving two composite fiberglass pipes, 61 m and 122 m long, and 0.033 m in diameter. Twenty-four tri-axial accelerometers were spaced evenly along the length of the model and the maximum Reynolds number was approximately 34,000. The authors reported cross-flow flow excitation of up to the 25th mode.
Aarsleff is the innovator behind Cured- In-Place Pipe Lining, or CIPP Lining, a highly effective method for renewal of horizontal and vertical pipes in the ground or in buildings, that has an expected lifetime of at least 100 years. Uniquely adaptable to a wide variety of applications, CIPP Lining is often used to renew sewage pipes, drinking water pipes, industrial process pipes, vertical pipes and ducts in buildings.
2006 ICNPAA va Dynamic behavior of cable systems with spacers following ice shedding pdf University of Huddersfield Repository Kollar, László E and Farzaneh, Masoud Dynamic Behavior of Cable Systems w[.]
designed to locate cables, pipes and EMS markers. Information such as a pre- programmed identification number, facility data, application type, placement date and other details can all be read, stored and downloaded to your PC for enhanced resource management.