Numerous piperazine derivatives like aryl amide, sulphonamides, Mannich bases, Schiff's bases, thiazolidinones, azetidinones, imidazolinones have shown a wide spectrum of biological activities viz. antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antimalarial, anticonvulsant, antipyretic, antitumor, anthelmintics, analgesic, antidepressant, antifungal, antitubercular, anticancer, antidiabetic etc. In this view, we synthesized the title compound to study its crystal structure. The molecule crystallizes in triclinic P-1 space group. The piperazine ring in the molecule adopts chair conformation and the molecule prefers E configuration across the C—N double bond, as the OH group and the piperazine ring are in the opposite side of the double bond (Figure 1). The hydrogen atom of the hydroxyl group is directed away from the NH 2 group. This results
(Fig. 1). The copper(II) anion exhibits a coordination geometry intermediate between tetrahedral and square–planar. However we can tell that the configuration adopted by this anion is a flattened tetrahedral where the two trans bond angles, Cl(1)—Cu—Cl(4) = 137.18 (4)° and Cl(2)—Cu—Cl(3) = 134.04 (3)°, are very near to the minimum of the potential curve describing the angular deformation of isolated [CuCl 4 ] 2- anion (θ min = 135.95°) (Halvorson et al., 1990).
the Cl atom of the dication is disordered over two positions in a 0.915 (3):0.085 (3) ratio. The Cl atoms in the trichloroacetate anions and trichloroacetic acid molecule are also disordered, with refined site-occupation factors of 0.59 (3):0.41 (3), 0.503 (12):0.417 (12) and 0.653 (12):0.347 (12). The piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation, with puckering parameters Q T = 0.587 (3) A ˚ , = 2.6 (2) and 334 (6) . In the crystal,
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The asymmetric unit of this compound is composed of one tetrachlorocobalt(II) anion, one organic cation and one isolated water molecule, as shown in Figure 1. The coordination geometry of the Co(II) ion is tetrahedral with Co—Cl bond lengths ranging from 2.2475 (7) to 2.2868 (7) Å, as observed in similar compounds (Oh et al.; 2011), (Reiss; 2013), (Azadbakht et al.; 2012).
2.2420 (12) - 2.3036 (11) Å. Owing to these differences in Zn—Cl bond lengths and Cl—Zn—Cl angles, the coordination geometry of the Zn atom can be described as a slightly distorted tetrahedron (as in Guo et al., 2007). The nearst Zn···Zn intra-chain separation is 7.204 (1) Å, while the distance between adjacent chains is 6.370 (2) Å. Examination of the organic cation geometry shows that the piperazine-1,4-dium ring adopts a typical chair conformation and its geometric parameters [d av (C—N) = 1.501 (4) and d av (C—C) = 1.508 (4) Å] are in full agreement with those found in phenyl-
The configuration about the Sn atom is five-coordinated distorted trigonal–bipyramidal with atoms S11, C12 and C16 occupying equatorial positions for molecule 1, and S22, C212 and C216 for molecule 2. The sums of the ligand–Sn–ligand angles in the trigonal girdle of the molecules are 359.47 and 358.70 , respectively. The Sn atoms show no large deviations
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Crystals of the title compound were prepared by adding dropwise an ethanolic solution (5 ml) of 1-(2,3)dimethlphenyl- piperazine (4 mmol) to an aqueous solution (10 ml) of cyclohexaphosphoric acid (2 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for few minutes. X-ray quality crystals of the title compound appeared after a few days. The cyclohexaphosphoric acid H 6 P 6 O 18 , was produced from Li 6 P 6 O 18 .6H 2 O, prepared according to the procedure of Schülke
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The metabolite concentrations were lower and more variable in patients, with a metabolic ratio of less than 0.02 regardless of the dose and sampling time. Again, this agrees with early pharmacokinetic studies where 2,3-ClPP was quantifiable in only some (healthy) subjects at a few time points after 5 mg oral aripiprazole. However, urinary excretion of total p-hydroxy-2,3-ClPP (unchanged metabolite and its sulfate and glucuronide conjugates) amounted to about 30% of the cleared radioactivity, indicating that 2,3-ClPP is extensively biotransformed before excretion.7 p-Hydroxylation before conjugation and excretion is also the primary route of metabolism of other 1-aryl-piperazines , including mClPP  and 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)-piperazine . In man this oxidative route is mediated by CYP2D6 [16 - 19] which certainly contributes to the interindividual differences in the ratios of the 1-aryl-piperazine metabolites to their several parent drugs. While in rat serum the concentrations of 2,3-ClPP were much lower than those of aripiprazole, its brain concentrations amounted to about 40% of the parent drug concentrations. This is because 2,3-ClPP penetrates the blood-brain barrier better than aripiprazole. In view of the wide spectrum of pharmacological actions , some of which have been attributed to their interaction with 5-HT sites at which phenylpiperazine derivatives such as mClPP may act as agonists or partial agonists at some subtypes and antagonists at others [8, 20, 21], the present results highlight the need for appropriate pharmacological studies of 2,3-ClPP in the rat and other animal models to clarify its role in the centrally-mediated effects of aripiprazole. However, it is unlikely that the metabolite plays a role for the clinical outcome: assuming that the brain-to-blood distribution ratios of aripiprazole and 2,3-ClPP in man are proportionally similar to those in the rat one can conclude that the mean metabolite concentrations at the site of action approaches about 6% of the parent drug concentrations, ranging from 2% to 12%.
In the title compound, Fig. 1, the piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the sulfonyl- bound benzene ring and the best fit plane through the six non-H atoms of the piperazine ring is 72.22 (12)°, while those between the dichlorobenzene and sulfonyl rings and the dichlorobenzene and piperazine rings are 2.44 (13) and 74.16 (2)° respectively. In the crystal, molecules are connected through weak C18—H18···O2 interactions into a hexameric unit generating a R 6 6 (60) motif, Fig. 2 and Table 1. The molecules are also connected into C(4) chains through a weak C17—
Preliminary phytochemical screening studies on revealed the presence of carbohydrate, tannins and flavonoids. Some of these phytoconstituents may be responsible to show a potent anthelmintic activity. The result shows that the aqueous extract of Rotula aquatica show an more effective anthelmintic activity at concentration 75mg/ml when compared to standard drug (Table 1 & Figure 1).
A perspective view of the the title compound, (I), is shown in Fig. 1. Bond lengths and angles can be regarded as normal (Cambridge Structural Database, Version 5.27 plus one update; MOGUL Version 1.1; Allen, 2002). The piperazine ring adopts an ideal chair conformation. The sum of the bond angles at the piperazine N atoms (328.48 ) clearly shows the
Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, Kirti M. Doongursee College, Dadar (W), Mumbai, India 1 Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Kirti M. Doongursee College, Dadar (W), Mumbai, India 2 Research Scholar, Department of Chemistry, Kirti M. Doongursee College, Dadar (W), Mumbai, India 3 Research Scholar, Department of Chemistry, Kirti M. Doongursee College, Dadar (W), Mumbai, India 4
The hydro-ethanol extract of roots of Raphanus sativus (HERS) was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms (Pheretima posthuma), tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis) and roundworms (Ascaridia galli). Various concentrations (10-50 mg/ml) of root extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as reference standard drug whereas DMF (Di-methyl formamide) as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 50 mg/ml. The result showed that root extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic.
purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St Louis, MO, USA). N,N′ - carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), DMAPA, AEPZ, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were acquired from Aladdin Reagent (Shanghai, People’s Republic of China). DMSO was dried for 1 week prior to use by soaking in molecular sieves and calcium hydride. Fetal bovine serum (FBS), Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM), penicillin-streptomycin, and trypsin were purchased from Life Technologies (Carlsbad, CA, USA). The reporter pDNA, plasmid enhanced green fluorescent pro- tein (GFP)-N1 (4.7 kb), was supplied by Promega (Fitchburg, WI, USA). All of the other reagents were purchased as analyti- cal grade and used without further purification.
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In order to explore the antihistaminic and anthelmintic activity associated with piperazine framework, several 1-benzhydryl piperazine derivatives and 1- benzhydryl piperazine acyl derivatives were synthesized. Their chemical structure was characterized and confirmed by H 1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR). The target compounds were synthesized by the nucleophilic substitution reaction of 1-benzhydryl piperazine with various acyl chlorides. The intermediate (AT-1) was prepared by reaction of benzhydryl chloride and piperazine in presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate in N-N dimethylformamide. Further 1- benzhydrylpiperazine was reacted with various acyl chloride in presence of triethylamine in dichloromethane afforded target compounds (AT5 -9). The anthelmintic activity of compounds were evaluated by Garg and Atal method while antihistaminic activity was evaluated by in- vitro guinea pig ileum. INTRODUCTION: Benzhydryl are pharmacologically
Piperazines are among the most important building blocks in today's drug discovery. The piperazine nucleus is capable of binding to multiple receptors with high affinity and therefore piperazine has been classified as a privileged structure (Dinsmore et al., 2002). They are found in biologically active compounds across a number of different therapeutic areas (Berkheij et al., 2005) such as antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antipsychotic, antidepressant and antitumour activity against colon, prostate, breast, lung and leukemia tumors (Humle & Cherrier, 1999). 1-Benzylpiperazine was originally synthesized as a potential antihelminthic (Campbell et al., 1973) and these derivatives were found to possess excellent pharmacological activities such as vasodilator, hypotensive, antiviral activity and cerebral blood flow increasing actions, broad pharmacological action on central nerves system (CNS), especially on dopaminergic neurotransmission.
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To obtain information about the stereochemistry of the molecule and to con®rm the assigned structure, an X-ray analysis of (I) was undertaken. It was found that the phenyl group contains a Cl atom in the ortho position, with a CÐCl distance of 1.738 (2) AÊ. This is in agreement with values in a related structure reported in the literature (Capuano et al., 2000). The benzoxazolinone ring system is planar, with a maximum deviation from planarity of 0.02 (1) AÊ for atom C18. The plane through the C atoms of the piperazine ring makes a dihedral angle of 81.01 (5) with benzoxazolinone ring. The
A mixture of 1-tosylpiperazine (0.01 mmol), potassium carbonate (0.03 mmol) and 3,4-difluorobenzyl bromide (0.01 mmol) was added to dry acetonitrile (5 ml). The mixture was stirred at 85°C for 8 h. The reaction was monitored by TLC. Solvent was removed by vacuum distillation and the crude product obtained was purified by column chromatography using 230–400 silica gel and petroleum ether/ethyl acetate as eluent.
The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the p-fluorophenyl rings is 73.40 (3)°. The piperazine ring is in a chair conformation and the asymmetry parameters (Duax & Norton, 1975) are quite small with the largest value for the mirror plane being 3.7° and for the twofold axis 3.0°. The N—H hydrogen atom is in an equatorial position (the C—C—N—H torsion angles are 177° and -176°). In the crystal there are only very weak C—H···F contacts and, interestingly, the shortest contacts to both F atoms are created by the same carbon atom (C25). Therefore it seems that the three- dimensional structure is mainly governed by van der Waals forces.
Heterocycles are inextricably woven into life processes. Synthetic chemistry provides corpucopia of heterocyclic systems Heterocyclic chemistry is one of the most valuable sources of novel compounds with diverse biological activity. To medicinal chemists, the true utility of heterocyclic structures is the ability to synthesize one library based on one core scaffold and to screen-it against a variety of different receptors, yielding several active compounds. [1-3] Almost unlimited combinations of fused heterocyclic structures can be designed, resulting in novel polycyclics frameworks with the most diverse physical, chemical and biological properties.  More than 90% of new drugs contain heterocycles and the interface between chemistry and biology. The modern day medicinal chemistry is based on heterocyclic molecules and we owe to them, due to their close association with numerous
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