Learning how to use these images on a practical scale will be an interesting area of study. Better pest management procedures and better decisions for the control of tarnished plantbugs are expected in the future. Also, based on the experiences from this study, it is necessary to use objective, rather than subjective, methods to apportion an image into strata. Therefore, the supervised or unsupervised classification (Schrader and Pouncy, 1997) of an image, using remote sensing software and analysis techniques for cotton insect scouting, is a current area of research. Work also needs to be devoted to learning how irrigation history and other agronomic practices impinge on these spatial patterns.
1996 through 1997 (Hand 1997, Parker et al. 1999) were also included as they served as a conceptual foundation for the Arkansas studies. In total, end- of-season yield mapping was done on samples from 19 experiments with 94 total treatments (815 total samples). A sample consisted of an average of 14 plants across all experiments with between one to four samples taken from an individual plot or commercial field. Plant mapping of surviving and missing fruiting forms (1,506 total samples) and numbers of insects present were also recorded at periodic intervals within the growing season, but the timing and number of sample dates varied widely from experiment to experiment. The total number of insect samples examined at times when cotton plants had eight to 20 total mainstem nodes were 1,426 heliothine egg samples, 1,480 heliothine larvae samples, and 1,400 samples for plantbugs. The different treatments and experiments included both Bt transgenic and non-Bt plants in sprayed and unsprayed environments.
Yield loss estimates attributed to tarnished plantbugs are typically low, compared with losses associated with other cotton insect pests. However, this pest is pivotal because early-season spraying for plantbugs reduces beneficial insects and exacerbates other insect pest problems. Studies reported in the literature indicate the sensitivity of cotton genotypes is, to some degree, dependent on their morphological characteristics. Genotypes expressing the Frego bract characteristic are highly sensitive to plantbugs, while nectariless genotypes have some resistance. The effects of other characteristics are not well established.
In Europe, hosts other than Lygus spp. have rarely been associated with P. relictus (Drea et al., 1973; Bilewicz- Pawinska, 1982; Carl & Mason, 1996) and consequently, this species has been regarded as having a narrow effective host range (Day, 1987). Previous laboratory studies, however, indicated a much broader host range for P. relictus compared to the somewhat limited field data previously reported (Porter, 1979; Condit & Cate, 1982). Therefore, we assessed host specificity of P. relictus by combining information from the literature as well as data from fundamental and ecological host range studies in the area of origin in Europe. This study aimed to contribute to the evaluation of whether the release of P. relictus against Lygus plantbugs in Canada is likely to be environmentally safe.
there is a bifid left tergal process on the genital opening of the pygophore. The ventral margin of the genital opening is weakly convex and there are short, dark spinelike setae proximate to the opening. Yasunaga (1999: figs. 54–56) reported that the two endosomal spicules are bifurcate, but their configuration is difficult to discern from his illustration. Orthotylus is the most diverse group of true bugs in the Hawaiian Islands, and are thought to represent multiple insular radiations that putatively track different plant families (Polhemus, 2011). Polhemus (2002) mentions that the paramere shapes are homologous among species found on host plants in the same genus or family. There is much con- gruence in the shapes of the parameres across the 100 or so species, as in the structure of the phallotheca and endosomal spicules. Key char- acters of these Hawaiian species are: (1) rela- tively small, elongate ovoid shape, mixed green-brown to black species, often bicolored (e.g., Orthotylus tantali, fig. 7); (2) simple setae on the dorsum; (3) short head in front of the eyes; (4) robust tibial spines on the legs; (5) sim- ple transverse pygophore, without tergal pro- cesses; (6) simple parameres, with the left paramere L-shaped, with a weakly to moderately expanded and rounded sensory lobe, and the right paramere club shaped or L-shaped, with both parameres, particularly the right, with a clump of elongate setae on the outer distal lobe (e.g., figs. 7, 9F); (7) endosomal spicules mostly with smooth margins, divided into many branches, often with connecting membrane, and when serrate confined to the apices; and (8) phallotheca usually simple and open (fig. 7). Polhemus (2002; 2004; 2011; 2013) did not homologize the endosomal spicules nor provide detailed description of their substructure.
Bug localisation is a core program comprehension task in software maintenance: given the observation of a bug, where is it located in the source code files? Information retrieval (IR) approaches see a bug report as the query, and the source code files as the documents to be retrieved, ranked by relevance. Such approaches have the advantage of not requiring expensive static or dynamic analysis of the code. However, most of state-of-the-art IR approaches rely on project history, in particular previously fixed bugs and previous versions of the source code. We present a novel approach that directly scores each current file against the given report, thus not requiring past code and reports. The scoring is based on heuristics identified through manual inspection of a small set of bug reports. We compare our approach to five others, using their own five metrics on their own six open source projects. Out of 30 performance indicators, we improve 28. For example, on average we find one or more affected files in the top 10 ranked files for 77% of the bug reports. These results show the applicability of our approach to software projects without history.
To sum up, the four systematic transformations of the score values and the better performance of the halved and close2base transformations provide evidence that the absolute values is not the main point but rather ther relative values. Moreover, the heuristics (the more likely occurrence of relevant file names in certain positions) were based on the analysis of only 10% of the bug reports, far less than the typical training data sample used in k-fold cross-validation. Especially for large projects like Eclipse, with many people reporting bugs, one can reasonably expect that many BRs will deviate from the sample. The similar behaviour of the variants across all projects and all BRs (close2base and halved are better than uniform, which is better than reversed) therefore provides reassurance that the chosen values capture well the heuristics and that the heuristics are valid beyond the small sample size used to obtain them.
Insects ("Bugs" is actually a specific term for plant-eating insects, not a generic term for all insects) in Hawai'i eat a wide variety of foods: there are those which plague our living plants and animals, and those which are attracted to non-living organic materials: wood of all kinds, paper, paste and glue, tapa, gourds, lauhala and other dried plant material, feathers, horn, fur, leather, cotton, wool and linen. Insects can work quickly to damage the things we care about. Insect activity is not something that will "go away" of its own accord. In Hawai'i, because of our climate, we have to monitor, prevent and react to insect activity continually. This handout will help you to identify insects and the problems caused by them, and give you some ideas about what to do to prevent or stop them. In many cases, the adult insect locates a food source which will nourish its offspring, and lays its eggs on that material. The young larvae ("grubs, maggots, caterpillars") do the damage, consuming the food as they mature. As adults, some of these insects (e.g., wood-boring beetles, clothesmoths) do not eat at all, but merely mate, reproduce and die. With termites, cockroaches and silverfish, however, the adults also subsist on our possessions. It is important to understand the life cycle of these insects, so that you are aware of what to watch for.
Besides, from the point of view of information handling, particularly programmed preparing, the words in this bug might be evacuated since these words are not useful to recognize this bug. Along these lines, it is important to evacuate the uproarious bug reports what's more, words for bug triage. To concentrate the repetition between bug reports, we list two bug reports of bugs 200019 and 204653 in Example 3 (the things portrayal are precluded). Case 3. Bugs 200019 and 204653. (Bug 200019) Argument popup not highlighting the amend contention . . . (Bug 204653) Argument highlighting wrong . . . In bug stores, the bug report of bug 200019 is set apart as a copy one of bug 204653 (a copy bug report, indicates that a bug report depicts one programming blame, which has a similar underlying driver as a current bug report ).
Android application using execution traces generated from the application. Another approach is to apply static analysis on Android applications to check energy policies or protocols from the Android API. In this line, Pathak, et. al.  adapt a reaching definitions dataflow analysis to detect no-sleep bugs checking if all the acquired wake locks are released through all the possible paths. Vekris et al.  also uses a dataflow analysis to find bugs related to wake locks using policies based on defined exit points in components lifecycles where wake locks must be released. Both approaches try to model the order of callback execution using the components lifecycles but they do not take in account interactions between components.
We also assume that the recommendations are useful if they share similar changed files with the query. There are at least two threats to this assumption. First, two bugs are considered similar even when they require changes in different parts of the same source code files. Therefore, it might happen that these parts are sufficiently different to be recommended to the same developer. Second, we consider a recommendation as useful when its file similarity with the query is greater than 0.5, as computed by the Overlap set similarity coefficient. Our selection of 0.5 was a choice to compare in a laboratory two bug recommendation techniques. We acknowledge that differ- ent results are possible by varying this threshold. However, instead of presenting results for different Overlap values, we ran the field study we describe in the following section to learn from Mozilla developers if the recommendations produced by NextBug are in fact useful.
An automated oracle detects if a test triggers a (functional or performance) bug, in which case the developer needs to inspect the test. To test for functional bugs, developers usually follow three steps: (1) write as many and as diverse tests as allowed by the testing budget, (2) run these tests and use automated oracles (e.g., crashes or assertions) to find which tests fail, and (3) inspect only the failing tests. To test for performance bugs, developers typically write a small number of tests, use a profiler to localize code regions that take a lot of time to execute, and then reason whether these regions can be optimized and if the effort spent for optimizing (time, added code complexity) is worth the potential speed gain (which may be difficult to ascertain before actually performing the optimization). In contrast to functional bugs, the lack of reliable automated oracles for performance bugs means that developers cannot easily find out which tests fail, as in step (2). As a result, because developers need to inspect all tests/profiles in step (3), they can use only a small number of performance tests in step (1). In summary, developers follow the current process of testing for performance bugs not because it has advantages, but because developers have no reliable alternatives.
Abstract—In software development, fixing bugs is an im- portant task that is time consuming and cost-sensitive. While many approaches have been proposed to automatically detect and patch software code, the strategies are limited to a set of identified bugs that were thoroughly studied to define their properties. They thus manage to cover a niche of faults such as infinite loops. We build on the assumption that bugs, and the associated user bug reports, are repetitive and propose a new approach of fix recommendations based on the history of bugs and their associated fixes. In our approach, once a bug is reported, it is automatically compared to all previously fixed bugs using information retrieval techniques and machine learning classification. Based on this comparison, we recommend top-k fix actions, identified from past fix examples, that may be suitable as hints for software developers to address the new bug.
Abstract—To support developers in debugging and locating bugs, we propose a two-phase prediction model that uses bug reports’ contents to suggest the files likely to be fixed. In the first phase, our model checks whether the given bug report contains sufficient information for prediction. If so, the model proceeds to predict files to be fixed, based on the content of the bug report. In other words, our two-phase model “speaks up” only if it is confident of making a suggestion for the given bug report; otherwise, it remains silent. In the evaluation on the Mozilla “Firefox” and “Core” packages, the two-phase model was able to make predictions for almost half of all bug reports; on average, 70 percent of these predictions pointed to the correct files. In addition, we compared the two-phase model with three other prediction models: the Usual Suspects, the one-phase model, and BugScout. The two-phase model manifests the best prediction performance.
population. It will help if occupants know some basics of bed bug biology and behavior, as well as the proposed control strategies and techniques. Education may include verbal explanations, answering questions, posting notices, broadcasting notices, postings on web sites, or distributing handouts. Educational tools must be made available in the local language (multiple languages, in some cases). Throughout a control program, continuous communication should be maintained between occupants, building managers, PMPs, any government agencies, and any local non-government organizations (NGOs) involved. Physical removal. Bed bugs can be vacuumed from exposed harborages or resting sites, such as box spring edges or mattress seams, but their eggs are stuck tightly to harborage surfaces and are usually hard to remove. Using a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum, which filters out >99% of all particles taken up that are >0.3 micron in diameter, will ensure that many allergens associated with bed bugs and their debris are also removed. Vacuuming, especially during inspections, will immediately remove a sizable portion of the pest population and will usually kill some of the bugs in the
The eggs hatch in one to three weeks. The newly hatched nymph is similar in shape to the adult but much smaller and straw-colored before feeding. The newly hatched nymphs and eggs can be very difficult to see without the use of magnifying equipment. The newly hatched nymph turns red or purple after getting a blood meal (Figure 4). There are five nymphal stages for bed bugs to reach maturity, which usually takes 35 to 48 days. Adult bed bugs can survive for six to seven months without a blood meal and have been known to live in abandoned houses for one year. In some cases they survive without humans by attacking birds and rodents.