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Synthetic bootstrapping of convolutional neural networks for semantic plant part segmentation

Synthetic bootstrapping of convolutional neural networks for semantic plant part segmentation

In this paper we investigated a methodology to reduce the de- pendancy on manually annotated datasets for plant part segmentation in agriculture when applying state-of-the-art deep learning methods, e.g. convolutional neural networks (CNN) for semantic segmentation. CNNs were bootstrapped by a synthetic dataset and fine-tuned on a small manually annotated dataset. Additionally, our aim was to further specify CNN and data requirements for this task and therefore we in- vestigated (i) the correlation between synthetic dataset size and per- formance, (ii) the minimum required amount of fi ne-tuning data, (iii) explicit improvements for this task by training part classes separately in binary classifiers, (iv) the effect of post-processing using conditional random fi elds (CRFs) and (v) the generalisation power to related da- tasets di ff ering in acquisition distance and hardware.
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Evaluation of free radical scavenging potential of plant part extracts of medicinal plant  Aglaia lawii

Evaluation of free radical scavenging potential of plant part extracts of medicinal plant Aglaia lawii

like Alzheimer, Parkinson, atheroscleorosis, cancer, arthritis, immunological incompetence, neurodegenerative disorders etc. In these cases, there is a preference for antioxidants from natural rather than from synthetic sources [7,8]. Antioxidants are intimately involved in the prevention of cellular damage - the common pathway for cancer, aging and a variety of diseases. The body relies on obtaining its antioxidants from food and other supplements. Epidemiological studies and intervention trials on prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease, antioxidant supplements are suggestive that dietary intake of antioxidants can help scavenge free radicals to protect the body against diseases [9]. In view of the immense medicinal importance for the antioxidants it is aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of plant extracts. There is an increasing interest in antioxidants, particularly in those intended to prevent the presumed deleterious effects of free radicals in the human body to prevent the deterioration of fats and other constituents of foodstuffs. Phytoconstituents are also important source of antioxidants and capable to terminate the free radical chain reactions [10].
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Crop nutrient deficiencies & toxicities

Crop nutrient deficiencies & toxicities

growing well and from another area in which the plants are affected by a suspected nutrient disor- der. This comparison can assist in diagnosing specific nutrient problems, especially when nutri- ent sufficiency ranges are not available for a specific crop, growth stage or plant part. Plant tissue samples from one plant may not be repre- sentative of all the plants in a field with a similar problem. To obtain a representative sample, avoid collecting plants that have insect damage, are infested with disease, are covered with dust or soil or foliar-applied sprays, or are border row plants. If possible, take random plant samples from several plants distributed throughout the affected area of the field.
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Evaluation of Anti-Ulcer and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of  Ethanolic Extract of Solanum Pubescens Willd Leaves on  Experimental Animals.

Evaluation of Anti-Ulcer and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Solanum Pubescens Willd Leaves on Experimental Animals.

List of Anti-ulcer plants Plant Family Plant part used Alpinia allughas Zingiberaceae Rhizome Alpinia galangal Zingiberaceae Rhizome Alpinia calcarata Zingiberaceae Rhizome Glycyrrhiza g[r]

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11.	S.M. Dhivya and K. Kalaichelvi

11. S.M. Dhivya and K. Kalaichelvi

The study aims to examine riparian vegetation of Bhavani river in Pillur Beat (Pillur slope RF and Nellithurai RF), Karamadai Range, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India, during the months of January 2016 to August 2016 with frequent field visits in the study area. A total of 112 plant species belonging to 72 genera of 43 families were reported in the study area, of which trees ranked first with 49 species. Leaves were most frequently used plant part for the treatment of diseases. Terminalia arjuna and Pongamia glabra were the dominant tree species. The results of the present study clearly brought out the need for preparing and implementing site-specific conservation plans for riparian ecosystem.
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Utilization of wild edible plants by paliyar’s tribe of sadhuragiri hills, tamil nadu, india

Utilization of wild edible plants by paliyar’s tribe of sadhuragiri hills, tamil nadu, india

From the survey, it was observed that the Paliyar inhabitants use the wild edible plants inraw or cooked form for maintaining their health, vitality and longevity. The different plant partsare consumed as a source of supplement of edible foods, As far as he edibility is concerned, the most frequently utilized plant part species are fresh fruits (66%), followed by leaves cooked foods (13%), curries (10%), raw eaten (8%), seeds roasted (6%), juice& herbal tea(2%) and edible oil (1%), ing to their requirements and availability in nature (Fig: of festivals, worships, weddings and other religious rituals special dishes and special wild tuber food and vegetable curry, cooling juice & herbal tea are
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fruits and seeds, roots and stems,

fruits and seeds, roots and stems,

3. Group Two will visit the school cafeteria and look for fruits and vegetable on the salad bar. Group leaders can help students discover which plant parts are among the foods on the salad bar. They can ask questions such as, “What part of a plant does this lettuce look like?” Try to find one example of a plant part being served for lunch. Have students count how many of each plant part they find in the lunch room.

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Chemical Composition and Digestibility  of Plants From Annual Range and From Pure-Stand Plots.

Chemical Composition and Digestibility of Plants From Annual Range and From Pure-Stand Plots.

Comparisons were made of within-plant weight distribution, chemical composition by plant part, and total plant digestion by nylon bag technique of mature annual gr[r]

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Part load operation in M.D  hydro power plant unit two

Part load operation in M.D hydro power plant unit two

[1] D. Štefan , P. Rudolf, S. Muntean, R. F. Susan-Resiga‖ Structure Of Flow Fields Downstream Of Tow Different Swirl Generation ‖ , Svratka, Czech Republic, May 14 – 17, 2012 . [2]- Hosein Foroutan ―Flow in the Simplified Draft Tube of a Francis Turbine Operating at Partial Load—Part II: Control of the Vortex Rope‖

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PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STANDARDIZATION OF PLANT CRYPTOLEPIS BUCHANANI ROEM  & SCHULT  AERIAL PART

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STANDARDIZATION OF PLANT CRYPTOLEPIS BUCHANANI ROEM & SCHULT AERIAL PART

Collection and Authentication of Plant: The fresh plants were collected from the adjoining area of Barpali (Dist-Bargarh, Odisha, India) in October and authenticated as Cryptolepis buchanani Roem. & Schult. (Asclepiadaceae) by Botanical Survey of India, Central National Herbarium, Howrah, Kolkata, India. A voucher specimen No.CNH/I- I/17/2010/Tech.II/197 is retained in the Department of Pharmacognosy, The Pharmaceutical College, Barpali, Odisha.

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 ANTIMICROBIAL CONSTITUENTS FROM PLANTS

 ANTIMICROBIAL CONSTITUENTS FROM PLANTS

Research on medicinal plants showed promising constituents for effective treatment and management of various illnesses. Microbes are commonly found everywhere which causes many diseases to the man kind. Antibiotics available in the markets are often reported of microbial resistance. Scientist realized that the effective life span of any Antibiotic is limited hence new sources from plants need be investigated. A multitude of plant compounds as always promised as a Antimicrobial agents. In this article authors made an attempt to review the constituents which showed potential Antimicrobial activity.
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Toxicity of plant extracts to meloidogyne incognita in tomato plants

Toxicity of plant extracts to meloidogyne incognita in tomato plants

The test was performed at the experimental area of the Department of Agronomy, Federal University of Rondônia- UNIR, Rolim de Moura - Brazil, within the General Biology Laboratory and in a greenhouse. The studied plant species were collected from the campus of UNIR: nettle (Fleurva aestuans L.), neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme (4 x 3 + 2) with four replicates, and the considered factors were the four plant extracts and three preparation methods (cooking, infusion and powdering), with two controls: chemical (carbofuran) and water. Extracts were prepared using only the bark of the plants by collecting
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Complete genome sequence of the plant-associated Serratia plymuthica strain AS13

Complete genome sequence of the plant-associated Serratia plymuthica strain AS13

Prodigal [40] as part of the genome annotation pipe- line at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN, USA, followed by a round of manual curation using the JGI GenePRIMP pipeline [41]. The predicted CDS were translated and used to search the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) nonredundant database, Uniport, TIGR-Fam, Pfam, PRIAM, KEGG, COG and InterPro databases. Non-coding genes and miscellaneous features were predicted using tRNAscan-SE [42], RNAmmer [43], Rfam [44], TMHMM [45], and signalP [46]. Additional gene prediction analysis and functional annotation was performed within the Integrated Microbial Ge-
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Effect of some plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strains on root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on tomatoes

Effect of some plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strains on root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on tomatoes

The soil contains plenty of beneficial bacteria, fungi, and other symbiotic organisms around plant roots. Bacteria can colonize in the rhizosphere zone or inner part of plant tissues and enhance plant growth resulting insignificant resistance to diseases by improving plant nutrition. In our study, ZHA90 (B. pumilus) increased plant growth and reduced root gall in tomato, and ZHA296 and ZHA178 (P. castaneae) decreased gall number and egg-mass num- bers. On the other hand, ZHA17 (M. immunogenum) in- creased plant growth but not affected nematode-related parameters. The level of effectiveness of these strains on related parameters was significantly greater than other strains tested. These results suggest that Bacillus pumilus, Paenibacillus costume, and Mycobacterium immunogenum may be fairly good factors in suppressing the population density of M. Incognito tomato, despite of some discrep- ancy in the number of egg masses and the amount of root galling on the roots. These results also warrant add- itional long-term experiments with extended time to understand the dynamics of PGPR in field soil and to determine whether nematode population densities can be maintained at acceptable levels. Nevertheless, the results indicated that among 15 bacterial strains tested, ZHA296 and ZHA178 of P. castaneae and ZHA17 and ZHA57 of M. immunogenum could be used as promising biocontrol agents for the future nematode management strategies.
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DOXORUBICIN INDUCED CARDIOMYOPATHY AND ITS HERBAL SOLUTION

DOXORUBICIN INDUCED CARDIOMYOPATHY AND ITS HERBAL SOLUTION

Classification of Cardiomyopathy: Cardio- myopathy may be divided into 2 major groups based on organ involvement. Primary cardio- myopathy (genetic, non-genetic and acquired) is mostly confined to heart muscle and is relatively few in\number. Secondary cardiomyopathy show pathological myocardial involvement as part of a large number and variety of general (multiorgan) disorders ( Niemann-Pick disease). These systemic diseases associated with secondary forms of cardiomyopathy have previously been referred to as “specific cardiomyopathy” or “specific heart muscle diseases” 8 , another method of categorizing cardiomyopathy are extrinsic and intrinsic (which are more commonly used when discussing the disease with patients, family, and caregivers). Extrinsic and intrinsic cardiomyopathies are given below.
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Phytocenoses created by some rare and endangered leguminous spread in the territory of Azerbaijan Republic

Phytocenoses created by some rare and endangered leguminous spread in the territory of Azerbaijan Republic

This formation group (Viciaetum) is represented with Viciaetum cassubica association. Species content of this association is registered in relict forests of Lankaran region (Hirkan National Park). Monodominant of plant cover Vicia cassubica L. is perennial grass and has the valuable importance of feed. Also these species are found in researched glades of humid forest. In there 20-25 species of higher plants are found. The total project cover equals 75-90%. It should be noted that Viciaetum cassubica as other leguminous characterized by protein richness for biochemical composition, lack of cellulose. Presence of such indicator again shows being valuable and important of these plants. It is clear from the investigations that, some tree and perennial grass forming damp plain forest belt and the protection of phytocenosis caused by leguminous plants having high fodder value as well as name in "Red Book" is one of the important issues.
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PART OF PLANT CONSIDERED DANGEROUS

PART OF PLANT CONSIDERED DANGEROUS

Destroying Angel Mushroom All parts Devil’s Backbone (Also called Kalanchoe) Leaves, stems Devils’s Ivy (Also called Pothos) All parts Devil’s Trumpet (Also called Datura) All par[r]

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Agroecological cultivation of vegetables in a garden at dom josé tupinambá da frota state School, Sobral, Ceará, Brazil

Agroecological cultivation of vegetables in a garden at dom josé tupinambá da frota state School, Sobral, Ceará, Brazil

condiment. The dry fruits, besides being used as condiments, are used in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries (Daflon et al., 2014). This vegetable has an average height of 15 to 20 cm plant -1 in production areas in the region of Mossoró-RN, which is an important feature, since the coriander sauces marketed have as their main feature the size of the plant (LINHARES et al ., 2014). Arugula (Eruca sativa L.), also called arugula salad, is a herbaceous vegetable of the Brassicaeae family (Borges et al., 2014). Its leaves are elongated with deeply cut blades, dark green color and spicy flavor, rich in potassium, sulfur, iron and vitamins A and C (Gonzalez et al. 2006). According to Carvalho et al. (2012), arugula is gaining more space in the table of the Brazilian population and prominence
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“Traditional and Modern Use of Indian Madder (Rubia cordifolia L.): An Overview” by Devi Priya M, E.A. Siril, India.

“Traditional and Modern Use of Indian Madder (Rubia cordifolia L.): An Overview” by Devi Priya M, E.A. Siril, India.

blood purifier by Baiga tribals in Madhya Pradesh. 86 The root powder mixed with honey is applied for healing damaged face skin tissues. 50g root powder mixed with 50g ‘gur’ is orally taken to cure constipation and other stomach problems. 87 A paste of root powder smeared over betel leaf is applied externally to treat rheumatic swellings. The leaves and stem is also used to cure mouth infection in babies and in the treatment of pneumonia. 88 Leaf extract is applied on scabies and ringworm. 9 Seed taken in vinegar and honey helps the swelling and hardness of spleen. Similarly manjistha and Glycyrrhiza glabra are pounded with sours applied as paste to treat fracture. 51 The oil extract of whole plant is used to cure eczema. 58
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Articles

Articles

Figure 3. Macromorphology of Tryssophyton merumense (A–C, G–K) and T. quadrifolius (D–F). A habit, growing with bryophytes and downward pointing red buds B flowering plant, adaxial C Flowering plant showing bicoloured petals, abaxial D part of type collection in vivo just before pressing E whole leaf venation, abaxial F venation close-up showing major veins and reticulate quaternaries, abaxial G Dehisced 4-merous fruit, with interior persistent fimbriate placenta remnants (f), axial (tips of 8 triangular valves partly broken) H fruit, with seeds, fimbriae (f) and carpel septa, transverse view I whole leaf venation and crystal druses (white spots), adaxial J close-up of leaf tip with marginal teeth and non-vascularised scales (s), adaxial K phyllotactic arrangement with leaf attachment scars surrounded by darkened glandular trichomes, lateral view with main stem at bottom, peduncle at top. Sources: A–C, I–K Radosavljevic 165 D–F Wurdack 5865 G, H Wurdack 5870 (all US).
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