Coscinium fenestratum Colebr. (Menispermaceae) is widely spread across the Western Ghats (India) and Sri Lanka. It is commonly known as tree turmeric. The plant has mainly been used for treating diabetes mellitus in the traditional Siddha and Ayurvedic systems of medicine . The stem portions contained many alkaloids like berberine, hentriacontane, ceryl alcohol, sitosterol, oleic acid, palmitic acid and saponin with some resinous ma- terial . From roots, tertiary alkaloids, dihydroberlambine, berlambine and noroxyhydrastinine were isolated . Antidiabetic activity of C. fenestratum has been reported . The stem portion is suggested to have an- ti-inflammatory, thermogenic, antiseptic, tonic effects and used against inflammations, opthalmopathy, ulcers, general debility and jaundice -. Preliminary studies on micropropagation of C. fenestratum were reported . Protocol was developed for obtaining berberine-producing callus and cell suspension cultures established from the petiole segments of C. fenestratum. With 4 mg/L of NAA, highest yield of alkaloid berberine was ac- quired and 2 mg/L of 2,4-D yielded the best cell growth . Intercellular berberine and berberine recovered from the suspension media were studied .
In spite of its name, plantcell cultures do not consist only of individual cells. Instead, they typically contain a mixture of single cells as well as cell colonies of various sizes. The presence of large colonies or clumps of cells is not desirable, as they are heavier and tend to sink to the bottom of the medium where the oxygen level is lower, resulting in a lower growth rate. In contrast, suspension cell cultures consisting primarily of single cells and small cell colonies have faster growth rates and can be readily maintained as with many microbial cultures. A culture can be derived from a variety of plant organs, including leaf, flower, stem, root, etc. However, a suspension cellculture is usually not initiated directly from plant tissues or organs, as cells in these materials do not readily proliferate and separate in liquid medium. Thus, a common practice is to first generate callus tissue from a plant organ on a solid nutrient medium and then to use the callus tissue to initiate the suspension cellculture. The homogeneity of an in vitro cell population, the large availability of material, the high rate of cell growth and the good reproducibility of conditions make suspension cultured cells suitable for the analysis of complex physiological processes at the cellular and molecular levels (Moscatiello et al., 2013).
broad-spectrum anti-bactericidal agent of gram positive and gram-negative bacterial that suppresses bacterial growth by inhibiting cell protein synthesis. On the other hand, culture susceptibility test revealed that Chlorophenical, Cephradin, Tetracycline, Doxycycline at 30 µg partially suppressed the growth of all identified bacterial whereas, Ketoconazole and Fluconale at 200mg/l inhibited the growth of all the identified fungal contaminants. Ketoconazole is a systemic antifungal agent that interferes with the synthesis of fungal cell membranes as well as certain enzymes’ activities (Shepp et al., 1985). This study revealed that, Fluconazole at 200mg/L effectively suppressed all fungal contaminants identified. Fluconazole belongs to the azole class
the use of 2, 4– D must be limited as much as possible, because it can cause mutation and may also prevent photosynthesis. Moreover, The joint use of cytokinins and auxins results in the stimulation of cell division. In this research, the hormones 2, 4– D, BAP, and Kin were used to induce callus formation. In some of the treatments, callus formation was induced due to the presence of auxins; and this shows the importance of the use of auxins in inducing callus formation. In our study, it was found that the mutual effects of these three hormones were significant, and that the highest percentage of callus formation belonged to the T4 and T5 treatments, which included the use of 0.5 mg/ L of 2, 4– D and 1 mg/ L of BAP, and 0.1 mg/
where as the term plant growth regulators (PGRs) include many synthetic and naturally occurring compounds. Plant growth regulators as “either natural or synthetic compounds including microbial plant growth regulators that are applied directly to a target plant to alter its life processes or its structure to improve quality, increase yields or facilitate harvesting” (Nickell, 1982). The production of plant growth regulators induces additional root hair and lateral root formation (Tine et al., 1979). Thereby enhancing the plant’s ability to take up nutrients from soil and increasing the yield. Production of different phytohormones like indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid and cytokinins PGPR can increase root surface and length and promote in this way plant development (Kloepper et al., 2007). Several PGPR and free living rhizobacterial species are reported to produce IAA and gibberellic acid in the rhizospheric soil and thereby play a significant role in increasing the root surface area and number of root tips in many plants (Bhattacharya and Jha, 2012; Salisbury and Ross, 1985). Bacteria like Azospirillum and Pseudomonas sp. produce cytokinins and gibberellins, in addition to IAA. Cytokinins are a class of phytohormones which are known to promote cell divisions, cell enlargement and tissue expansion in certain plant parts. Gibberellins are a class of phytohormones most commonly associated with modifying plant morphology by the extension of planttissue, particularly stem tissue (Salisbury, 1994). In this paper, production of plant growth regulators and their estimation along with their respective methods, by fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from rhizospheric soil has been explored in in vitro on broccoli and cabbage for stimulation of callus formation and root formation has been studied.
colchicine for 7 days and (0.67, 8.33 and 0.42) with 30 mg colchicine for 7 days in comparison with control plants, respectively. On the contrary, the highest survival %, number of branches, branches length (cm) and leaf area/plant (cm 2 ) (70,% 2.50,4.93 and 4.52) were achieved from plants treated by 5 mg/1 of sodium azid for 28 days followed by 10 mg/l sodium azid for 7 days. Which recorded ( 66%,2.33, and 4.40 ) While 60 mg colchicine for 7 days gave the significant maximum value of leaves number by (35.33) followed by 30 mg colchicine for 28 days treatments, giving (28) compared with control which gave (21), respectively. Our results were agreement with those obtained by , and .The simulative effect of chemical mutagenic like (EMS or Sodium azide) could be attributed to cell division rates and led to activation of growth hormones like auxin . The low concentrations of colchicine have stimulatory effect on some of the morphological character .
The history of planttissue cultivation dates back to 1902 when Haberlandt published his attempt to plant a single plantcell. However, in 1934, White was able to achieve some success in the same field when he succeeded in producing a whole plant of tomatoes from planting part of a plant root Tomato in an industrial diet, and in late 1939 a number of researchers, individually and separately, produced whole plants from the cultivation of specialized plant tissues. Both Gautheret and researcher White produced tobacco in the same way. In 1957, researchers Miller and Skoog explained that the ratio of auxin and cytokine in the food medium plays an important role in determining the nature of the growth and specialization of the plant part planted in the food medium or one. In 1958, Steward and others produced the carrot plant by developing a mass of non-specialized cells are cited by researcher Gautheret. In 1962 researchers Murashige and Skoog were able to make a quantum leap in the development of this modern science by reaching a special combination of the nutritional media for growing the tissues of the tobacco plant, which was later examined from the most famous food media used today, whether for single or double housing. In 1965 researchers, Hildebrandt and Vasil were able to use the food media (MS) for Murashige and Skoog to produce a whole tobacco plant by cultivating a single plantcell. In 1969, Nitsch found a way to grow hundreds of tobacco plants that carry half of the haploid chromosome Cultivation of pollen. In the early 1970s in several experiments, researchers were able to isolate and extract protoplast from the middle layer of leaves and then cultivate it into a food medium to produce a whole plant. The researchers also controlled the growth and specialization of protoplasts due to the varying conditions of the experiment. In 1972, Carlson and others succeeded in producing the first hybrid tobacco plant asexual when they were able to extract and synthesize protoplast from two types of tobacco and develop them on an artificial food medium to produce a whole plant. This step promised to make bells alert to the importance of this science. To carry out studies on propagation of planttissueculture (4).
Plants are ecologically and economically valuable organisms that play a significant role in a variety of ecosystem functions and activities. Plants help to prevent soil erosion, serve as material for clothing, and act as a source of food for humans and animals (Groot et al. 2002). These are only a few of the many services that plants provide, but it is clear from this short list that they are indispensable. In a review by Parry et al. (2005) the effects of increased carbon dioxide levels and temperatures on plants, associated with global climate change, were examined. They provided evidence concerning fluctuations in crop production; with cereal production on the decline in certain areas and on the rise in others. They also posited that these disparities will ultimately lead to a shortage in the global food supply, with an emphasis of these effects in poorer regions (Parry et al. 2005). Variations in the production and quality of plants can have a profound effect on the global ecosystem as a whole. The modification of certain plant characteristics may allow for some mitigation of global climate change effects on plant survivability and reproduction.
1. Ahn YJ, Vang L, McKeon TA and Chen GQ. High –frequency plant regeneration through adventitious shoot formation in castor(Ricinus communis L.). In vitro Cell Dev Bio-plant. 2007; 43:9-15. 2. Alam I, Sharmin SA, Chandra mondal S,
An efficient micropropagation method from young nodal axils of shoot tip explants has been developed with emphasis to priming in vitro plants in view of increasing their hardening ability after transplantation ex vitro. Priming with 6.3 µm of cholorocolinchoride (CCC) was found most effective for acclimatisation by increasing number of root and its biomass, elevating chlorophyll level in leaves. Comparison between primed micropropagated and non-treated plants was made and it was seen that primed plants survived by higher frequency (100 %) in soil as compared to non-treated ones (84 percent survival rate). 97 Multiple shoot induction and plant regeneration on MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA has been reported. 98 An improved and efficient in vitro regeneration system has been developed through transverse thin cell layer culture. The tTcl nodal explants were used for shoot proliferation because of its lower risk of genetic alteration. 99 MS media supplemented with 13.2 µm BAP and 4.6 µm Kinetin was found to be best for shoot multiplication. RAPD profile analysis was carried out using RAPD markers to evaluate the genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants and it was seen that they were genetically similar to mother plant. Somatic embryogenesis is preferred over organogenesis for regeneration in plants as shoot and root development occurs simultaneously so that regeneration procedure is simple and rapid. High frequency somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from highly competent nodal explants derived Eclipta alba have been studied. 100 In their study they reported callus formation on ME media supplemented with auxins viz. 2,4-D/NAA, that formed somatic embryos when transferred on MS supplemented with NAA in combination with BAP. Establishment of totipotent callus cultures
development of new temporary immersion prototypes and or permanent, and the study of its operation in different cultures is essential to reduce costs, increase productivity and maintain the genetic quality of plant material subjected to this technique. RechFilho (2004) describes the in vitro culture systems of plant cells in bioreactors were initially used in the United States, Cuba and France. Currently many countries have begun to develop this technology in order to produce seedlings on a large scale that agricultural interest, especially ornamental, fruit and forest species, with greater speed and efficiency compared to other conventional methods used in parallel, there is a reduction in process costs (So
The present study describes a novel method for preparation of water-soluble CdS quantum dots, using bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cell suspension culture. Acting as a stabilizing and capping agent, the suspension cellculture mediates the formation of CdS nanoparticles. These semiconductor nanoparticles were determined by means of an UV-visible spectrophotometer, photoluminescence, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and XRD. Followed by the electron diffraction analysis of a selected area, transmission electron microscopy indicated the formation of spherical, crystalline CdS ranging in diameter from 3 to 7 nm and showed wurtzite CdS quantum dots. In the present work, the toxic effect of synthesized CdS quantum dots on Nicotiana tabacum protoplasts as a very sensitive model was under study. The results of this research revealed that biologically synthesized CdS nanoparticles in low concentrations did not induce any toxic effects.
Int 1 De\' 1Iiol 15 2S9 2~3 (1991) 259 Peroxidase as a developmental marker in plant tissue culture MARIJANA KRSNIK RASOL Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rep[.]
which could not be produced in nature or by other methods. Such investigations must have consumed millions of dollars before being given up few years ago. The anomalous situation can be assessed by the fact that somatic hybridization involving Nicotiana glauca (2n=24) x N. longsdorfii (2n=18), worked by 3 groups (Carlson et al., 1972; Smith et al., 1976; Chupeau et al., 1978), has been reported to yield parasexual hybrids having variable chromosome numbers (28-183) in each case and only occasionally they showed the sum total of chromosome numbers of the two species involved. That is why, the chapter of parasexual hybridization has now been closed for creation of novel hybrids amongst the plant species or genera, which are genetically incompatible. However, its role for creating cybrids, transfer of cytoplasmic male sterility or to some extent imparting disease resistance still appears valid. To give a few examples, a parasexual hybrid, brassica naponigra produced from protoplast fusion of B. napus and B. nigra is resistant to infection of Phoma lingam and the parasexual hybrid of potato involving Solanum tuberosum and S. brevidens is resistant to several viral diseases. Similarly, glaring examples of producing disease resistant plants is in the cases of maize and tobacco. The cells were screened against resistance to methionine sulfoximide, added to the medium, which is similar in effect to the toxin produced by Helminthosporium in case of maize and Pseudomonas tabaci in case of tobacco. Such procedures are definitely simpler, realizable within a short time and far less expensive than transgenosis.
Because the three A. gerardii genotypes we examined co-occur at the plot lev- el, we would expect them to have different ecological niches and phenotypes   potentially leading to cascading community effects. We found that mean trait values differed among genotypes even when plants were very young. Adult G2 tended to have fewer, large tillers compared to G11, which could represent early onset of different intraspecific growth strategies and resource allocation. Differences in variance among genotypes were also common and might reflect genotype differences in plasticity, a genetic characteristic that is likely indepen- dent of propagation technique    . These results demonstrate the importance of intraspecific diversity even within a single population. Phenotypic differences were evident despite growing in a very controlled tissueculture en- vironment. Our findings also suggest the importance of controlling for genotype in statistical models even when plants appear similar.
Periprosthetic tissueculture is a common method for the diagnosis of PJI, which is included in the diagnostic criteria of the definition of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) and the European Bone and Joint Infection Society (EBJIS) [6 – 8]. Previous studies show that the culture method of synovial fluid or sonication fluid in BCB could improve diagnostic sensitivity [9 – 12]. In recent years, technique of culturing periprosthetic tissue in blood cul- ture bottles (BCB) has been reported. The procedure could be divided into two steps: 1. the intraoperative tissue is placed into the sterile container and transferred to the laboratory; 2. the periprosthetic tissue was homogenized in the biosafety laminar flow hood and inoculated into aerobic and anaerobic BCB [13, 14]. However, it is un- known whether periprosthetic tissueculture in BCB can improve the diagnostic accuracy of PJI. Therefore, we con- ducted this meta-analysis to evaluate periprosthetic tissue
Background: Biotransformation offers chemo enzymatic system to modify the compounds into their novel analogues which are difficult to synthesize by chemical methods. This paper describes the biotransformational studies of ambrox, one of the most important components of natural Ambergris (wale sperm) with fungal and plantcellculture.
Several developments occurred that made cellculture widely available as a tool for scientists. First, there was the development of antibiotics that made it easier to avoid many of the contamination problems. Second was the development of the techniques, such as the use of trypsin to remove cells from culture vessels, necessary to obtain continuously growing cell lines. Third, using these cell lines, scientists were able to develop standardized, chemically defined culture media that made it far easier to grow cells. These three areas combined to allow many more scientists to use cell, tissue and organ culture in their research 1-4