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This course focuses on the literary arts. The class will work together to analyze works of poetry, drama, and prose fiction and to acquire the critical vocabulary needed to describe each one. Your perceptiveness as a reader will be enhanced as you learn to see the relationships between the formal elements of a text and its meaning. Readings vary from year to year, but often include texts by Homer, Sophocles, William Shakespeare, George Eliot, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Ralph Ellison, Toni Morrison, Samuel Beckett, and Virginia Woolf.
exploration of different literary modes and forms in The Golden Notebook connects fruitfully with the drama and poetry she produced in the second half of the 1950s. In particular, I will discuss the play Each His Own Wilderness (and to a lesser extent Play With a Tiger) and Fourteen Poems. I will identify four aspects of Lessing’s thinking revealed in her plays and poetry that connect with the more well-known fictional and non-fictional prose narrative of the period. The first of these is her concern with becoming increasingly frustrated by the inner machinations and
As previous chapters have discussed, Senecan drama presents many perspectives on prophets and poets as interpreters of fatum. This chapter argues that Juno, the prologuist of Seneca’s Hercules, is a vatic figure who has more success as a poet than as a prophet, and that her role offers useful inroads into Seneca’s own poetic project. After detailing both Juno’s strengths and limitations, the second part of the chapter focuses on Hercules as an inadvertent usurper of the play that Juno, as dramaturge, sets in motion. @"') -'%*(*3+)&3)*+%/4-')Y4+3.)#+)Z/795*#+)-'*&7.)*+)#)&$'#&9'+&)32)&"')G'+'%#+)+&%"*,9*,"&)#&) 2*$(&) ,/#+%') (''9) %34+&'$*+&4*&*8'<) [4&) G'+'%#J() Y4+3) *() #) 94/&*2#%'&'-) 2*,4$') 6"3) *() %3+%'$+'-) 6*&") "'$) 5/#%') 8*(1h18*(, 53'&$7C) ("') -'(*$'() +3&) L4(&) &3) &$#+(9*&) >4&) &3) 5#$&*%*5#&') *+) %$'#&*+,) "'$) 8'$(*3+) 32) 1&%38<) K*0') B&$'4() #+-) T'-'#.) Y4+3) *() #+) #8'+,'$) 2*,4$') 6"3) (&$*8'() &3) *+8'+&) #) +38'/) 23$9) 32) 54+*("9'+&) &"#&) 6*//) -'(&$37) "'$) 3553+'+&) 6"*/') ,/3$*27*+,) "'$) >3&") 5'$(3+#//7) #+-) *+) "'$) 5'$(3+#) #() 53'&<) Y4+3.) "36'8'$.) 322'$() #) 8#$*#+&)3+)G'+'%#J()3&"'$)#8'+,'$)2*,4$'(.)#()6'//)#()3+)"*()24$*#/)2*,4$'(<)) )
America in light of the way that the occupation prospects with going by troupes were abundant and stimulating. Shakespeare was so organized into American culture by the nineteenth century that Mark Twain had his young holy person Huckleberry Finn come the Mississippi River by barge with two or three radicals who endeavored to pass themselves off as Shakespearean onscreen characters to win a trade out riverbank towns. No great acting drama was written during the 19th century, Shakespeare was overpopular then. His popularity prevented the writing of great acting drama. Playrights only imitated Shakespeare. Or else they wrote only potboilers, curtain-raisers or after pieces of Shakespeare. Or, since Shakespeare's popularity was so great that they could not get audiences, they turned to lyric poetry or the novel.
● The choice of material should be determined by a central theme. Material must cover 3 or 4 different genres, i.e. prose, poetry, drama, movement, music and these should be suitably linked and properly introduced. ● The emphasis is on speech, which must be audible and distinct. ● Costumes, make-up, lighting and props are optional.
social, or moral resistance. Ongoing historical interpretations of ghosts ask them to testify to psychological interpretations of guilt and conscience. So too many stories of ghosts tell of furious apparitions rising up from horrific events. But the logic of haunting is more deeply embedded in language and it manifests linguistic principles made grammatically viable from its origins in hante’s habitual place and action: language is the ongoing habit of attributing meaning where there is none. Survival is the continued desire to imbue language with meaning encountering the sediment of historical discourse. This linguistic type of survival gives rise to warnings such as that of careful hermeneutist as Gershom Scholem. “We live in our language like blind men walking on the edge of an abyss,” Scholem wrote. “[L]anguage is laden with future catastrophes. The day will come when it will turn against those who speak it” (qtd. in Agamben 2000: 68). Ghosts are the signs and latent signifiers of incipient catastrophes: moments, traumas, and wounds that suddenly reveal a hitherto unknown haunting in the act of linguistic expression. A catastrophe is not, however, always destructive, but can represent the sudden opening of potential where previously there seemed nothing. Less spectacularly, ghosts are also an ongoing revelation of the everyday manipulation of language by people speaking of things beyond language itself. Language has “hidden depths” but no density; it hides itself even in the simplest words. This is to say that life’s material phenomena haunt language in a wound of the sign to which poetry incessantly returns, but which subtends all conversational acts with a fundamental absence: the sign is not what it signifies; content is not its index. All of the above brings us to a preliminary definition of the word “ghost”: the active illusion of an empty word or wound that signifies a repetitive element in an ongoing relationship or structure and whose surviving unrepresentability signals a future-oriented possibility yet to be closed by interpretation’s drive toward meaning.
begins, ‘is so self-enclosed that the theory abstracted from the other genres is totally inadequate for it. It requires its own theory, constitutes its own genre, and is a world unto itself.’ (5:686; 239) This is the rationale behind devoting a whole section to this one poem in the Lectures. 33 Moreover, what distinguishes the Divine Comedy is simply the following: ‘It is the most indissoluble mixture, the most complete interpenetration of everything.’ (5:686-7; 239) The Divine Comedy is exemplary of the mixing we saw at work in Lucretius and the satire. Whereas these sub-epics mix one or two different forms, Dante mixed together all he could get his hands on—and thus composed a genuine satura. All poetic genres are to be found in Dante’s poem: ‘It is not an epic, it is not a didactic poem, it is not a novel in the real sense, is not even a comedy or drama such as Dante himself called it. . . nor is it merely a combination of various parts of each. It is a quite unique and as it were organic fusion of all the elements of these genres.’ (5:686; 239) 34 However, as in De rerum natura, it is not merely the mixing of poetic genres that occurs in the Divine Comedy, but the mixing of all kinds of usually distinct discourses: physics, astronomy, philosophy and theology. As Schelling points out, ‘To present Dante’s philosophy, physics and astronomy purely in and for themselves would only be of minor interest, since his true uniqueness lies solely in the manner of their merging with the poetry.’ 35 The forms themselves are not important; it is the manner in which they mix which intensifies the poem toward a presentation of absolute identity.
As Freeman express, learners assimilate new information by shaping it to fit what they already know. Accommodation involves changing what we know in light of the new knowl- edge. In the same way, integration is a continual process of connecting new understandings to what we have already learned. Once we have integrated new knowledge, we use it comfortably. using drama as a technique to teach English conversation the teacher manages the theatrical possibilities and learning opportunities provided by the dramatic con- text from within the context by adopting a suitable role in order to: excite interest, control the action, invite involve- ment, provoke tension, challenge superficial thinking, create choices and ambiguity, develop the narrative, and create pos- sibilities, for the group to interact in role.
Bailey (Bailey, 1993) maintains that drama is capable of promoting students’ understanding and that it enhances their learning by exploiting group work. It also strengthens students’ positive self-image, because the basic concepts of drama serve to express the ego; hence, students can use it to bring their own personal experiences into the classroom. Furthermore, McCaslin (McCaslin, 1996) stated that the use of drama as a teaching strategy in the classroom could help teachers meet the needs of students with different learning styles or special needs, since drama enables students to participate without embarrassment or fear. Drama also imposes self-discipline among the participants and helps sup- port, encourage, and protect every individual’s rights. In other words, students must obey and adhere to the group’s rules. When self-discipline is achieved, every member of the group has the right to pursue their own objectives and in- terests, while respecting the rights of others.
6. Drama can be used as a practical method of teaching, at times serving many purposes; to convey and consolidate factual knowledge, create an awareness of cultures and customs, and enhance an interest in literature. Drama stimulates and raises the language acquisition of children and promotes learning across all key learning areas as children endeavor to explore and understand their world.
The impact of the West has resulted in new forms and themes in Indian literature, marking a sharp break from traditional Indian literature. This course seeks to understand and appreciate novels, poetry, and short stories written in India primarily post-independence. The aim is to enjoy them for their literary merit, and also ascertain what they might tell us about ourselves and the society we live in, in a world connected by common historical events.
symposium, Deren’s theory could be read as a way of thinking about the relationship between film and the poetic that is flexible and offers endless possibilities to the filmmaker. She gives the example of a Shakespearean soliloquy which literally disrupts a dramatic plot, alongside the example of Maas’s film, in which the horizontal and the vertical concur so that the visual and the sound complement each other. Most importantly, however, Deren says that she is thinking of poetry not so much as a verbal form but “as a way of structuring in any one of a number of mediums, and (I think) that it is also possible to make the dramatic structure in any one, and that it is also possible to combine them.” 30 This comment significantly deviates from her usual emphasis on medium specificity, proposing instead that the poetic can be used in any medium. This sounds much more like a post-medium approach, whereby the vertical and horizontal are conceived as methodologies which are independent of the medium, and
that contemporary myths are, by comparison weak and not as widely shared as would have been previously. She goes somewhat further by suggesting that there exists another category of myth in addition to the ones described above; stories as ‘pseudo-myth’ or ‘myth faking’ (1987, p.25). This category of myth is intrinsically tied up with television, film, marketing and media hype, and the suggestion is that contemporary myths clearly belong to this category. Even though they fulfil some basic functions of myth, they are barely such because they produce neither illumination nor catharsis, but link with the mass psyche in some manner, and constitute certain points of reference. At first glance, these perspectives of contemporary myths as weakened in comparison to old myths, may seem to run contrary to the argument that an understanding of extant myths is seminal to a full understanding of the community of drama as education. However, it in fact underlies the fundamentally surreptitious nature of myths, in that instead of being banished or becoming outdated and left aside, they in essence morph into something more applicable to the societal/cultural situation within which they exist. Although this may seem, at first glance, to be a natural process, it is intrinsically linked with ideological concerns, and ultimately, human agency.
Prompt: The story of Odysseus’ encounter with the Sirens and their enchanting but deadly song appears in Greek epic poetry in Homer’s Odyssey. An English translation of the episode is reprinted in the left column below. Margaret Atwood’s poem in the right column is a modern commentary on the classical story. Read both texts carefully. Then write an essay in which you compare the portrayals of the Sirens. Your analysis should include discussion of tone, point of view, and whatever poetic devices (diction, imagery, etc.) seem most appropriate.
Creative drama grants students not only an opportunity to display their thoughts physically, orally and written but also enables them to interpret the expressions of peers. Characteristic of learning through creative drama is the development of shared meaning through the social construction of knowledge. The primary purpose of this study is to develop seventh-grade students’ conceptual understanding of some genetic concepts, attitudes toward biology learning and awareness of foren- sic science. The pedagogy of creative drama consisted of determining blood types and differences in human fingerprints. Twenty students took part in this study. Data sources consisted of student journaling, classroom observations, students’ responses to attitude survey and subject evaluation forms. Students learned that within the scope of creative drama activities, how the blood group determination and the cause of people’s fingerprints were separate from each other. In everyday life, they realized how important biology is, especially in criminal work. Changes in students’ atti- tudes toward biology indicated a positive direction because of the extraordinary teaching method. All of the participants contribute the creative drama activity keenly. Students’ attitudes toward the pedagogy of creative drama suggest that students should be approached with this sort of learning at an early age.
van visuele en narratieve inhoud. Journalistieke nieuwsprogramma’s met feitelijke en betrouwbare verslaggeving – zoals 60 Minutes en Zembla – hanteren verschillende dramatiseringtechnieken die volgens Grabe en Zhou terug te voeren zijn op de klassieke retorica en elementen uit (Griekse) tragedies. De methode die Grabe en Zhou voor hun analyse naar 60 Minutes hebben ontwikkeld zal in dit onderzoek op Zembla worden toegepast, waarna wordt onderzocht of ‘Sjoemelen met Miljoenen’ overeenkomsten vertoont met de eisen die Aristoteles aan drama en overtuigende communicatie heeft gesteld. Om dit te onderzoeken worden de visuele en narratieve inhoud, structurele kenmerken, personages en ethos, pathos en logos aan de hand van een kwalitatieve inhoudsanalyse bestudeerd. Deze masterthesis zal het debat over dramatisering een gevolg geven. Daarnaast zal duidelijk worden of de methode van Grabe en Zhou een goede retorische benadering is om een visuele boodschap te onderzoeken en of het toevoegen van drama ten koste gaat van de journalistieke geloofwaardigheid. De hoofdvraag luidt als volgt: