The key assumption in  is that (Newtonian) gravity is a central force. The gravitational potential can then be determined by analogy with Maxwell’s formulation of electrostatics. (For historical background, the reader may wish to consult ,  and , the latter in this issue). Moreover, the dynamical equations can be derived from the expressions of kinetic and potential energy using the metric of the surface. This leads to a Hamiltonian system with conserved “energy” — the total kinetic plus potential energy, excluding the infinite self-energy of each pointmass. In addition, due to the rotational symmetry of the surface, there are n(n + 1)/2 conserved components of the angular momenta.
If the handhold spacing is less than twice the arm length, then both the continuous contact and ricochetal modes of mechanically cost-free transport are available. These models, together, are essentially equivalent to the minimal-biped model of Alexander (1995) turned upside down. These models cannot quite be classified with the passive-dynamic locomotion models of the types recently investigated for walking (e.g. McGeer, 1990; Garcia et al., 1998) because, as for the swinging leg in Alexander’s minimal-biped model, the non- contacting arm in this minimal-bimanual model is assumed to be appropriately coordinated by a conscious (non-passive) controller. This two-dimensional point-mass model is probably the simplest model that could feasibly provide useful information about the dynamics of gibbon brachiation. Governing equations
We sought to examine a simple model for an elastic string involving an interior pointmass for which we treat as a hybrid system of two strings because of the presence of the pointmass. We have precisely described the space of exact controllability when control is active at both or one end of the string-mass system. We have discussed control problems chiefly by finding suitable observability estimates and applying Hilbert’s Uniqueness Method (HUM) to determine the controllable spaces for the control problems when controlling from both extremes and when control is acting from one end of the system.
*CONTRAINED_NODAL_RIGID_BODY_INERTIA. Point masses were at both of the front wheels to represent the mass of the wheel and brake component assembly. Both the tire and steering wheel mesh were only added for visualization purposes. Additionally one very large pointmass (accounting for roughly 85% of the total mass of the simulation) was attached to the rear of the monocoque body to represent the mass of all components behind the monocoque including the engine, transmission, rear wheels and suspension, and other miscellaneous components. The rear portion was not meshed since it was not directly involved with impact but inertial properties were included to give the system representative momentum.
In Part 3, we consider the pointmass problem. First, we give the pointmass formula for the perturbed Verblunsky coefficients. Then we investigate the asymptotics of orthogonal polynomials on the unit circle and apply the results to the pointmass formula to compute the perturbed Verblunsky co- efficients. Finally, we present two examples, one on ∂ D and one on R , such that adding a pointmass will generate non-exponential perturbations of the recursion coefficients.
The total glider mass or body mass can be expressed as m v = m h + m w + m b + m . Where m h represents a uniform glider hull mass, m w pointmass with displacement r w to the fixed center of gravity and buoyancy, m the movable mass with vector position r p to control the pitch angle during gliding and m b the variable ballast mass with respect to geometry center (GC). The mass ‘m’ is the mass of displaced fluid m 0 m v m . The glider is neutrally buoyant if the m 0 is positive (float) and vice versa.
A quantitative analysis of the rolling spiderwheel allows students to determine the moment of inertia of the body and compare it with model systems, namely a point-mass (that is, a particle with non-zero mass rotating about a fixed axis), a solid cylinder and a thin rigid hoop. Despite the spiderwheel being a non-ideal system in that it has a complex geometry with less symmetry and multiple components compared to the aforementioned model systems, it is found that the simple point-mass model provides an excellent approximation.
The quantitative approach used in this study leverages the large quantity of in situ T -S data available from multiple platforms to condense the physical variability present in the WTSP during OUTPACE over a 4000 km distance during austral summer 2015. In order to do this, the statistical base- line in spice was defined (Fig. 5). In effect, as opposed to an absolute measure (i.e., specific water mass determination), this provides a relative measure of variability that can be used. The time series analysis for the latter portion of the SedTrap drifter and CTD time series data showed density layers where variability was enhanced, and caution should be applied to the analysis of biogeochemical data. Since the baseline is a relative measure, observations from outside the LD station were used to see at what scales physical gradi- ents appear. The relationship between distance and variabil- ity (summarized as Z-scores) provided a method by which to establish this scale. Overall, variability increased with dis- tance, as one would logically expect, but this was not mono- tonic across all datasets. Therefore, the first increase in Z- score above 2 (using an α = 0.5 criterion) was used, and the smallest of these scales across datasets and density layers was conservatively chosen in determining the cut-off scale R Z . These distances were of the same order of magnitude as
We have presented an approximate graph-based extension of the original MTL progression procedure (Bacchus and Kabanza 1996; 1998) to handle stochastic state information. The PPROGRESS procedure is shown to correctly reflect the probabilities of the verdicts > and ⊥ given an MTL formula using an incremental update mechanism. The procedure ad- ditionally allows for a trade-off between accuracy and space requirements, by leaking probability mass from certain for- mulas based on their time-to-live and amount of contained probability mass. Our empirical evaluation illustrates this trade-off and the impact on both accuracy and space require- ments.
Like many of the members of this class, HR 4049 shows a significant infrared (IR) excess and ultraviolet (UV) deficit (Lamers et al., 1986), suggesting the presence of a massive cir- cumbinary disk. This disk is the result of mass loss in the binary system and plays a significant role in its unusual properties. For instance, the photospheric abundances of HR 4049 show an extreme depletion in refractory elements (e.g. [Fe/H] = -4.8, Waelkens et al., 1991b) while showing nearly solar abundances for volatiles (e.g. [S/H] = -0.2, [C/H] = -0.2, [N/H] =0.0, [O/H] = -0.3 Takada-Hidai, 1990; Waelkens et al., 1991b). This peculiar depletion pattern is the result of dust formation in the disk followed by accretion of the gas which is now devoid of refractory elements (Mathis & Lamers, 1992; Waters et al., 1992). The circumbinary disk also causes HR 4049 to display photometric variability which is tied to its orbital period (Waelkens et al., 1991b).
Although the species used in this study were not preparing for, or recovering from, crossing a large ecological barrier, they were refuelling at an inland stopover site, and were mostly temperate, short-distance migrants, each of my analyses suggests that non- fat body components change significantly during refuelling. In comparison to extreme long-distance migrants, such as shorebirds, and birds crossing ecological barriers, where energy from fat mass may be limiting, temperate migrants do not face the same energetic demands. North American temperate migrants have more opportunity to stop and refuel, yet they still change non-fat body components dramatically. Refuelling variation may differ between stopover sites (Cherry 1982) due to different environmental conditions. Also, deposition of fat and lean mass may vary with the relative location of the staging site to expected migration distance (Bairlein 1985) and the previous flights energy use (Gerson and Guglielmo 2011). As a result, relative deposition of fat to lean mass is a reflection of migratory strategy in relation to an individual’s final destination and recovery from previous migratory flights. Regardless, lean mass contribution to changes in total body mass in short-and long-distance migrants with or without frequent stopover site use, is substantial, ranging anywhere between -35 – 113 % of mass increase.
Properties of substances can be classified as either physical or chemical. A physical property is a quality or a condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance’s composition. Examples of physical properties include shape, length, mass, volume, melting point, boiling point, state of matter, color, hardness, density, and solubility. Physical properties can be used to identify a substance. Figure 1 shows some physical properties of several substances.
An important additional feature is allowing for the rotational speed to vary during the computation. As the rotational speed is varied, the grid points at the surface are moved to take a new blade shape due to the change in centrifugal load. This blade shape is stored at discrete points along the fan speed and values are interpolated if intermediate speeds are required. The mesh is modified using mesh movement technique. This is designed to ensure that the near wall grid moves solidly with the blade to keep near wall resolution, while the movement is absorbed in the coarser grid far from the wall. At each discrete point, the solution is allowed to converge and once prescribed convergence criteria are reached, the analysis moves to the next point along the working line. The code also allows tracing the speed characteristic from choke to stall by varying the throttle. The throttle is varied by moving the grid points in the nozzle to either reduce or increase its area. The combination of rotational speed and throttle variations allow to calculate a complete compressor characteristic map in a single calculation.
Hand and wrist-The bones of the hand and wrist provide the body with support and flexibility to manipulate objects in many different ways. Each hand contains 27 distinct bones that give the hand an incredible range and precision of motion. The forearm's ulna and radius support the many muscles that manipulate the bones of the hand and wrist. Rotation of the radius around the ulna results in the supination and pronation of the hand. These bones also form the flexible wrist joint with the proximal row of the carpals There are eight small carpal bones in the wrist that are firmly bound in two rows of four bones each. The mass that results from these bones is called the carpus. The carpus is rounded on its proximal end, where it articulates with the ulna and radius at the wrist. The carpus is slightly concave on the palmnar side, forming a canal known as the carpal tunnel through which tendons, ligaments, and nerves extend into the palm. Its distal surface articulates with the metacarpal bones, which are joined to the carpus by the palmnar carpometacarpal ligaments. 
Being a point-to-point protocol, PPP does not distinguish between client and server operations. For the purposes of this application note, a peer that requires a remote peer to provide authentication and provides an IP address to the remote peer is known as a server. Whereas, a peer that does not require a remote peer to authenticate and accepts an IP address is known as a client.
caused by parallax or alignment errors, as discussed in the Materials and methods section, but this would be surprising in the light of the small errors measured for these effects. (In effect, parallax and camera misalignment distort a circular helix into an elliptical helix.) In addition, there is a higher- frequency component in this trajectory, evident as a 76 Hz signal in the FFT for s*, τ* and w* (Fig. 14) and as a high- frequency oscillation in these parameters (Fig. 13C,E,F). The larva’s tailbeat frequency is approximately 35–40 Hz, as determined by visual inspection of the video tapes. In effect, the tailbeat causes the point on the larva to oscillate laterally as the larva moves forward. Each cycle of lateral oscillation produces two regions of low speed in the trajectory, so the 38 Hz tailbeat produces a 76 Hz signal in the speed. The presence of this same 76 Hz signal in the torsion data suggests that the tailbeat causes the trajectory to be superhelical. In other words, the larva’s body is not only pushed side-to-side by the tailbeat but also up and down, so the trajectory of the body is a helix with small radius and an angular frequency of 38 Hz with an axis that is twisted into the major helix seen in the trajectory.
In addition a 20 × 10 cm NaI(Tl) was used in order to measure energy losses of 20 MeV/c particles in the detector. These energy losses must be rather diﬀerent for positrons with the kinetic energy 20 MeV and for «anomalous leptons» of the mass ∼ 9 MeV having the kinetic energy closer to 11 MeV.
The parametres to be determined in most leak detection operations are time of leak, leak location, mass or volume of fluid loss. Several methods are available to ascertain this parametres. There are two broad categories. One is the physical inspection methods that only detect the distance and volume of leak but not capable of estimating the time of leak. The model base method utilizes the hydraulic parametres intrinsic of the pipeline to determine the flow behavior of the pipeline in the absence and in the presence of leak and compare their differences. This enables the estimation of leak time, distance, volume or mass of fluid and even the pressure and flowrate at point of leak. This method does not require the shutdown of pipeline operation or physical involvement at the site of leak occurrence.