The operators and managing agencies of all the national polarresearch programmes in Europe have completed an extensive survey of their research stations, research vessels and research aircraft deployed in servicing science programmes in the Polar Regions. A survey of this magnitude requires signiﬁcant input from the operational managers of all of the programmes and polar institutes; it is therefore a groundbreaking exercise and enables both European countries and their international partners to gain an overview into the scientiﬁc support capacities that can be combined in a powerful way. This overview provides a valuable insight into the investment of European countries in operating infrastructures in remote and critical areas for scientiﬁc research. The development of future initiatives to coordinate and network research assets at the European level will rely on fully utilising the capacity in a modularised way-designing ‘European Scientiﬁc Platforms’ on the basis of scientiﬁc needs and demands of the research community. The information contained within this overview report will also be available in electronic format on the internet as part of a European Polar Portal of the European Polar Consortium.
This model reﬂects a more complex model of inter-agency cooperation. Based on the survey data, the large countries with more developed programmes have a more complex ﬁnancing system. Experience from these systems can be transferred to those countries only recently developing their polar programme activities. A majority of the countries provide research funding over a period of three or more years (multi-annual) and that allocation of funds often can be extended when needed. Legislation and policies on transferring funding to other countries differs within the Europolar consortium partner countries have been analysed. Eight of the countries report the funding to be essentially national, which means that it can be awarded only to the countries citizens. Funding can follow researchers abroad only in nine of the consortium countries. Actual transfer of funds to support research in another country is only possible for six of the consortium countries. This type of situation is reﬂected at a general level within the European research area. The issue of direct transfer of funding across borders is being actively debated at the present time in the European research area, and has complex legal implications. An example of transnational funding model is the EPICA programme (1996-2006, European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica), where ten countries pooled funding together for deep ice coring the Antarctic plateau. It provided coordination for deep drilling activities at Dome C Concordia and Kohnen Station, which was supported by the European Commission Framework Programme, the European Science Foundation and signiﬁcant national contributions from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Such a successful model should be envisaged for other scientiﬁc domains. The development of a framework for coordinating funding for research calls in polarresearch is an innovative way forward to build ﬁnancial and scientiﬁc commitment across the different European countries.
Earth system science comprises studies of individual processes and their interactions at all levels in five major spheres: the biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere / cryosphere and the anthroposphere (see Figure 3). Polarresearch encompasses all of these aspects of Earth system science. European nations have traditionally been very active in polarresearch and have built up an expertise and infrastructure for this research that is unparalleled world-wide. Research is directed both to the Arctic and Antarctic which facilitates bipolar comparisons of climate, adaptation strategies of organism and biodiversity. Major emphasis is placed on palaeoclimate research (ice cores, sediment cores), observation of ocean current systems (thermohaline circulation, deep water formation), atmospheric research (ozone concentration, airborne transport of pollutants), biological resources (krill, fish stocks, biodiversity), research on permafrost regions, and socio-economic impacts of a changing polar system on indigenous populations and on economy. In this framework health and climate change are becoming of growing impor- tance. In addition, because the harsh environment is a unique laboratory for natural sciences it is an ideal testing ground for the development of new technologies for remote observations and systems functioning under extreme conditions.
Leane, E. 2007, ‘A place of ideals in conflict’: Images of Antarctica in Australian literature, in C.A. Cranston & R. Zeller (eds.), The littoral zone: Australian contexts and their writers, pp. 261-290, Rodopi, Amsterdam & New York. Lewis-Jones, H. 2008, Face to Face: Polar Portraits, Scott PolarResearch
The ESF European Polar Board is composed of the directors and managers of European polar programmes and is concerned with strategic and scienti- ﬁ c priorities in the polar regions and developing common approaches. EPB engages with government agencies, the European institutions and interna- tional organisations to develop mechanisms for enhanced coordination of European polarresearch programmes and supporting research facilities. The European member countries* of the Board manage and operate 25 Antarctic research stations, 22 Arctic research stations, 31 research vessels and 26 aircraft engaged in supporting science in both polar regions. (* Including the Russian Federation.)
The EPB is concerned with major strategic priorities in the Arctic and Antarctic and has members from national operators and research institutes in 20 countries. The Board is taking a central role in the coordination and management of Polar Initiatives at a European level. Major focus areas are the implementation of a new Polar Framework MOU, the launching of joint research programmes such as PolarCLIMATE, the coordination of Polarresearch Infrastructures, and policy issues in the context of the European Research Area for the polar regions.
Polar harmonic transforms (PHTs) are a set of 2D transforms, which are based on a set of orthogonal projection bases, to generate a set of features which are invariant to rotation. PHTs represent a set of transforms whose kernels are basic waves and harmonic in nature. In this paper, Polar harmonic transforms (PHTs) are analyzed for rotation invariance and two equations are compared, namely, Polar Complex Exponential Transform (PCET) and Polar Cosine Transform (PCT), based on different parameters like Euclidean distance, False Rejection Rate (FRR) and False Acceptance Rate (FAR). Out of these two equations, Polar Cosine Transform (PCT) shows better results. The polar harmonic equations perform well in presence of rotation. Orthogonal kernels of PHTs are more effective in terms of information compactness and minimal information redundancy.
We address this fundamental question in the a-proteobacte- rium Caulobacter crescentus, whose life cycle is rich in well-documented polarized events (Lawler and Brun, 2007). Organelles such as stalks, flagella, and pili form at specific poles during the cell cycle (Figure 1A). The coupling between polar morphogenesis and the cell cycle is achieved through an intri- cate regulatory network, including several histidine kinases that exhibit polar localization during the cell cycle (Goley et al., 2007). In C. crescentus, the origin of replication (ori) is located at the ‘‘old’’ pole (that existed in the previous cell cycle) (Figure 1A). The DNA partitioning protein ParB binds to a parS centromeric sequence nearby ori (Mohl and Gober, 1997). After initiation of DNA replication, one of the duplicated ParBori complexes rapidly migrates toward the ‘‘new’’ pole (created by the most recent division), in a process that requires the MreB cytoskeleton (Gitai et al., 2005; Jensen and Shapiro, 1999). What retains ParBori at the pole has remained mysterious. Bipolar localization of ParBori is, however, crucial for setting up division (Thanbichler and Shapiro, 2006b). MipZ, an inhibitor of the FtsZ cytokinetic structure, binds to bipolar ParBori, favoring FtsZ assembly in the central cell region where MipZ concentration is low (Thanbichler and Shapiro, 2006b). Thus, in C. crescentus, cell polarization is critical for temporal and spatial execution of chromosome segregation, cell division, and polar morphogenesis.
The high molecular weight PLA by direct polycondensation to find its better applicability in fiber application, packaging material and commodity. It was reported that it was very difficult to obtain high molecular weight PLA by direct polycondensation because of equilibrium between free acids, water and polyesters causing difficulty in removing water as a by-product. The effect of various solvents (polar and non polar) and reaction temperatures were also investigated. In this contribution, the influence of process variables on the molecular weight of PLA synthesized by direct polycondensation will be highlighted. The use of high-resolution 13 C-
To ensure the quality of test materials used, standardization and characterization of crude drug and extracts were used. The results of standardization are shown in Table 2. The content of water-soluble content of crude drug shows that in pomegranate ethanolic extract there are more polar compounds than semi-polar and non-polar compounds, although the three classes of compounds are contained in pomegranate ethanol extract.
The sub-polar gyre index has been applied recently in a number of studies investigating ecosystem variability. John- son et al. (2013) present a decline in nutrient concentra- tions (particularly nitrate and phosphate concentrations) in the Rockall Trough related to the strength of the sub-polar gyre. Recent work has even highlighted potential linkages between sub-polar gyre dynamics and higher trophic lev- els, including commercially important fish stocks (Hátún et al., 2009a, b, 2016). In 2012, the ICES Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE) emphasized the ab- sence of such a data product as a key obstacle when studying distribution and abundance changes in economically impor- tant fish stocks, such as mackerel and blue whiting (ICES, 2012b).
Since antioxidants are important to protect tissues from oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species, and nutrients contribute to remedy problems of malnourishment and obesity, and E. fluctuans Lour has traditional use as food because of preference of natural antioxidant in diet, the aquatic plants employed in this study was analyzed for antioxidant activities. In this experiment, the antioxidant level was measured in vitro by TLC method in crude extract, n-hexane fraction, sub- fractions of n-hexane and aqueous ethanol fraction of ethanol extract of E. fluctuans Lour (Fig. 5-6). A well-known antioxidant, ascorbic acid (Avocado Research Chemicals Ltd, Shore Road, Heysham, Lancs) was used as positive control. TLC plates run in all solvent systems exhibits spots on chromatogram indicating the presence of antioxidant components in the sample (Fig. 5 & Fig. 6). However, the TLC plates that was run in non- polar (n-hexane: Acetone = 3:1) and polar (CHCl3: CH3OH: H2O =40:10:1) solvent systems exhibits more spots on chromatogram than the TLC plate run in medium polar (CHCl3: CH3OH =5:1) solvent (Fig. 5) indicating that compounds of E. fluctuans Lour were not separated well in medium polar solvent. On the other hand, spots were too congested in polar solvent system, while plant extract form comparatively separated spots in non- polar solvent system. Therefore, antioxidant compounds are separated well by using non-polar solvent and n-hexane fraction was used for further fractionation by column chromatography using silica-60 (Fig. 6). There were no spots at the lower region from sub-fraction 1 to 18. However, lower region spots become increased gradually from sub fraction 19 to 35 while upper region spots gradually
He have already achieved much experience of cryogenic insulation in design, construction, material and so on. He ever took part in many international LNG projects as insulation engineer such as gorgon lng project, ichthys lng project and leader insulation engineer for yamal lng project. By now, he has presided over the editing of Series of technical documents including insulation design, construction and material application. For long time, he always focus on application and construction craft insulation material which is normally used in LNG project such as cellular glass, flex elastomeric foam (FEF) and Polyisocyanurate Foam (PIR). At the same time, he took most responsibilities of research project about cryogenic insulation funded by government of China.
REMARK: We extend the meaning of polar coordinates (r, θ) to the case in which r is negative by agreeing that the points ( − r, θ) and (r, θ) lie in the same line through O and at the same distance | r | from O, but on opposite sides of O. If r > 0, the point (r, θ) lies in the same quadrant as θ; if r < 0, it lies in the quadrant on the opposite side of the pole.
counterparts, such as Charles Wilkes, Jules Dumont d’Urville and James Ross, all published detailed accounts of their journeys. Normally multi-volume publications, these narratives were expensive to produce and purchase. Nonetheless, they could become bestsellers when the events of an expedition were particularly dramatic, as in Franklin’s Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea (1823), which recounted an overland journey in Northwest Canada that famously saw its members reduced to eating their boots. With the disappearance of Franklin’s third expedition in the late 1840s and the ensuing international search, the popularity of Arctic expedition narratives reached its peak. American explorer Elisha Kent Kane’s Arctic
incorporation eiciency (if InGaN is grown on its top) in comparison with its c-plane counterpart. herefore, under identical growth conditions, InGaN MQWs grown on semi-polar and non-polar facets will exhibit dif- ferent wavelength emissions in a single chip if the wafer consists of semi-polar and non-polar facets, potentially obtaining white lighting without any concerns about the drawbacks resulting from the growth on c-plane facets. In order to address this issue, we are proposing a multiple-facet structure which consists of only non-polar GaN facet and semi-polar GaN facets in a single chip, where the InGaN MQWs grown on the non-polar GaN surface is used as a short wavelength emitting region and the InGaN MQWs on the semi-polar GaN surface as a long wavelength emitting region. his potentially leads to monolithic multiple-colour lighting but without involving any growth on a c-plane surface.
in a similar manner as done in Baker et al. : the location of the maximum total electron energy flux was determined at each MLT (i.e., 24 wedges); then move towards the pole until the precipitation flux has fallen below 25% of the maximum value; then calculate the area poleward of this location. The 25% cut-off was found by Baker et al.  to be very effective in finding the open/closed field-line boundary using total electron precipitation energy flux derived from POLAR images of the aurora. Kihn and Ridley (E. Kihn and A. Ridley, A statistical analysis of the AMIE auroral specification, submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research, 2004) have shown that, statistically, AMIE puts the location of the peak of the auroral oval within 1 grid cell (i.e., 2) of satellite observations of the peak. This implies that AMIE can reproduce the location of the oval relatively well.
With its long dwell time in high-altitude polar magneto- sphere, POLAR enables for the first time a detailed in-situ study of substorm-time perturbations in the polar magneto- sphere. As an initial report, Kawano et al. (1997) (referred to as K97 below) presented a case in which the POLAR space- craft stayed near the apogee in the polar magnetosphere dur- ing a substorm. The time sequence of the substorm itself was mainly monitored by ground magnetometers located near the local midnight meridian. POLAR observed an increase in the magnetic field strength during the growth phase of the sub- storm, then a recovery toward the pre-substorm level during the expansion phase. This is basically the same as the pat- tern observed in the further-downtail lobe (e.g. Russell and McPherron, 1973).
(2021) plane is red shifted with respect to the m-plane by ~17 nm and this is attributed to a combination of two factors, which are : higher indium incorporation (Table 5-1) and the presence of an internal electric field due to some polarization for (2021) MQWs relative to the zero polarization for the non-polar m-plane, as was observed in fig. 5-10. The emissions from the other semi-polar orientations, i.e. (2021) and (1011) are also are also red shifted relative to the m-plane. The indium incorporation for these latter two semi-polar orientations was not quantified by EDS. However, assuming their In incorporation to be similar to that of the m- plane, it could be said that the red-shifting of their PL peak relative to the m-plane is a consequence of the QCSE phenomenon present in these wells. It must be mentioned that the substrates provided by Kyma had varying surface morphologies, varying degrees of miscut for the crystal plane owing to polishing on the edges etc. Uniformity across the sample which was required to be able to compare trends across different substrates, was thus, very challenging.
In this study four different types of substrates are used depending upon their polarity and crystallinity. They are classified as HOPG (nonpolar, crystalline), glassy carbon (nonpolar, amorphous), mica (polar, crystalline) and glass (polar, amorphous). For HOPG and mica, new substrate surface was prepared by removing few top layers using adhesive tape. Cleaning of microscopic glass slides were carried out by putting them in a beaker containing ethanol under ultrasonic bath for 15 minutes. Sonication is a technique where sound energies with frequencies > 20kHz are applied to the samples to agitate particles for various purposes. In this experiment sonication was used to remove any adhering dust particles to substrates used in the experiment. Commercially available glassy carbon (GC) from HTW Germany was purchased and was cleaned like glass before using in this study.