In addition, the results of the impact evaluation carried out on social pro- grams (Pension 65, Juntos, QaliWarma and Vaso de Leche), show relatively pos- itive results in the fulfillment of the initially proposed objectives, especially the programs that grant an economic subsidy. Conditional grants have a significant impact on improving household income (Pension 65 and Together); likewise, programs (QaliWarma and Vaso de leche) have a greater impact on the food and health component (see Table 1, Table 3 and Table 5). Therefore, the results of the impact evaluation allow us to suggest the necessary modifications to face the problems detected and take advantage of the strengths of each program under study, contributing with empirical evidence for the achievement of its objectives. In general terms, impact evaluation contributes to the efficient use of resources and high effectiveness in meeting objectives, by offering information to improve decision-making processes. The results of the impact evaluation of social pro- grams are fundamental elements to make future decisions and to optimize the policies, strategies and allocation of economic resources of the State.
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Over the last 50 years, international education policy in Australia and New Zealand has moved through three distinctive stages- aid, trade, and internationalisation (Baker, Robertson, Taylor, Doube, 1996). The timing of these shifts differs somewhat between the two coun tries with New Zealand seeming to follow the policies implemented in Australia (Patterson, 1996). The “aid” era characterised by the Colombo Plan ended in the mid-late eighties when institutions were encouraged to actively recruit full-fee paying international students. In 1992, the Australian government recognised that international education is an essential part of Australia’s international relations and that accepting overseas students at Australian institutions is only one aspect of the process. This was the start of the “internationalisation” era in which international education programs were seen to include teaching an international curriculum; developing international research teams; providing offshore courses; and offering student and staff mobility opportunities (Cushner & Karim, 2004).
performance measurement. Our selection has the advantage of different outcomes, permitting in- case variance and increasing degrees of freedom. We observe policies enacted by very high margins contain programs that may fail to be faithfully executed. We examine why by assuming the three entrepreneurial strategies (our independent variables) – issue-linkage and framing, side payments, and institutional rule manipulation – were used to enact Law 4009/2011 and assess how their deployment under contextual conditions affect implementation outcomes. Three conditions are specified. Crisis is defined as sharp fluctuation in output or employment. Real Greek economic output shrank by 25 percent in real terms since 2008 while unemployment peaked at 27 percent in 2013 (Zahariadis 2013). Higher education funding decreased by 22 percent in constant terms while faculty size shrank by 24.6 percent since 2007/08 (Elstat 2014). Centralization is defined as monopoly in funding or delivery. Article 16 of the Greek
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p-acetamidobenzoylglutamte; APC, antigen-presenting cell; APP, acute phase protein; APR, acute phase response; ATRA, all trans retinoic acid; BOND, Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development; CAMP, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide; C/EBPe, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein e ; CD, cluster of differentiation; CDKN1A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A; CID, communicable infectious disease; CMI, cell-mediated immunity; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CpG, cytosine-phosphate-guanine; CRH, corticotropin; CRP, C-reactive protein; CYP, cytochrome P450; CYP, cytochrome P450; CVD, cardiovascular disease; Dlx5, distal-less homeobox 5; DTH, delayed-type hyper- sensitivity; EE, environmental enteropathy; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; EQA, external quality assessment; EP, erythrocyte protoporphyrin; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; FoxP3, forkhead box P3; GBD, Global Burden of Disease; GSTP1, glutathione S-transferase pi 1; HOX, homeobox; HPA, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal; ID, iron deficiency; I-FABP, intestinal fatty acid binding protein; IFNG, interferon g; INSPIRE, Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence; IkBa , nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha; KDM6B/JMJD3, lysine (K)-specific demethylase 6B; LINE, long interspersed element; LMIC, low-/middle-income country; MCP, monocyte chemoattractant protein; MFO, mixed function oxidase; MIF, migration inhibitory factor; MIP-1a, macrophage inflammatory protein 1a; miRNA microRNA; MLL5, methyltransfer- ase 5; MMA, methylmalonic acid; MRDR, modified relative dose response; NCD, noncommunicable disease; NFKB1, Nuclear factor NF kappa B-p105 subunit; NICHD, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; OLD, obstructive lung disease; pABG, p-aminobenzoylglutamate; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cell; PCT, procalcitonin; PEM, protein-energy malnutrition; poly-ZF, poly-zinc-finger; RA, retinoic acid; RAR, retinoic acid receptor; RARE, retinoic acid response element; RBP, retinol binding protein; RDR, relative dose response; REL, v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog; RELA, v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis; RET, ret proto-oncogene; ROS, reactive oxygen species; RXR, retinoid 3 receptor; SAA, serum amyloid A; SAP, serum amyloid P; SCM, subclinical mastitis; SES, socioeconomic status; SET, Su(var)3–9, Enhancer of Zeste, Trithorax; SNS, sympathetic nervous system; SSC, Scientific Steering Committee; sTfR, soluble trans- ferrin receptor; Th, T-helper; TLR, Toll-Like receptor; TNFA, tumor necrosis factor a; Treg, T-regulatory; VAD, vitamin A deficiency; VDD, vitamin D deficiency; VDR, vitamin D receptor; VDRE, vitamin D response element; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; WBC, white blood cell; WG, working group; ZnD, zinc deficiency; ZPP, zinc protoporphyrin; 1,25(OH) 2 D,
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As globalism has brought economic changes in Southeast Asia, educational institutions also provide support for New ASEAN Policies proposed by the Taiwan government. Internationalization is one of the important goals for universities, so branding is very important for them as they attempt to attract other universities’ attention outside of Taiwan. The force for competition, innovation, and transformation have become the trend for them to develop their international sister bonds in order to look for more exchange students, who will help to globalize their institutions. Minghsin University of Science and Technology has constantly engaged in globalization efforts by developing its links with sister universities in many countries. It is well-known abroad for having positive relationships with business sectors around Taiwan, taking a leading role in organizing exchange programs and innovating a multi-lingual policy. In the past few years, educational exchanges between Taiwan and the Philippines, Vietnam, and Japan have increased through the efforts of better communication between colleges in these countries.
The fishery data collection was carried out by the BPAN Assistance Officer and Jember Fisheries Extension Service Officer. Extension Officers are officers who conduct fisheries counseling and data collection. One example of his job is the encouragement of fishermen in making fisherman cards or KUSUKA cards. While the Companion Officer is an officer, who collects the data of 3 prospective Recipients of BPAN (NCP-BPAN) who are obtained by the Jember Fisheries Service and determined by the Provincial Service. Extension officers and BPAN's assistants collect fisheries data for the making of Business Actors for the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (KUSUKA). KUSUKA is a single identity protection program for the sea and fisheries that involves a protection business identity and assistance programs provided to the government, including the Fisherman Insurance Premium Assistance (BPAN) program. The KUSUKA card has been in force since 2018, and previously it still uses a Fisherman Card.
will result in sustainable ECCE programs, policies, systems, and practices. Once Frameworks are developed and costed, governments will have a clearer idea of how much it will cost for each component, yielding important data for advocating for greater funding support; then action plans can be implemented. PRC4ECCE hopes that countries in the Pacific region find the process of doing a situational analysis of their ECCE sub-sector, and then using this document with analysis results to develop National Quality Frameworks for ECCE, to be useful and helpful. This document is to be seen as providing a guideline for quality, but can be adapted by each individual country to meet their specific needs and interests.
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provides at first a simple analysis of the main reasons of LDC economic disequilibrium. Then it reviews the main components of the structural adjustment program which include several macroeconomic policies promoted to market-oriented reform in policies and institutions, with the goals of restoring a sustainable balance of payments, reducing
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It is the belief of the people of Vanuatu that our children are the product of our past, the hope of our present and the future of our nation. Through planned early childhood development and early childhood education programs the nation’s children can be empowered, supported and prepared to be fully participative citizens of their country and their world.
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Programs for children ages 0-‐3 do not exist despite general agreement of its importance, as proven in a range of studies. Neuroscientists were once unaware that the experiences to which babies are exposed in the early days, months and years of their lives had a decisive impact on the architecture of the brain of the child. Policy makers were not aware of the impact that the stimuli or the lack of them, in early development have on a person’s adult life. However, some 20 years ago, neuroscientists confirmed that brain structure is already determined at birth, and that most of the growth of brain cells occurs during the first two years of life, accompanied by the structuring of neurological connections, mostly
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