William Shakespeare is now seen as the epitome of high culture, yet as late as the nineteenth century his work was very much a part of popular theatre. The same point can also be made about Charles Dickens’s work. Similarly, film noir can be seen to have crossed the border supposedly separating popular and high culture: in other words, what started as popular cinema is now the preserve of academics and film clubs. One recent example of cultural traffic moving in the other direction is Luciano Pavarotti’s recording of Puccini’s ‘Nessun Dorma’. Even the most rigorous defenders of high culture would not want to exclude Pavarotti or Puccini from its select enclave. But in 1990, Pavarotti managed to take ‘Nessun Dorma’ to number one in the British charts. Such commercial success on any quantitative analysis would make the composer, the performer and the aria, popularculture. In fact, one student I know actually complained about the way in which the aria had been supposedly devalued by its commercial success. He claimed that he now found it embarrassing to play the aria for fear that someone should think his musical taste was simply the result of the aria being ‘The Official BBC Grandstand World Cup Theme’. Other students laughed and mocked. But his complaint highlights something very significant about the high/popular divide: the elitist investment that some put in its continuation. (6)
The emergence of “Yingshitongqishu” is typical of the erosion of the style of the novel. “Yingshitongqishu” are reproductions of works of film and television, literary “adaptations” of film texts. In the broader cultural context of literature, they may be viewed as a new intertextuality, where the literary text references the film text. This kind of intertextuality, however, lacks the special qualities of literary art. These are only simple mechanical copies, plagiarisms of film in written form. The essence of “Yingshitongqishu” is commercial speculative behaviour, using the popularity of films as a marketing strategy to enlarge the market for books. Beginning in the 1990s, “Yingshitongqishu” began to flood the book market. From the Yingshitongqisheng: xiaoshuoxilie published by Jiangsuwenyichubanshe to the “Yingshitongqishu” produced for Let The Bullets Fly and The Flowers Of War in recent years, they mostly use a simple style of writing to introduce the background upon which the story takes place and its events from beginning to end, adding simple descriptions of characters’ actions and detailed dialogue, creating the appearance of the screenplay, which is similarly detailed. There is nothing left of the independent and unique character of literature. “Yingshitongqishu” pander to the market, their ultimate goal is to cater to readers’ needs to review films and as a result they must maintain a high level of consistency with the films. This is akin to a return to the time of New Era 中 adaptation of literature and the adaptation principle of “loyalty to the original work.”
58 the film Iron Man 2 while Student 2 identified the same tendencies in the film 2012. In the former, the student argued that Iron Man 2 is an American display of power and knowledge. The technologies in weaponry portrayed in the film shows the American desire to take control of the world by showing the incredible intelligence of the Western man to defend the world while at the same time revealing the failure of other nations in handling a global threat. Whilst the student admitted that he enjoyed the film’s use of special effects, by addressing the ideological questions, he managed to comprehend the unconscious of the film. In the latter analysis, Student 3 also identified a display of Western power and knowledge in the film 2012. She revealed that despite the fact that it was an Indian scientist who first discovered the impending global catastrophe, it was the Americans who managed to save mankind from complete annihilation. As she states “[t]his is a representation of India and Indians through Western eyes. As a country that was once colonised, India is incapable of handling such important knowledge and powerless to save humankind from the disaster. Consequently, United States is portrayed as powerful and civilized to handle the situation and this reveals how the West always sees themselves as superior compared to other nations”.
passed from one mouth to another and from one generation to another, we could no longer speak of one author or creator for any one of them. We could only see each text as the common property of the community and as a product of joint or communal authorship” (African Oral Literature, pp. 5-6). Thus, many other cultural markers which belong to Igbo traditional society are featured in films, the most pre-eminent ones being proverbs and sayings. These proverbs serve as pedagogical and educational tools since there was no formal schooling. Children and various age groups were educated thanks to tools such as proverbs which contain enough wisdom and lessons. These proverbs, which belong to tradition, are still preserved in the contemporary age and passed on from generation to generation. However, as we shall see in the next section, the advent of the European brand of modernity is going to upset that tradition; modernity goes to the extent of radically altering the tenets of tradition. In my book Oralité africaine, I have amply discussed the dyptich modernity/tradition, in addition to highlighting the relation that it has with writing, the new technologies, modern education, so on and so forth. To briefly come back to the concept of tradition, the way the latter is treated in Nollywood film generally echoes the way it is concretely considered and lived at large in society, namely the usage of the concept in order to justify the most backward aspects of the prevailing culture; one often hears in the movies a character proclaim: “This is our tradition, this is how we do things, this is how our ancestor used to do things, etc.” Obviously, tradition is invoked whenever it is convenient and it is used to justify the unjustifiable. This fact is well illustrated by the 16 th century French writer Etienne de La Boétie who asserts that “the first reason of servility is custom (tradition)” (Discours de la servitude volontaire, p. 50). Needless to say, tradition has positive aspects and the latter must be cultivated, encouraged, and practiced.
When the movie is slowly moving to the second part, the recruits are given a Military Occupational Specialty assignments and Joker is assigned to a Basic Military Journalism. Other character, which appears both in the first as in the second part of the movie, is called Cowboy. He is assigned to an Infantry. The last significant character of the first part has a nickname Gomer Pyle. He is a little overweight recruit who is at the beginning struggling through the training, not reaching the results as everyone else and thus being very much under the pressure, because Sergeant Hartman targets him, as he is the weakest member of the troop. Because Gomer Pyle still makes some mistakes, Sergeant Hartman chooses to use a collective punishment policy, which means that for each mistake Gomer Pyle does, he punishes the rest of the platoon instead. Gomer Pyle is obviously not popular among the recruits and starts to exhibit some signs of mental breakdown. As a part of it, he becomes a super disciplined and capable private but it goes beyond a normal state of mind. On the last night at Parris Island Gomer Pyle's breakdown escalates. He threatens Joker with his rifle. Joker is trying to talk him out of whatever Gomer Pyle wants to do, he is afraid that Sergeant Hartman would come, but Gomer Pyle does not seem like he wants to behave according to orders anymore.
Three popularculture items were chosen for this study to be representative of the broader world of popularculture – be that film, television including commercials and series shows, or video clips found on Internet social media platforms such as YouTube and Facebook. The issues at hand are really about the messages young people are sent and the stereotypes that continue to be hardened because representation of mathematics across all these media tend to be very narrowly defined. As Black (2006) found, we must look critically and in depth at the media and messages, by considering the messages in the context of group alignments, intended audiences, stereotypes presented, and issues surrounding their distribution and ownership. This is a call globally to those people who consume popularculture to carefully contemplate the representations used of individuals doing mathematics, and to those people who create popularculture to consider helping everyone see a variety of individuals doing mathematics including female, people of color, cool, and capable.
Film je sredstvo priopćavanja koje prenosi različite obavijesti - političke, ekonomske, prosvjetne, kulturne, zdravstvene i druge. Iako tu informacijsku funkciju sve više dijeli s televizijom, filmu se ne može osporiti vrijednost na tom području. Film je i umjetnost, osebujno nadahnuto filmsko djelo koje pruža jedinstven doživljaj svijeta koji je teško nadmašiti djelom iz neke druge umjetnosti. Za većinu gledatelja, film je zabava, žudnja za razbibrigom, sredstvo pomoću kojeg, barem nakratko, mogu pobjeći od svakidašnjeg života. Također, film je i industrija koja diljem svijeta zapošljava mnoge ljude, posredno ili neposredno, na primjer, scenariste, producente, glumce, distributere, filmske kritičare, novinare, pedagoge i druge kojima film na bilo koji način održava egzistenciju.
Then, too, video games, like most popularculture media, reflect back to us, in part, the basic themes and even prejudices of our own society. The Grand Theft Auto series is made in Scotland, but it clearly recycles US media images from television and film. In this respect, games are no different than popular films and television. Some people think they are more powerful than these other media, because the player acts in games. But the fact is that while humans react emotionally to images (television, film, games, even pictures) in much the way they do to real life (Reeves and Nass, 1999), this does not mean they are tempted to act on these emotions in real life: people do, after all, have higher thought processes in terms of which they make decisions and decide what is and is not real.
The next set of essays is concerned with the presence and meaning of Japanese pop culture in countries Japan invaded and/or colonised in the past. Lam argues (Chapter 74) that despite the attractiveness of Japanese popularculture and the Japanese government's cultural diplomacy effort, Japan's 'image problem' will continue because of the longstanding historical issues in East Asia. Otmazgin's study of the Japanese popularculture industries in East Asia shows how they shape local markets and disseminate new images of Japan (Chapter 75). While noting that consumption is more complicated than production and distribution, he does suggest that young people in East Asia are developing a new sympathetic perception of Japan and that the shared experience of popularculture may promote a dialogue between Japanese and other East Asian people. One example of such a possibility is captured in 'Healing old wounds with manga diplomacy', an interview with Ishikawa Yoshimi (Chapter 76). Ishikawa, after some initial difficulties, organised a successful exhibition of Japanese manga artists' experience of the war at the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall ('My August 15' , 2009-10). His chronicle of this exhibition lets us glimpse a possibility of different aspects of on-the-ground soft power, despite multiple problems with the discourse of 'soft power' as narcissism, nationalism, anti-feminism and so on. Overall, while the possibility of popular cultural 'diplomacy' is not totally rejected, scholars have stressed the spontaneous transnational and fluid move ments of culture that often escape the state's control. Globalisation of culture involves multiple levels, agencies and practices, and is contingent on local contexts and interpretation/articulation. Of central importance to the study of globalising Japanese popularculture, therefore, are empirical studies that closely look at the specific workings of such complex cultural flows. The rest of this volume provides closer examination of specific interactions, first in the West, then in Asia.
I’m not through with this Eye Killer. Long ago, the first chanter sang a powerful song of fire, which destroyed it; but didn’t break apart its body. That first chanter didn’t understand the vampire way. And didn’t have a warrior helping him who understood the vampire’s chant. […] That’s why Eye Killer came back . . . grew again. But Emily remembered that first chanter’s song, and where it was born. She gave it to you, shi’yazhi. You have broken Falke. And you helped me understand him too. Helped all of us. You have brought Melissa back home. I don’t know what to say, except—you are a fine, strong woman. (Eye Killers 340) Not only does Michael call Diana a warrior, thus acknowledging her as his comrade socially, but he also addresses her as shi’yazhi, “little one,” the nickname he only uses when referring to his daughter and his granddaughter. In doing so, Michael accepts Diana not only as adopted into his culture, but also into his family. The misunderstandings of their early days, the ones spurred by the stereotyping and separation which hegemonic colonial order induces, are healed and gone together with the vampire. In their final goodbye, they call each other “Grandfather” and “granddaughter” (341). Chick Flynn points out that the novel’s hopeful ending in itself defies the conventions of most of the vampire literature available prior to the publication of Carr’s text: “Steeped in myth and legend, the surprising final pages bring the story full-circle, and allow the healing process to begin, which is an element that has never before been introduced in vampire literature” (qtd. in Peters 196).
on a diet of popular movies and TV shows that never realistically portray the services librarians offer, none of them will value our skills and expertise enough to keep us in business.” Complicating matters even more, the article “Watchers, Punks and Dashing Heroes: Representations of Male Librarians in Generation X Mass Culture” claim that Giles, as well as two other male librarians in popularculture, represent a new type of masculinity found only in Gen X-ers. This masculinity, authors Rafia Mirza and Maura Seale state, take a criticism of masculinity from feminist thought into account while at the same time fighting against being effeminate. Therefore, the three male librarians they examine – including Giles – “retain some traits associated with earlier, female
continues. The anxiety is then answered by how to enjoy the political process while adding optimism / hope about victory. Political actors, generally haunted by certain feelings in connection with e.g electability and popularity. This 'anxiety' release effort varies widely, such as negative campaigns, money politics, repression, mobilization (such as bureaucratic mobilization) and other forms. The release of anxiety in such a manner is generally unacceptable to society. As a successor, (all efforts to release it is only a single agenda that is the achievement of power), look for another model that is more acceptable to society. At this point, Freudian sublimation (intentionally or not) undergoes its function in the political sphere. In that connection, popularculture is blended in such a way that it seems as if the ambition of power is present in his sweet face, and has the popular sympathy of the masses. Popularculture even creates, then reinforces the identity politics of actors in political contestation, which is treated as a process that is so democratic.
Throughout the series Raylan is identified and self-identifies as a cowboy. The instability of his function within the domestic sphere is countered by his established function in the public sphere. Here he is defined through moral rectitude and as with the Westerners of early fiction and film, Raylan's morality is centred on his use of his gun, but it is a point of honour that he only unholsters his weapon at the moment of combat. This notion of honour, the rules of the draw, is foregrounded from the start during Raylan's shoot-out with Tommy Bucks. As Raylan states repeatedly, during the pilot and throughout the first season, Bucks had drawn his weapon first, thereby precipitating his own death at Raylan's hands. The rules of a Western-style shoot-out are made explicit during the first season episode 'The Fixer' (30 March 2010), when Raylan confronts Curtis Mims. The African-American, Detroit-born Curtis runs collections for a local ex-con-turned- informant and as such his speech and styling is more akin to notions of the urban gangster: in alligator shoes, loose jeans and tight vest he provides a strong contrast to Raylan's Stetson and cowboy boots.
children, such as the choice of costume or music (Parry, 2013). However, equally there are some elements which are more elusive, such as temporal organization. Significantly, by the fourth activity (the analysis of the BFI short animated film ‘Lucky Dip’), the children’s storyboard drawings reflected careful observation of the shots chosen by the filmmaker. The children were clearly also selecting the shots to draw on the basis of effect on the audience. These depictions exceeded those observed by Burn and Durran (2006), reflecting understanding of more complex shot choices and more complex meaning. I would suggest that the previous tasks, in which the children had paid attention to separate modes or units of meaning, lay useful foundations for this activity. However, alongside framing, multimodal analysis and peer discussion, the text itself clearly also supported their ideas, enabling the children not only to carry on the storyline in terms of devising plots, but also to imagine what these would look like in the style and animated form of the original film.
dislocation/deterritorialisation), various discourses compete to offer an account of the situation which can recruit enough of the population to win control of the political space (hegemonising/deterritorialising it). For example, the success of the Christian right in the United States in part must be understood as a consequence of evangelical Christianity’s capacity to explain the various social changes which poor and middle- class rural whites were affected by in terms which were more appealing and no less convincing than any available alternative; offering an optimistic narrative which cast God-fearing Americans as the heroes of a simple struggle against evil. Up until the 1950s the American left might still have offered many of the rural poor a radical social explanation for their woes and fears, drawing on the history and vocabulary of agrar- ian populism, although evangelical Christianity and biblical literalism were already strong elements of vernacular culture at that time. With the fi nal rout of the popular left in the 1950s, and in particular with the recruitment of leading evangelists to the cause of fanatical anti-communism, evangelical conservatism was simply left as the only explanatory narrative which differed at all from that originating with the urban elites; and the elite urban story simply told the rural citizenry that they were back- wards and should learn to accept that modernisation meant liberalisation. This is a grossly simplifi ed account (see Grossberg 2005 for a far more sophisticated one), but it should suffi ce to illustrate the fact that the conditions which enable a discourse such as evangelical conservatism to hegemonise a dislocated space are many and com- plex. They involve the possibilities for affective resonance between various subject- groups and various political assemblages, as well as the sheer strength of the physical resources available to the various competitors. In a post-neoliberal Britain, which
104 Anne Collett
difference would have us believe. Mordecai certainly believes in this language. She speaks of ‘the freedom recipe’ that will be arrived at ‘by using and delighting in our heart language that slides easily onto our tongues and that will find a way to communicate with other languages of heart and home’ (2006a). Is this then popularculture? — the culture and language of the heart? I fear at this point that my critical faculty is turning to mush and I am threatening to emulate the misty- eyed aging poet for whom ‘love’ is the answer. ‘Love’ may well be the answer but it’s not easily accomplished — for borders are redrawn and fortified as quickly as they are transgressed. So as to avoid complete dissolution, I would take you back to the problem of the short story with which I began — which is also a problem of marketing, distribution and money — and back to the definition of popularculture that I am in danger of reducing to something approaching nothing.
However, being conjoined works best for the twins in Stuck on You once they are able to control it; after they are separated, they create a Velcro contraption that allows them to reattach strategically. Ultimately the film wants to have it both ways, and it does, though it reinforces the idea of separation as a means to a happily ever after. Twin Falls Idaho is an indie drama about two men trying to find their mother before they die. This film does not approach conjoinment as a problem to be fixed, yet it too “solves” the situation when one twin dies, allowing the other to fall in love and live a “normal” lifestyle. In this way, it also privileges the normative singleton body. Brothers of the Head, like Freaks, blurs the lines between documentary and fiction. A faux music documentary (it lacks the humor commonly associated with mockumentaries), the film not only incorporates elements of famous music documentaries but like Freaks, it also uses the real names of certain characters. Despite its formal departure from the other films, it nevertheless treads similar ground: being conjoined is a means for exploitation and ultimately a situation in need of resolution. The twins succumb to the rock-and-roll lifestyle and die as a result of being unable to manage the excessiveness of their lives. In the “Rose and Raven Rosenberg” episode of Nip/Tuck (2004), plastic surgeons Sean and Christian visit conjoined twins Rose and Raven to discuss a separation surgery. Played by real-life craniopagus 79 twins Lori and George (then Reba) Schappell, 80 the twins do not want to be separated. However, Rose has cancer and does not want to risk Raven’s life; a separation surgery seems the best option for Raven’s survival. The episode utilizes the conjoined twins to reinforce ongoing narrative concerns affecting the trajectory of the show’s main
Literature with aging themes or protagonists can make us better researchers by inviting us to expand our frame of reference. Our research endeavors tend to keep us ensconced in a nar- row and specialized area of expertise in aging. Creativity has a serendipitous element to it, and we often find it outside the routine. A novel, essay, or other literary genre takes us out of our usual world and can inspire unexpected insights or per- spectives that inform our research. Best-selling authors such as Oliver Sacks, Stephen Jay Gould, and Lewis Thomas bring a humanist perspec- tive to their science and in sharing their eclectic interests they show us the importance of linking knowledge across multiple disciplines. Similarly, reading stories reminds us of the personal nature of our research and the complexity of the issues we care about, often requiring multidisciplinary approaches to advance understanding and knowl- edge. Finally, reading novels also can transform and change our research in subtle ways, as we gain fresh understandings of the diversity of the aging experience. For example, the books reviewed offer a variety of perspectives on the social construction of aging, the effort to find meaning and coherency in our personal narratives, and the possibility for growth at any age.