based on a comprehensive analysis of all crucial internal (capacities) and external (market) conditions with respect to the firm in the context of competition - and helps finding and aligning a strategic fit between the two. So far, all of these basic models are standalone concepts of strategic planning. They assist in analytical-strategic thinking and as a systematic memory aid. However, they have all stayed formally isolated from one another despite their obvious interdependency. Thus, the next academic step to evolve strategy research is to simply unify these basic models by integrating all individual analytical strategic sub-models, which still remains elusive till today, see e.g. (de Wit & Meyer 2010). Strategy formation requires decision making based on all individual models and a further in-depth analysis of all market segments and organizational levels (de Wit & Meyer 2010). Integration of these models is important, inevitable and desirable, but not available today. ISF is accomplished here and made freely/openly available for everyone.
the customers. On the other hand this has increased a tremendous competition within the industry. The bargaining power of the customers is high and also barriers to entry are gentle hence allowing more entrants to get to the industry. Finally the Porter’s Five Forces Frameworks reveals that this industry is of TWO starts. This implies that two (Bargaining Power of Suppliers and Threat of substitutes) forces are favorable to those who are already full-fledged banks. Three forces are unfavorable. It is therefore urged from this analysis that on average the industry is not attractive. This implies that for the bank to survive profitably in the industry, it needs to choose a strategy, which can lead to a possibility of charging premium price for some products (Kotler, 1991). Since customers have a high bargaining power, it is imperative for the banks to make sure that they have a customer retention strategy in place. In this industry therefore, it is about survival of the fittest. There is no room for losers but winners only. If in the future the Tanzanian Government implements the condition of the increase of the required initial capital from 1 billion to 5 billion, this will have a direct impact on the ‘threat of new entrants’. This force might change and become favorable to the industry for those who are already within the industry. It should be borne in mind that these forces are not and will never be static. Therefore, when they change in the future, there will be a shift on the attractiveness of the industry.
The pharmaceutical industry is one of the main sensitive industries in the world as more countries are developing constantly. It is a strategic activity as it concerns people’s well being and cares for public health. This research is divided into five main parts; the first one contains an introduction containing the research problem and the research objectives. The second part contains a literature review that provides an overview on the pharmaceutical Industry in KSA with a focus on the components that are relevant to the competitiveness in this industry. This section also presents Porter´s theory with its five forces of competitiveness.
Patents of technology and innovation work as driving forces of cost reduction and differentiation (Santos et al. 1999). For example, in early 2010, Exxon Mobile introduced advanced technology to reduce cost while increasing production capacity, enabling the company to boost its production capacity by 5.8 million barrels of oil and extend the life of its oil and gas fields. (Datamonitor 2010) However, in refining, technical patent barriers are minimized as the technology involved in refinery’s construction is widely known. The barriers for entry rising from large capital requirements and economy of scale are also minimized and sometimes do not serve as barriers to entry in efficient oil and gas markets such as the U.S. market. For instance, if an industry cartel sought to monopolize the refinery sector, it has to restrict refinery input and output until the cartel marginal cost equals the marginal revenue. At this point, the refinery outputs would exceed marginal cost allowing a potential entrant to earn greater profit. Economies of scale do not prevent entry from occurring in an efficient oil market. For example, it is possible for an industry with large economies of scale to experience a limit-pricing situation. In this case, a potential entrant must achieve a high level of output to operate in an efficient scale. This is going to lower market price below the break-even level of costs if the existing rivals maintained their level of output. (Jones et al. 1978).
Translated from Interview with Outsourcing Client Representative 2009-05-12: No, officially yes but in practice this doesn’t hold as contracts are not infinite. As they will gain knowledge while doing business with you, which is inevitable. This isn’t a bad thing if the product is in a dying phase, but when doing this with new products that have to guarantee your future I would strongly dissuade this. For the same reason I would never outsource certain lamps to China, you benefit from the arrangement for 5 years and then you see the same lights as competitors on the market. This sort of conduct does happen on a large scale, for some countries this is more severe than other. Especially in China your information is rarely safe, they copy everything. We therefore have an extensive list of technologies that may never be outsourced to China. It is therefore essential when dealing with outsourcing that you keep certain key components in your own hands.
Dr. Porter attended Northwestern University, graduating in 1952. He continued his education at Yale University, where he earned a Ph.D. in psychology in 1956. In the same year he joined the faculty at the University of California, Berkeley, where he rose to full professor of industrial psychology. In 1958 he married Meredith Anne, who survives him along with their children, Anne Leisure (Marr N. Leisure) grandsons, John Lyman Leisure and Charles Porter Leisure and William Lyman Porter (Michelle) granddaughter, Sarah Elizabeth Porter and William Lyman Porter, Jr.
Force diagrams show you the direction a force is acting in. It shows you the direction an object is being pushed, pulled or twisted. The direction of the arrow shows you the direction of the force. The sizes of the arrows can be used to compare the sizes of the forces.
Although in many features rudimentary, these public authorities and the beginnings of the security forces inside them, were a solid foundation for what will follow after the formal recognition of self-government of the Principality of Serbia by Sultan’s edict of 1830. The edict itself recognized Serbia’s right to hold the armed forces and all forms of security forces. Postulate already given in the First Serbian Uprising in Načertanije de- vices of police authorities in Belgrade and further fatherland places “Like army authority differs from police one, so this one differs from judicial one, since the police one stops at the court threshold, and can only be used on its call. That is why the following is consid- ered: police authorities are first invited to protect order, without which both general and individual interests are violated, and restore disturbed peace. After the rebellion, large or small, damaged are considered by the court, and the power of judgment belongs exclu- sively to it,” found the embodiment in the factual creation of the state apparatus and the apparatus of coercion in it, or the inception of security forces.
between ecology and the economy grows out of a static view of environmental regulation, in which technology, products, processes and customer needs are all ﬁxed (p. 97) They also claim that the paradigm de ﬁ ning competitiveness has shifted away from this static model and nowadays competitive advantage rests in the capacity for innovation and improvement. Under this new framework, they argue, properly designed environmental policies can trigger innovation that may partially or more than fully oﬀset the costs of complying with them. If this claim is true, it has important implications regarding the design and implemen- tation of environmental regulation. Particularly, it aﬀects the cost-beneﬁt assessment of environmental policies at the national level, which are often argued to erode domestic com- petitiveness in international markets. The common argument is that if domestic ﬁrms are subject to more stringent regulations that their foreign competitors they will be placed at a competitive disadvantage. Therefore, if the aim of promoting domestic competitiveness is important enough, it may be defensible to apply lax environmental legislations, which is commonly known as ecological dumping (see, e.g., Rauscher, 1994). The implication of the Porter Hypothesis is the opposite: being the ﬁ rst to apply strict environmental regulations can give a ﬁrst-mover advantage to domestic ﬁrms.
These stemmers are described in a high-level computer programming language, called Snowball (Porter, 2006) that has been developed to provide a concise but unambiguous description of the rules for a stemmer. Some non-English stemmers can operate effectively using simple sets of rules, with Latin being perhaps the best example of a language that is defined in what is essentially algorithmic form (Schinke et al., 1996). However, this level of regularity and simplicity is by no means common; in such cases, Snowball provides a concise but powerful description that can then be processed by a compiler to give a C or Java implementation of the algorithm for the chosen language (Porter, 2001). In passing, it is worth noting that this paper by Porter contains an extremely illuminating discussion of stemming and the structures of words that is very well worth reading, even if one does not wish to obtain any of the downloadable programs.
We provide a new formulation of the Porter hypothesis that we feel is in the spirit of the hypothesis. Under this formulation we find that the Porter hypothesis need not hold universally, and identify conditions under which it may or may not hold. We first consider the case where the abatement costs associated with a technology is exogenously given. In that case stricter government regulation increases the incentive for adopting the new technology if the old and the new technologies are relatively environmentally friendly to begin with. We then consider the case where the abatement costs associated with a technology is endoge- nously given. We show that the Porter hypothesis is likely to hold if the new technology is significantly more efficient in production compared to the old technology, or if both the technologies are relatively efficient in production. Whereas if both the technologies are relatively inefficient, then the Porter hypothesis is unlikely to go through. Thus, under the appropriate conditions, the Porter hypothesis may hold even in a static framework.
Risk consistent response spectrum and hazard curves are used as inputs for performing the risk analysis of structures. For constructing them, three earthquake point sources are assumed to be located around the site where the structure is located. The annual occurrence of earthquake is modeled as a Poisson process and the hazard curve is obtained, following the method proposed by  , as
The concept of external economies is not a new idea and was used by Graham in 1923 (as cited in Krugman & Obstfeld 2003) as a valid argument for protecting infant industries. It can even be traced back as far as 1920 to Alfred Marshall (as cited in Krugman & Obstfeld 2003), who was preoccupied with the phenomenon of industrial districts (geographical concentrations of industry) that could not be explained by natural resources. Marshall argued that clusters support specialised suppliers, allow labour market pooling and help knowledge spill-over, all of which are still valid today (as cited in Krugman & Obstfeld 2003). External economies, resulting from local clusters, are thus among the most important influences on learning and eventually the ultimate source of many of the scarcest resources and capabilities of firms (Porter 1997b, 1998b). As a result, it becomes a legitimate international competitive issue from a firm’s perspective.
Porter’s treatment of multinational corporations and FDI is another debate in the literature. Scholars (Bellak and Weiss, 1993; Dunning, 1993; Hodgetts, 1993; Rugman and D’Cruz, 1993; Rugman and Verbeke, 1993; Rugman, 1991) criticize Porter on these issues because Porter does not include multinational and transnational corporations and organizations in his study. Whether a nation is a relevant unit of analysis for such a study is discussed by these authors. According to them, Porter has a narrow understanding of these variables in his model. Although, Porter responded these ideas by saying that nation is still the important and the suitable unit of analysis, there are scholars who assert “competitive advantage” might even be localized in a nation (Dunning, 1993). Tough, the problem with the framework is the fact that Porter chose national level as the best geographic indicator for an industry’s “proximate environment” shaping its success over time. However, other geographic levels, such as local, regional, foreign or global might also be important for particular determinants of international success (Dunning, 1990).
higher production costs, although consumers reward this eﬀort to some extent by being willing to pay a higher price for a cleaner product (see, for instance, ). In this framework, a firm could be reluctant to shift to produce high quality goods as this may put her at a disadvantage when competing in prices. The reason is that low quality providers could benefit by oﬀering cheaper products, serving a large fraction of demand and, thus, making the introduction of environmentally friendly products in the market not profitable enough. Nevertheless, if all firms shifted to produce high quality products, they could jointly benefit from the higher willingness to pay of consumers without the risk of being exploited by their competitors. In game theory this situation corresponds to a prisoner’s dilemma in which the Nash equilibrium of the game is Pareto dominated by a diﬀerent strategy profile that, however, is not an equilibrium because all the agents would have individual incentives to deviate from it. In our framework, environmental regulation can provide a win-win situation by inducing all the firms to shift to environmentally friendly products and make both the environment and firms be better oﬀ. The closest papers to ours in the literature are  . Although diﬀerent in nature, their mechanisms to sustain a Porter result also rest on a coordination failure as individual firm incentives to adopt new technologies do not match with the collective interest of the industry.
Research question five asked whether or not there are any significant differences in total coaching efficacy, coaching behavior, or team performance in association with (a) the coach’s age, (b) gender, (c) ethnicity, (d) current coaching level (i.e., head coach, assistant/associate coach), (e) level of education completed, (f) ethnic make-up of the school home of the coach [i.e., a Majority European American College/University (MEACU) or a Historically Black College/University (HBCU)], and (g) gender of the tennis team (i.e., men’s or women’s team). Results obtained from participant data in this research revealed that coaches with a master’s degree won 15% more matches than coaches with a bachelor’s degree. The data for this sample seem to indicate that coaches with master’s degrees have a competitive advantage in comparison to their counterparts with bachelor’s degrees. However, it is difficult to ascertain which element(s) of a master’s degree provides a coach an advantage in terms of team performance. Future research is required to clarify this finding as multiple theories could be offered at this point. For example, it could be that the coursework required in a master’s degree
1) Fuel and Speed efficiency: The fuel efficiency of automobile is inversely proportional to the net amount of drag force acting it. At a particular speed the engine can take a certain amount of load if the load is increased the rpm of the engines decreases resulting in the decrease of speed of the vehicle. Drag forces are the extra and unavoidable forces which act on the vehicle, due to these forces the load acting on the engine increases and thus reducing the speed. To accommodate this type of speed drop more amount of fuel is consumed to maintain the same speed. This way the fuel and speed efficiency are affected by the drag. Drag is proportional to the square of the velocity, so at increasing velocities the drag becomes a massive problem.