Position-based routing protocol

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Research Challenges of Position Based Routing Protocol in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

Research Challenges of Position Based Routing Protocol in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

A general and secure routing solutions applied to all VANETs situation is extremely difficult. In this paper, position based routing protocol of VANET and its designing challenges have been discussed. In general, location based routing are very much promising protocol due to the geographical constraints. Position based routing protocol is a unicast routing protocol technique that have no hierarchical structure and it uses packet forwarding mechanism to transfer packet from one node to others. We also discussed about the challenges that still need to be addressed. Finally, the deployment of fast, reliable, cost-effective message exchange solution is needed for VANET.
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Impact of Mobility Models on Performance of Ad hoc Position based Routing Protocol LAR

Impact of Mobility Models on Performance of Ad hoc Position based Routing Protocol LAR

The initial novel of Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Network MANET was founded essentially at the beginning of the 1980s for the development of military purposes, where during the battles there is an urgent need to create temporary and dynamic communication networks that are able to communicate between fighters and military equipment on the battlefield in the absence of stationary infrastructure. Sometime later, specifically in the middle of the nineties of the last century and with the advent of the standard wireless communications technology IEEE 802.11, MANET applications started to appear in services of a civil nature outside the military domains. At the same time, many of the traditional network-based products have been adopted and demonstrated their applicability and feasibility; this
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A Review of Position Based Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

A Review of Position Based Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Abstract— The Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of self-configuring formed with the wireless link mobile nodes where each node in MANETs is free to move independently with infrastructure less and decentralized network. The finding an efficient route between a source and a destination is crucial problem in Ad-Hoc networks. To justify introducing position based routing algorithms in mobile Ad-Hoc networks there is need for scalable and energy efficient protocols, along with the recent availability of small, inexpensive and low power positioning instruments. There are several protocols are used for wireless ad hoc networks such as reactive protocols proactive protocols for finding routes. Hybrid protocols are used which combines the advantages of both reactive and proactive protocols. The position based routing protocols are also the part of hybrid routing protocol. The position based routing protocols uses GPS to find the availability of routes. In this paper various protocols for position based routing in mobile ad hoc networks are discussed.
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Position Based Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Network: A Review

Position Based Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Network: A Review

Position-based routing that requires additional information has been founded to be more suitable for VANET environment. In this case the additional information required is the physical positions of the mobile nodes or vehicles, in order to perform data routing. This can be obtained via a Global Positioning System (GPS) with the assumption that the majority of vehicles in the future will have access to it, or by using other position determining techniques. A position-based routing protocol consists of multiple major components such as beaconing, location server, location service, forwarding strategy and recovery strategy. Beaconing is used to obtain the information of a node's neighbours whereas the location servers and location service are used to obtain the locations of destination nodes. The forwarding and recovery strategies are used to effectively forward packets from the source nodes to the destination nodes. Depending on the requirement, the use of some of these components are optional in certain position based routing protocols. One of the main advantages of using position based routing is that it's characteristic of not requiring maintenance of routes, which is very suitable for highly mobile networks such as in the VANET environment. The routing path is determined at the time when packets are required to be forwarded. Only the position of the destination as well as other information such as the node identifiers, forwarding nodes' and their neighbour’s positions are required in order to forward information or packets from the source to the destination.
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Distance and Priority Based Routing Protocol in VANET

Distance and Priority Based Routing Protocol in VANET

As compared to topology based routing protocol position based routing protocol provides information of mobile nodes position in participating network. This helps for easy dissemination of information broadcasting if position is known in the network. The few types of position based routing protocols are greedy perimeter stateless routing (GPSR) [8] and distance routing effect algorithm for mobility protocol (DREAM)[9].

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Encryption Based Security for Position Based VANET Routing Protocol

Encryption Based Security for Position Based VANET Routing Protocol

B. T. Sharef et al (2016): In concern with safety of drivers and secure communication among vehicles VANET has emerged with numerous of routing protocols in accordance with change in topologies.This work done concentrates on features and advancements of the VANET position-based routing protocols. Position-based routing protocol are most forceful in highly dynamic environments like VANETs whereas the geographic location of neighboring nodes in the main factor in determining the optimal route as the packets are forwarded. In this kind of routing protocols neither link state exchanges nor route setup is required unlike other routing protocols. These protocols still lacks in end –to-end delay and low packet delivery rate which can be enhanced for future work other than this security is another issue that needed to be solved [1] .
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International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing

International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing

Abstract— Data delivery of packets in broad cast using wireless medium is the main intention of this paper, this will be done through a MANETS and should achieve reliable delivery. To do this various protocols are available in the networks world with in that efficient protocol called Position based opportunistic routing protocol which holds stateless property of geographic routing. When a data packet is sent out, some of the neighbour nodes that have overheard the transmission will serve as forwarding candidates, and take turn to forward the packet if it is not relayed by the specific best forwarder within a certain period of time. The existing routing protocols like DSR, DSDV are susceptible to node mobility. The design of POR is based on Geographic Routing and Opportunistic Forwarding, which transfers the data packet based on the location of the destination.
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Position Based Routing Technique: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks

Position Based Routing Technique: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks

We present Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR), one of the best examples of position based routing. GPSR is a routing protocol for wireless datagram networks that uses the positions of routers and a packet’s destination to make packet forwarding decisions. GPSR makes greedy forwarding decisions using only information about a router’s immediate neighbors in the network topology. When a packet reaches a region where greedy forwarding is impossible, the algorithm recovers by routing around the perimeter of the region. By keeping state only about the local topology, GPSR scales better in per-router state than shortest-path and ad-hoc routing protocols as the number of network destinations increases. Under mobility’s frequent topology changes, GPSR can use local topology information to find correct new routes quickly. We describe the GPSR protocol, and use extensive simulation of mobile wireless networks to compare its performance with that of Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV). Our simulations demonstrate GPSR’s scalability on densely deployed wireless networks.
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Reliable Link - Based Routing Protocol for Highly Dynamic Mobile Adhoc Networks

Reliable Link - Based Routing Protocol for Highly Dynamic Mobile Adhoc Networks

Abstract— Traditional topology-based MANET routing protocols use stateful routing which increases the processing, communication and memory overheads. The high mobility of nodes in MANETs makes it difficult to maintain a deterministic route. To overcome this, stateless geographic routing protocols which ensure reliable data delivery have been proposed. It is found that link instability can be a major factor for unreliable data delivery. Driven by this issue, Link and Position based Opportunistic Routing (L-POR) protocol which chooses a forwarder based on the reception power of a node has been proposed. A back-up scheme is also proposed to handle communication holes. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol achieves excellent performance even under high node mobility.
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Improving Energy Efficiency in WSN Using Tree Based Energy Balancing Routing Protocol

Improving Energy Efficiency in WSN Using Tree Based Energy Balancing Routing Protocol

Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol For Wireless Sensor Networks[1].In LEACH, for the entire network, Wireless distributed micro sensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and martial application. We look at announcement protocols, which can have considerable bang on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our findings that the conservative protocols of direct communication, minimum-broadcast-energy, multi hop steering, and static clustering may not be finest for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilize randomized rotation of local cluster base stations (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. This position is self-elected at different time intervals. The decision to become a cluster-head depends on the amount of energy left at the node. In this way, nodes with more energy remaining will perform the energy-intensive functions of the network. Each node makes its conclusion about whether to be a cluster-head independently of the other nodes . In addition, we discuss a conventional clustering approach to routing and the drawbacks of using such an approach when the nodes are all energy-constrain. Using a direct communication protocol, each sensor sends its data straightforwardly to the base station.
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Analysis of Location Based Routing Protocols against Wormhole Attack for MANETs: A Literature Survey

Analysis of Location Based Routing Protocols against Wormhole Attack for MANETs: A Literature Survey

Mohammad A. Mikki [6] introduced an Energy Efficient Location Aided Routing (EELAR) Protocol for MANETs that is based on the Location Aided Routing (LAR). EELAR makes significant reduction in the energy consumption of the mobile nodes batteries by limiting the area of discovering a new route to a smaller zone. Thus, control packet overhead is considerably condensed. In EELAR a allusion wireless base station is used and the network's circular area cantered at the base station is divided into six equal sub-areas. At route discovery as an alternative of flooding control packets to the whole network area, they are swamped to only the sub-area of the destination mobile node. The base station provisions locations of the mobile nodes in a position table.
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Energy Efficient and Position Aware Routing for Auv Aided Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network

Energy Efficient and Position Aware Routing for Auv Aided Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network

The UASN evaluate in terms of throughput, Number of retransmissions, Energy consumption, packet loss ratio, packet delivery ratio, overhead, jitter, End to end delay and Bit error rate. The COA algorithm performance compare with Depth based routing protocol (DRP) and Channel aware routing protocol (CRP). The AUV sends beacon signal to buoys node and pipeline fixed nodes to initiate communication. The buoys node and fixed pipeline nodes send acknowledgement (ACK) signal to AUV. Upon successful reception of ACK signal, the data is sent by pipeline fixed node. The AUV receive data from fixed pipeline node and forwards the data to buoys node. In case, when the buoys node drift due to ocean current link disruption occur. The AUV employ COA to seek and track adjacent buoys node for data forwarding. The COA forwards data to buoys node with better link quality.
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GPSR TARS: congestion aware geographically targeted remote surveillance for VANETs

GPSR TARS: congestion aware geographically targeted remote surveillance for VANETs

Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) [10] is a po- sition based routing protocol which leverages the geographic position of nodes, detected through device mounted sensors such as GPS, to route traffic greedily through nodes with decreasing distance to the destination. In the case that a greedy path does not exist, GPSR uses it’s backup perimeter mode to direct packets around the empty region until greedy forwarding can be resumed. Routing in GPSR is hop-by- hop, with nodes only having knowledge of their immediate neighbours. Neighbour knowledge is built up through the receipt of periodic beacons which are broadcast to all nodes in range and contain the self reported position of a given host. Several extensions have been proposed for GPSR. GPSR-M [11] improves upon the forwarding mechanism of the original protocol by factoring in node velocity. Nodes communicate their velocity in addition to their position, allowing a given node to detect which neighbours will move network traffic in an undesirable direction, such as could be the case were data distributed to vehicles in the opposing lane of a carriageway. E-GPSR [12], further improves upon the core protocol by adding proactive congestion avoidance through the routing of traffic away from nodes reaching buffer capacity. We combine the aforementioned extensions to GPSR and add our own congestion aware, geographic cluster module to to create GPSR-TARS.
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Broadcasting Routing Protocols in VANET

Broadcasting Routing Protocols in VANET

It is reliable, bandwidth efficient information dissemination based highly dynamic VANET protocol. It reduces control packet overhead by eliminating exchange of additional hello packets for message transfer between different clusters of vehicles and eases cluster maintenance. Each vehicle piggybacks its own geographical position to broadcast messages to eliminate beacon messages. Upon receiving a new rebroadcast message, EAEP uses number of transmission from front nodes and back nodes in a given period of time to calculate the probability for making decision whether nodes will rebroadcast the message or not. But EAEP does not address the intermittent connectivity issue. Specifically, a node does not know whether it has missed any messages to its new neighbors or its neighbors have missed some messages. EAEP overcomes the simple flooding problem but it incurs high delay of data dissemination.
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OVERVIEW OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR VEHICULAR AD-HOC NETWORKS

OVERVIEW OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR VEHICULAR AD-HOC NETWORKS

Location based approaches select forwarding nodes based on location information such as the position of sending/receiving nodes, the position of neighbouring nodes, and the coordinates of a multicast region. Since forwarding nodes are selected during dissemination of each multicast packet, there is no need to maintain multicast trees and hence less overhead. These protocols are further divided into two schemes: approaches with location-independent and approaches with location-dependent. Inter-Vehicles Geocast protocol (IVG) is developed for disseminating safety messages to vehicles on highways. The multicast group is defined dynamically using vehicles within the risk area, which is determined by the driving direction and position of vehicles. This group is defined temporarily and dynamically by the location, speed, and driving direction of vehicles. This protocol uses a timer based mechanism for forwarding messages and periodic broadcasts are used to overcome network fragmentation for delivering messages to the multicast members. The rebroadcast period is calculated based on the maximum speed of vehicles. Besides, IVG protocol reduces the number of hops by using the deferring time. A vehicle, which is farthest from the source node, has less deferring time to rebroadcast. GvGrid , a QoS routing protocol for VANETs is an on-demand, position based protocol. GVGrid partitions maps into equal-sized grid squares where a node selects the next hop node from its neighbouring grids. Select a route consisting of vehicles which are likely to move at similar speeds and in similar direction. GvGrid implements an efficient route recovery algorithm which does not construct a new route altogether but identify the new nodes that complement the missing nodes and recovers a high quality route quickly. The main aim of Dynamic Time-Stable Geocast Routing (DTSG) is to maintain the availability of the messages for a certain period of time within the area of interest. Time stable geocast protocol finds place in commercial applications in addition to accident emergency warning applications. It works in two phase viz. pre-stable period and stable period. DTSG protocol guarantees delivery of message to the intended vehicles entering the region for a certain amount of time and it works well even in sparse networks. The performance of this protocol is independent of the density of vehicles, speed of vehicles, and the broadcasting range, which makes it more robust.
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Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks: A Comprehensive Survey on Routing schemes Angeline Reeba.V Assistant Professor, Dept. of Electronics & Communication, Lourdes Matha College of Science & Technology, Kuttichal, Trivandrum, Kerala, India

Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks: A Comprehensive Survey on Routing schemes Angeline Reeba.V Assistant Professor, Dept. of Electronics & Communication, Lourdes Matha College of Science & Technology, Kuttichal, Trivandrum, Kerala, India

Ros et al. [11] urges a framework suitable for a wide range of vehicular scenarios. They present the Acknowledged Broadcast from Static to highly Mobile (ABSM) protocol, a fully-distributed adaptive algorithm. ABSM is localized also based on applying the connected dominating set (CDS) and neighbor elimination scheme (NES) concepts on the currently obtainable neighborhood information. ABSM assumes ideal communication radios to calculate the network connectivity and therefore apply the CDS/ NES techniques. Since real communication links are far from ideal, the protocol makes use of broadcast acknowledgments to ensure the reception of the message or retransmit it. A message is acknowledged during its whole lifetime. At termination, it’s removed from the vehicle’s buffer and no more acknowledgments are issued. Vehicles are assumed to be equipped with GPS receivers. Periodic beacon messages are exchanged to update the vehicles’ local topology knowledge that comprises sender’s position to compute a CDS backbone after each beacon message round. ABSM saves the redundant transmissions because the beacons contain the acknowledgment of the message and therefore the newly discovered neighbors are not covered again.
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Reliable Routing Scheme for VANETs in City Environment

Reliable Routing Scheme for VANETs in City Environment

A-STAR is position based routing scheme proposed by Seet et al. whose basic purpose is to support routing in the city environment [4, 13]. This routing scheme ensures end to end connection even in the case of low traffic density. It uses the information from city bus routes to find an anchor path for higher connectivity so that more and more packets can be delivered to the destination. This routing protocol is also very efficient in route recovery strategy and also proposed a new recovery strategy when the packets are routed to local optimum, which consists of the computation of new anchor path from local maximum.
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Position based Routing in Mobile Adhoc Networks

Position based Routing in Mobile Adhoc Networks

Adhoc wireless multi-hop networks (AHWMNs) are communication networks that consist of wireless nodes, placed together in an ad hoc manner, i.e. with minimal prior planning. All nodes in the network have routing capabilities and forward data packets for other nodes in multi-hop fashion. AHWMNs pose substantially different challenges to routing protocols than more traditional wired networks. AHWMN routing protocols are classified as topology-based, position- based. Topology-based routing protocols use the information about the links that exist in the network to perform packet forwarding. Position based routing is a routing principle that relies on geographic information. Position-based routing algorithms require information about the physical position of the participating node. Commonly, each node determines its own position through the use of Global Positioning System (GPS). Decisions made based on destination position and position of forwarding nodes neighbours. A location service is used by the sender of packet to determine the position of the destination and to include it in the packet destination address. The Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing Protocol is a novel routing protocol for wireless datagram networks. Greedy perimeter stateless routing is based on greedy packet forwarding to forward packets to nodes that always progressively closer to the destination in each step using local information. Thus, each node forwards the message to the neighbours that are most suitable from a local point of view. Greedy forwarding can lead into a dead end, way there is no neighbour closer to the destination. The algorithm recovers by routing around the perimeter of the region by keeping state only about the local topology; GPSR scales better in per- router state than shortest path and ad hoc routing protocols as the number of network destination increases. Under mobility’s frequent topology changes, GPSR can use local topology information to find correct new routes quickly. In this paper performance of GPSR with the Ad hoc On demand distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol is compared .
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Three Dimensional Position Based Adaptive Real Time Routing Protocol for wireless sensor networks

Three Dimensional Position Based Adaptive Real Time Routing Protocol for wireless sensor networks

This paper proposed 3DPBARP as an Energy Efficient Rainbow Collection Routing Protocol. 3DPBARP has shown a performance improvement in packet delivery parameters. 3DPBARP performs with more accuracy by using a new parent selection and Rainbow mechanisms to choose the parents with more accuracy. It also employs techniques to avoid loops in the topology. 3DPBARP as a GRP decreases the RF range in each node by reduc- ing the number of nodes which receive the signal, using a new PFR technique. Nodes reduce the RF range to cover their parents only and not any nodes with further distance in the location management phase and PFR. A massive simulation on 3DPBARP shows a significant improvement in performance regarding energy consumption compared to 3DPBRP and DFRP in different scenarios. 3DPBARP shows that it could save more than 80 % of the total energy consumption in the network by using the special tech- nique in PFR. It also provides better performance in busy
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Towards Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs)

Towards Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs)

Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of these routing protocols (i.e., what protocol routing types, topology and position based information and simulator type). It is found that, due to geographical barrios position-based routing and geo-casting are more promising than other routing protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. There are still some challenges need to investigate for example, security issues and effective data communication are major issues. Because we need to design specific routing protocol and mobility model to fulfill its requirements for certain applications.
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