Positive Organizational Behavior

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Investigating the status of positive organizational behavior in governmental organizations with emphasis on Iranian Islamic values

Investigating the status of positive organizational behavior in governmental organizations with emphasis on Iranian Islamic values

Reza Fathollahzadeh et al. in a study investigating the relationship between positive organizational behavior and motivation of high school teachers examined the relationship between positive organizational behavior and motivation of high school teachers using descriptive correlational research method. About positive organizational behavior showed that the status of positive organizational behavior and its components is above average and significant, which is in line with the results of the present study (7). In another study, Alwani et al., (8) examined the relationship between organizational behavior and organizational strength. Tests of hires rather than organizational behavior are related to organizational strength and importance. In studying positive organizational behavior in Pakistan’s service sector the role of organizational self-esteem and global self-esteem, the study attempts to examine the positive organizational behavior in Pakistani service organizations. We examined the effects of organizational self-esteem, the role of stressors (role of conflict, anxiety and ambiguity), member leadership exchange, and perceived support on positive organizational behavior as well as organization-based self-esteem mediation. In addition, global self-esteem has also been calculated on the relationship between organizational-based self-esteem and positive organizational behavior. Significant direct and indirect results were found through mediation of organizational self-confidence based on leadership- member exchange, administrative support and ambiguity and its role. However, global self-esteem was not found to moderate the relationship between basic organizational self-esteem and positive organizational behavior, which confirmed the positive organizational behavior of government agencies with all components of organizational behavior and their impact on performance improvement. This is contrary to the results of this study.
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Positive Organizational Behavior Variables And The Effects Of Boredom Proneness On Perceived Organizational Support

Positive Organizational Behavior Variables And The Effects Of Boredom Proneness On Perceived Organizational Support

In the 1960’s, a group of Harvard Business School researchers lead by Litwin and Stringer started a study referred as the “organizational climate” with the goal of determining how people are energized, felt dedicated, and motivated by environmental factors set by their managers. This study showed that the organizational climate encouraged the employees to be more productive and to increase their job performance (Litwin and Stringer, 1968). Defined as the psychological climate that forms in an organization as a result of the individuals’ interactions with their external environments (Pritchard and Karasick, 1973), the organizational climate’s positive organizational behavior variables and its place in the boredom proneness is explored by the following three basic questions:
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An assessment of positive organizational behavior in service sector of Pakistan: role of organization based self-esteem and global self-esteem

An assessment of positive organizational behavior in service sector of Pakistan: role of organization based self-esteem and global self-esteem

Studies from Luthans (2002a, b) also demonstrate the positive self-efficacy as a state; unlike the general self-efficacy-a trait that is steady over time; explaining its elasticity in conversion through training and development. In this regard self-efficacy is similar to the organization based self-esteem which is also a state and domain specific. Studies reveal that in the organizational framework, OBSE is considered to be a better tool for measuring organizational performance and behavior (Tharenou, 1979; Epstein, 1979; Pierce et a!., 1989). OBSE has also been verified theoretically and empirically to have a positive relationship with the individual’s behavior towards the organization. W ith the impact o f role stressors, Perceived Organizational support and Leader member exchange Low OBSE has been found to produce more antagonistic behavior in the employees, thus aggravating their performances and hindering them to postulate a more positive organizational behavior (Ferris et a!., 2009). Though, this deviant behavior is an expected response, but some individuals are also seen to behave positively towards organization even in the presence of low OBSE (Ferris et a!., 2009). So the relationship of OBSE and POB does not seem to be that simple. There may be many other factors affecting this relationship.
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Editorial. Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations. Introduction

Editorial. Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations. Introduction

Other examples of recent POB studies investigated how the combination of stressful and motivating job characteristics influences negative and positive aspects of well-being. According to the job demands— resources (JD-R) model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004) working conditions can be classified in two general categories (i.e., job demands and job resources) that are applicable to virtually all occupations. Basically, job demands require effort and are therefore related with physiological and psychological costs, such as fatigue, whereas job resources foster personal growth, learning, and development, and have motivational qualities. Bakker, Demerouti, and Euwema (2005), in their study among about 1000 Dutch college teachers, hypothesized and found that job resources buffered the impact of job demands on burnout (exhaustion and cynicism). Specifically, they found that job demands such as work overload, emotional demands, physical demands, and work–home interference did not result in high levels of burnout if employees experienced job resources, such as autonomy, performance feedback, social support, or coaching from their supervisor. Psychologically speaking, different processes may have been responsible for these interaction effects. That is, autonomy may have helped in coping with job demands because employees had discretion on when and how to respond to their demands. In a similar vein, social support and coaching from the supervisor may have buffered the impact of job demands on levels of burnout because employees received instrumental help and emotional support. Finally, feedback may have been beneficial because it provided employees with the information necessary to maintain their performance.
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Positive Organizational Behavior In The Workplace:  A Cross-Cultural Perspective

Positive Organizational Behavior In The Workplace: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

Given the context of the workplace, hope has been found to support and sustain the capacity of workers to be resilient, to overcome adversity, and to bounce back in ways that strengthens their effectiveness (Youssef, 2007). It is in part through the continuous pursuit of developing and implementing strategies to maximize organizational effectiveness, organizations are studying and more frequently beginning to utilize theories and concepts from the Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS). POS provides opportunities for understanding the impact of organizational strategies on human behavior in the workplace and why some strategies and dynamic capabilities may be more generative than others (Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn, 2003). This is especially relevant as positive psychology has flourished in the last seven years (Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005). It may come as a surprise to learn that companies where the focus is on amplifying positive attributes such as loyalty, resilience, trustworthiness, humility, and compassion--rather than combating the negatives--perform better, financially and otherwise (Fryer, 2004).
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Effects of Supportive Organizational Climate and Positive Psychological Capital on Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Effects of Supportive Organizational Climate and Positive Psychological Capital on Organizational Citizenship Behavior

In today, changing and dynamic working environment has made finding new ways of motivating and retaining valuable employees a necessity for organizations. In that vein, in organizational behavior literature positive psychological capital has gained importance as a topic that stresses the human resource which can be measured, developed, and effectively managed for performance increase (Little v.d., 2007:191). From the point of this perspective, researches which investigate employees' positive psychological states (self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resiliency) (Luthans, 2002:59) and factors improving these states have run-up. Again from the positive organizational behavior perspective, it is possible to say that supportive organizational climate would result in positive consequences for employees and organizations (Luthans v.d., 2008:226). Supportive organizational climate and positive psychological capital both have been seen as factors which are effective on employees' organizational citizenship behavior (Avey v.d., 2011:143; Norman v.d., 2010:7; Farooqui, 2012:300). When such important behaviors of employees which would contribute to organizations and, possible consequences of these behaviors on individuals and organizations are taken into consideration, the importance of these topics and the link between them is obvious. Therefore in this study, the effect of supportive organizational climate and positive psychological capital on organizational citizenship behavior will be investigated.
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The moderating effects of inner-directed and other-directed behavior styles on the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior

The moderating effects of inner-directed and other-directed behavior styles on the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior

In normative commitment, employee remains in the organization since he/she is committed to the organization's norms and code of ethics. Employee does not leave the organization because of others' judgment (e.g., employer and counterparts). These employees do not experience affective attachment or belonging to the organization (Ozag & Dugoma, 2003). In continuance commitment, individual remains in the organization since changing occupation and organization is demanding and may interfere with his/her occupational procedure. It means that individual decides to remain in the organization based on the product of Profit-Cost analysis (Meyer & Allen, 1991; Meyer et al., 2012). Based on Steers and Rhodes's (1978) withdrawal theory, committed employees tend to less absenteeism since it may endanger their membership in the organization. Research findings revealed that when employees internalize the organization's perspectives and goals, they experience more commitment and also have more tendencies to perform organizational citizenship behavior. Morrison (1994) assessed employees' affective and normative commitment and concluded that affective commitment has positive relation with all dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior, whereas normative commitment is related to some dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior. To summarize, research evidence emphasize that all dimensions of organizational commitment have significant relation with organizational citizenship behavior, although affective commitment is the most important factor in predicting employees' organizational citizenship behaviors (Bogler & Somech, 2004; Dunham, Crub, & Castanda, 1994).
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Effect of Organizational Commitment and Integrity to Organizational Performance through Organizational Citizenship Behavior of PT. Olam Indonesia

Effect of Organizational Commitment and Integrity to Organizational Performance through Organizational Citizenship Behavior of PT. Olam Indonesia

Therefore, organizational citizenship behavior can be determined by a positive outlook to the employee culture. Usually, it can be done with the backing given a good example or pattern, through modeling or imitation of employees who have worked previously in an organization. Thus, organizational citizenship behavior can be defined as a. behavior that is voluntary and does not include an element of coercion in the interests of the organization; b. This behavior appears without official orders. c., not of flower directly with the reward system.
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Positive Behavior Support Across the Lifespan

Positive Behavior Support Across the Lifespan

Mental Health Centers Implementing Positive Behavior Support. 22.[r]

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Organizational Effectiveness in relation to Leadership Style, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Organizational Culture of Telecommunication Organizations

Organizational Effectiveness in relation to Leadership Style, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Organizational Culture of Telecommunication Organizations

Several investigators have interpreted organizational culture in diverse manner. Organizations as small communities also have cultures like as societies possess their cultures. Culture is an important factor for understanding any group or society. Organizational culture is the integration of beliefs, ideals and standards that are mutually transferred by persons and meetings in an association and commands the manner in which they interface with one another and with companions outside the association. It is the most primitive assumption that decides and determines how the problems of an organization are solved. It definitely influences the manner in which problems are resolved, management is structured and functions are performed.
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Organizational Behavior & Culture HB 750

Organizational Behavior & Culture HB 750

In arriving at a topic, students must develop it within a context that relates to understanding organizational structure, behavior, and culture. The choice of topic should be discussed with the instructor before beginning the research for the paper.

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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT / ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT / ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

Abstract Haworth Furniture, a privately held company, was among the global leaders in the office furniture business. As the Vice-president and General Manager of Haworth Asia Pacific, Frank Rexach was faced with the challenge of leading through a series of changes: moving the Asia Pacific headquarters from Hong Kong to Shanghai; integrating Marketing into Operations in the plant; localizing product development and production; building a cohesive and high-performing regional management team. Frank was about to formulate the short- and long-term plans for further change and development, what should he include in the plan? Students may approach the case with various strategic organizational change and development models and/or from the perspective of various leadership models.
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Perceived organizational diversity and employee behavior

Perceived organizational diversity and employee behavior

Job performance, organizational citizenship behaviour and turnover intention were used to represent different forms of employee behaviours in this study. Job performance has been defined as “the duties, activities, and accomplishments considered part of the job” (Roth, Huffcutt, & Bobko, 2003, p. 28). For an organization to be managed effectively, particularly for hospitality organizations, in which increasing globalisation and diversity have become mmajor concerns. Employees must perform their assigned duties and responsibilities; and the organization must determine for each employee the behaviours that are necessary to achieve effective performance to meet diverse customers’ needs (Cho, Woods, Jang, & Erdem, 2006). Job performance
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Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

Our contribution is to further increase understanding of the complex relationship between ethical leadership and employee performance by drawing on three major traditions in testing mediation in leadership research. We view identification and self-efficacy as representing two major themes in self and identity (i.e., self-construal and self-evaluation) perspectives as mediators. Additionally, LMX represents both the social exchange and trust perspectives as psychological states that mediate the ethical leadership effect on follower performance. Until now, the ethical leadership literature focused solely on social learning and social exchange explanations for the effects of ethical leadership. Thus, we contribute to the ethical leadership literature by integrating social identity theory and including organizational identification in our theoretical model. However, some research regarding social exchange and social identity suggests that LMX and identification may not be independent influences. For example, Sluss, Klimchak, and Holmes (2008) argued that LMX and perceived organizational support are precursors to identification, suggesting that identifica- tion mediates the influence of LMX. Similarly, van Knippenberg, van Dick, and Tavares (2007; see also Hogg et al., 2005) argued that identification and LMX may interact in predicting performance. Specifically, van Knippenberg et al. (2007) found that supervisor and organizational support interact with identification such that social exchange becomes less important with higher identification. However, to our knowledge, we are aware of no prior research that has simultaneously tested these perspectives to explain the influ- ence of leadership on employee performance. Building on and extending the above research, we believe it is worthwhile to draw from the distinct advantages of each perspective to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms that link ethical leadership to follower performance.
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The Relationships between Organizational Learning Level, School Effectiveness and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

The Relationships between Organizational Learning Level, School Effectiveness and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

It is an indisputable fact that schools comprised of staff collectively pursuing a common future will be one step ahead of other schools and succeed in today’s competitive environment. Besides, competitive culture stemming from high pressure results in a vicious circle reduces student motivation and causes discontent in the society (Lee, 2010). These schools competing in a changing environment need to ensure that their staff engage in a continual learning to adapt to the environment. To create a learning school environment, a trust atmosphere should be created and teachers should be encouraged to create a common vision (Cheng &Ko, 2012). The constant deployment of learning mechanisms is seen related to being a learning school, and learning schools are expected to be higher performers and more effective. According to Senge (1993) organizational learning encourages unity of aims and strategic thinking, and improves organizational system approach. Team identity is developed because of individuals working, assisting and collaborating closely with his colleagues and increases tendency to show Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). Workers of organizations who view and learn the conducted business and transactions within the scope of a system tend to see the works of their colleagues related to the works carried out by them. Therefore workers in learning organizations are expected to show higher OCB.
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Organizational citizenship behavior and perception of organizational justice in employees of a Turkish university hospital

Organizational citizenship behavior and perception of organizational justice in employees of a Turkish university hospital

Chen et al. (1998) conceptualized levels of OCB performance as a behavioral predictor of employee turnover and empirically examined the strength of this relationship. Our findings are inconsistent with Chen’s. We found that the highest level of OCB and organizational justice perception was in the workers who were working in this hospital for four years maximum. Sahin and Taskaya (2010) found that procedural and distributional justice levels were lower than the levels of other subdomains of justice in health professionals. They also found that organizational justice perception was significantly related to educational status, duration of work in this institution, number of night shifts per month, having managerial tasks and the number of patients seen per day. Our findings are consistent with this study. The study of Moorman (1991) showed that the workers perceiving fair practices of managers provide more OCB. According to Ortiz (2006), the consciousness of OCB depends primarily on the organizational justice perception. Konovsky and Pugh (1994) conclude that the trust toward managers strengthen the relationship between procedural justice and OCB. The interactional justice perception is an important tool to forecast the practices of citizenship behaviors (2005). Our finding suggests that organizational justice perception has a meaningful correlation with OCB and this agrees with Cropanzano’s study (2007). Williams and others (2002) determined positive and significant relationship between formal procedural justice, distributive justice and interactional justice and OCB intent of workers in various sectors including manufacturing, finance, ICT, banking in a city at the southwest of USA. In another survey, Blakely and others (2005) asserted that there is a positive relationship between organizational justice perception and OCB among full time personnel in different organizations. Chiaburu and Lim (2008) found out that there is a positive relationship between procedural justice and OCB among employees in a firm in USA. Chegini (2009) determined high correlation between
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Leadership Style, Organizational Commitment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Credit Union in Indonesia

Leadership Style, Organizational Commitment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Credit Union in Indonesia

Porter and his colleagues define organizational commitment as the power of individual identification with, and involvement in, a particular organization (Yang, 2012). While Meyer & Allen (1993) define it as a psychological condition that (a) characterizes relationships employees with organization, and (b) have implications for the decision to continue membership in the organization. Furthermore, Allen & Meyer (1990) propose and test empirically the organizational commitment dimension of affective, continuous, and normative commitment. Affective commitment refers to the willingness of individuals to live in the organization because of the attachment of feeling to the organization, the continuance commitment refers to the willingness to stay in the organization because the individual considers the "cost" of leaving the organization, and the normative commitment refers to the willingness to stay in the organization because the individual feels it is his/her responsibility (Meyer & Allen, 1993). Specifically, affective commitment is conceptually similar to the organizational commitment offered by Porter (Allen & Meyer, 1990), and two basic commitments, namely identification and internalization offered by O'Reilly and Chatman (Cohen, 2007; Shore & Wayne, 1993). Identification refers to the desire for affiliation, while internalization refers to suitability of individual and organizational values (O’Reilly III & Chatman, 1986). Organizations can increase affective commitment of their employees by supporting them (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, & Sowa, 1986). Furthermore, organizational commitment is the effect of one's experience in the organization, for example the experience of followers with their leaders (Cohen, 1992, 2007). According to Avolio, Zhu, Koh, & Bhatia (2004) transformational leaders are able to influence the affective commitment
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THE IMPACT OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP ON ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR (OCB)

THE IMPACT OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP ON ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR (OCB)

Each group of respondent has different perceptions towards transformational leadership. It is known from the difference in acquisition value on each group of respondent (teachers, administration staffs, and students). The group that perceives well about the transformational leadership is a group of administration staff. The high perception of administration staff towards transformational leadership of principals is because they were given the task to manage which relate directly to the administration of personnel. School administration officer should be able to work in all areas assigned by the principal. According to Alifuddin (2012), an organization of school will go well if the principal provides access information needed to staff as well as the bestowing authority of its use. Organizational developments in schools, principals need to trust the staff and provide authority and power to perform its job. Given the task of administration staff is helping the process of teaching and learning, Student Affairs, employment, school supplies, school infrastructure, financial affairs, library, and public relations.
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MEDIATING ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR BETWEEN EMPOWERMENT AND PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE:

MEDIATING ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR BETWEEN EMPOWERMENT AND PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE:

ABSTRACT: In recent years, the term Empowerment has become part of everyday management language. It has also been associated with popular management movements of the times such as human resource management (HRM). Empowerment is regarded as providing a solution to the age‐old problem of valorised and bureaucratic workplaces where creativity is stifled and employees become alienated, showing discontent through individual or collective means. Moreover, it is also assumed that empowerment is a universal solution appropriate to all organisations in all circumstances. Forms of employee empowerment often associated with HRM initiatives have increased considerably in recent years. This research examines communicational forms of empowerment in banking sector. The findings are contextualised against a rapidly changing environment which characterised the banking sector in the 1990s. Research of this nature is often conducted in a mono‐cultural context despite the fact there is increasing evidence that managerial practices, including empowerment, are highly influenced by societal factors. The research confirms previous assumptions that employees have greater participation in the workplace, but the strength of participation is mediated by external factors such as social values, technological change and economic conditions. In such periods effective employee involvement is restricted to micro levels, despite expectations by employees of more involvement in organisational issues at macro levels. HRM seeks to harmonize, incorporate and standardize diverse organizational policies followed by employees throughout the country. If it is uniformly and consistently applied would result in the establishment of best practices in the world. The present research study analysed the relationships among psychological empowerment, organizational citizenship behaviour, and perceived organizational performance. For this purpose, the data was collected from 260 employees working in different banks in Hyderabad. The results of this study revealed that organizational citizenship behaviour partially mediated the relationship between Empowerment and perceived organizational performance. So psychological empowerment is a very important construct and should be critically evaluated.
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Influence of leadership behavior, organizational culture and organizational commitment on employee turnover intention

Influence of leadership behavior, organizational culture and organizational commitment on employee turnover intention

This study investigates the relationship between leadership behavior, organizational culture on turnover intention among employees in local Thai companies and multinational companies (MNCs) in Thailand. It also examines the role of organizational commitment as a mediator on the relationship between leadership behavior, organizational culture and turnover intention. Data are collected through questionnaires, from 1,650 respondents, 8 companies in Songkhla, Province Thailand. This research adopted several analytical approaches to analyze the data. Through a factor analysis found leadership behavior is reflected into single dimension, labeled as leadership behavior. The organizational culture is reflected into four dimensions namely; hierarchical, rational, teamwork, and reward and recognition, the organizational commitment is reflected into three dimensions: affective commitment, continuance commitment and emotional attachment commitment. The multiple regression and hierarchical multiple regression analyses are used in testing the hypothesis. The results of this study find that the direct relationship between leadership behavior and turnover intention is found to be significantly different between employees in local Thai companies and MNCs. However, the direct relationship between organizational culture and turnover intention is not significantly different between employee in local Thai companies and MNCs. Furthermore, the results of hierarchical multiple regression show that organizational commitment mediates the relationship between leadership behavior, organizational culture and turnover intention are significantly different among employees in local Thai companies and MNCs. The implication of this study is that managers should recognize the behavior of leadership in which the behavior that able to motivate the level of employee commitment to organization and reduce employee turnover intention.
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