he impact on the current economic recession on the US workforce has been devastating. Consider the following indicators: The unemployment rate is about 8%, and over the last year, it has risen by 2.3% points. Nearly 4.5 million jobs have been lost since the recession began around January 2008 (Froman, 2010). While there are no quick ﬁxes to these complex and challenging problems, positivepsychology, with its forward-looking orientation, suggests that the potential for a more hopeful, productive, and satisfying future can emerge for people who are struggling to ﬁnd their way through these tough times, as well as for many others who are somewhat more secure, but ﬁnd themselves coasting along without much joy and meaning in their day-to- day work lives (Froman, 2010). While in the US, much of this holds true, much of the world has experienced similar situations in the past few years.
ngoing pursuits for the development and application of strategies to maximize organizational effectiveness have led to the more frequent use of concepts and theories from positiveorganizational science. Positiveorganizational science allows understanding of the effects of human behavior on organizational strategies and why certain strategies and competencies are more beneficial than others (Cameron et al., 2003). This approach is related to developments especially in the recent 5 years in positivepsychology (Seligman et al., 2005) and has the objective of creating a organizational system that realizes human potential (Peterson and Spiker, 2005). Positiveorganizationalbehavior is defined as practices of the study of human resource potential and psychological capacity, which can be measured, developed and effectively geared toward performance increase in today’s workplaces (Luthans et al., 2002). The psychological capacity mentioned in this definition is also referred to as “psychological capital” and is characterized as follows (Luthans et al., 2007): a) trust in one’s ability to put the effort to achieve difficult tasks (self-competence), b) positive expectation for current and future success (optimism), c) display of perseverance to achieve goals (hope), d) survive in the face of challenges and difficulties and to succeed in spite of everything (endurance). If positiveorganizationalbehavior variables are to be placed in a scale, on one side can be the variable positive states of happiness, joy and content while on the other can be the relative stable characteristics, innate abilities, or negative states. Between these two extremes, on the other hand, can be the relatively improvable positive tendencies and some more-difficult-to-improve personal traits (Luthans and Avolio, 2009). The concept “boredom proneness” seen in individuals has
and organizations. On the one hand, theories of management and organizationalbehavior will have an increasing role in shaping the attitude of managers and leaders and their management style. Management also focused on the weaknesses and disadvantages of the organization and its employees (1). Positivepsychology theory has had a great deal of influence over the last decade in the field of management in both the applied and academic fields. From an applied perspective, PositivePsychology has expanded into organizational development, human resources, talent management, leadership development, team development and coaching programs, practices and interventions that have the principles of PositivePsychology at their core. Therefore, positiveorganizational theory should be considered a useful stream of thought for creating amazing results. Although no clear definition of positiveorganizationalpsychology has been provided so far, the term has been widely used in the subject literature and under various headings such as positive work psychology, positive work environment, positive organization, positiveorganizationalbehavior, and positiveorganizational research (2). The United States may, instead of relying heavily on financial institutions, or other major financial institutions. Those who are the most resourceful, instead of the agents who respond to what they have done. The importance of efficient use of resources more than ever as a competitive tool to the attention of the organization, that is, instead of seeking to create new sources are thought to use tools, methods and knowledge of proper use of resources available in this regard, Nowadays, it is more important to pay attention to the immediate benefits of the company. It should be noted that the use of technology in the organization must be accompanied by a number of scientific studies and coherent, because only the establishment and deployment of technologies that are nothing to do and
Researchers who simultaneously started the positiveorganizational scholarship (POS) movement have provided a conceptual framework for organizing and integrating their research on positive organizations (Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn, 2003). POS is defined as ‘‘the study of that which is positive, flourishing, and life-giving in organizations. Positive refers to the elevating processes and outcomes in organizations. Organizational refers to the interpersonal and structural dynamics activated in and through organizations, specifically taking into account the context in which positive phenomena occur. Scholarship refers to the scientific, theoretically derived, and rigorous investigation of that which is positive in organizational settings’’ (Cameron & Caza, 2004, p. 731). Similar to POB, but different from positivepsychology, the primary emphasis of POS is on the workplace and on the accomplishment of work-related outcomes. Although partly overlapping, POB is primarily concerned with individual psychological states and human strengths that influence employee performance (Luthans, 2002), whereas POS is primarily concerned with the positive aspects of the organizational context that influence employee’s thriving (Cameron, 2005). In a way, this special issue builds a bridge between POB and POS because in most of its contributions a positive individual perspective (POB) is combined with a positive organization perspective (POS).
When I began working on my dissertation, some of the past literature suggested that conflict may have constructive aspects but the research mainly focused on the negative aspects of conflict and how to avoid or resolve it. I remembered my past experiences with my friends’ families and my work experience, and knew that conflict did sometimes seem to have positive effects, or at least wasn’t as destructive in some instances. So I set out to find out what these aspects were that made conflict useful, or in what situations conflict was more effective than destructive. My first approach was to find out if there were different types of conflict that may have different effects. The literature said so (for recent reviews, see Jehn & Bendersky, 2003; De Dreu & Weingart, 2003), but there wasn’t yet empirical work distinguishing between the types of conflict and their consequences for individuals and teams in organizations. I conducted a qualitative study to develop grounded theory about the various types of conflicts that employees perceive and experience, and the effects of these conflicts on performance and satisfaction (as well as absenteeism, turnover, and creativity, in other instances). I found that employees distinguished between three different types of conflict: relationship conflicts, task-related conflicts, and process conflicts (Jehn, 1997). Relationship conflicts exist when there are interpersonal incompatibilities or problems among group members that are not necessarily related to work. This type of conflict often includes, for example, arguments about religion, politics, or fashion. I found that organizational members called these types of conflicts “people problems,” “personal conflicts,” and “interpersonal problems.” Typically, with this type of conflict, people just don’t like each other; they don’t get along.
While the strategy researchers have tended to focus on testing theories of firm performance, many organizational theorists are focused on more descriptive theories, the one uniting theme has been the use of computational models to either verify or extend theories. It is perhaps no accident that those researchers using computational simulation have been inspired by ideas from biological modeling, ecology, theoretical physics and thermodynamics, chaos theory, complexity theory and organization studies since these methods have also been fruitfully used in those areas.
This course will examine the paradigm shift from pathology to strengths-based psychology. Within psychology today, there is a growing body of work that includes a strengths-based and resiliency approach. This course is designed to explore the concepts, research behind the concepts, techniques, resiliency factors and exercises to enhance optimism, decrease stressors, and significantly increase well-being. The format of the course will be didactic, experiential, and interactive along with assigned readings to create an
A review of dictionary definitions of positive reveals that the concept has such a wide range of connotations and so many applications as to defy the establishment of precise conceptual boundaries (e.g., Webster’s, Oxford, American Heritage). On the other hand, some convergence has begun to occur as the term has been employed in POS and applied to positiveorganizational change. One approach to the concept of positive has been a focus on extraordinarily positive outcomes, or positively deviant performance (Spreitzer & Sonenshein, 2003). This means that outcomes are investi- gated, which dramatically exceed common or expected performance. Investigations of spectacular results, surprising outcomes, and extraordinary achievements have been the focus of several investigations (e.g., Baker & Gunderson, 2005; K. S. Cameron & Lavine, 2006; Gittell, Cameron, Lim, & Rivas, 2006; Hess & Cameron, 2006), each treating positive as synonymous with exceptional performance. Reaching a level of positive deviance, in other words, extends beyond achieving effectiveness or ordinary success in that it represents “intentional behaviors that depart from the norm of a reference group in honorable ways” (Spreitzer & Sonenshein, 2003, p. 209). Investigating the indicators of and explanatory processes accounting for such pos- itively deviant performance is one area in which positive has taken on a consen- sual connotation.
This course will introduce students to the field of organizationalbehavior – an interdisciplinary field at the very core of management studies dedicated to better understanding and managing people at work. We will examine organizations by looking at the behavior of individuals, groups and organization-level phenomena, such as structure and culture. Through cases, class activities, lectures, and assignments, the course will engage students to reflect and apply organizationalbehavior concepts, theories, and practices to a variety of real-life organizational settings.
Positivepsychology calls for as much focus on strength as on weakness, as much interest in building the best things in life as in repairing the worst, and as much attention to fulfilling the lives of healthy people as to healing the wounds of the distressed. The concern of psychology with human problems is understandable. It will not and should not be abandoned. Positive psychologists are “merely” saying that the psychology of the past sixty years is incomplete. But as simple as this proposal sounds, it demands a sea change in perspective. Psychologists
However, while the words used may be the same, the meanings they carry for scientists interested in PositivePsychology and for those pursuing spirituality may diverge considerably, essentially because psychology is rooted in an appeal to reason, whereas authentic Christian spirituality is grounded in a recognition that all depends on God. Hence a term like ‘gratitude’ has richer, more specific nuances in Christian spirituality, arising from a sense that all things depend for their very existence on a creator God. When empirical scientists investigate what a person says about the theological virtues of faith, hope and charity, they simply note the statement and proceed as if the terms meant what the client believes or needs them to mean. But within a religion the question of truth has to be raised. Talk of faith implies the question: ‘faith in what?’ At least in conventional settings, the dynamic of the Spiritual Exercises involves a specific form of faith: faith in the teachings of the Catholic Church. Because these teachings necessarily involve a particular understanding of the nature of God, and especially of the mysteries of the Trinity and the Incarnation, one can transfer the dynamic of the Exercises to other religious belief- systems, or to a wholly secular system, only up to a point.
Jeana L. Magyar-Moe (Summa Cum Laude UWSP Class of 1998) received her Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology from the University of Kansas in 2003. She is currently an Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point (UWSP) where she is a Wisconsin Teaching Fellow and the recipient of the 2006 University Excellence in Teaching Award and the 2007 University Scholar and University Leadership Mentor Awards. Magyar-Moe created and has been teaching a successful undergraduate course in PositivePsychology at UWSP for six semesters. Magyar-Moe’s research interests include positivepsychology, diversity issues, therapy process and outcome, and the scholarship of teaching and learning. She was an Invited Scholar and Fellow at the 2002 and 2003 International PositivePsychology Summits and an Invited Speaker at the 2007 Gallup Global Well-Being Summit and the 2008 PositivePsychology Forum.
Positivepsychology – the scientifi c study of happiness – is a rapidly burgeoning fi eld, and in no area more so than educa- tion. More departments than ever are offering courses in positivepsychology, and demand for these courses is consistently high. Graduate programs offering concentrations in positivepsychology have appeared at both masters and doctoral level. Educational institutions have expressed interest in using principles of positivepsychology to inform institutional structure, faculty development and pedagogy.
thought: self-help texts on happiness line the shelves of bookshops, newspaper headlines declare that scientists can reveal what makes us happier, and now politicians are taking happiness seriously as an issue of policy. In Britain the Office for National Statistics is launching a ‘well- being index’. Moreover, many people with a secular worldview are seeking happiness through spirituality. In his investigation of whether mind can control mood, the economist Richard Layard explores the possibilities of Buddhism, cognitive therapy and positivepsychology for improving well-being; and among these perhaps unlikely bedfellows, he also mentions the Christian mystical tradition, with particular reference to Ignatian spirituality. Layard notes that Ignatius’ understanding of ‘praise’ means being grateful, ‘an essential condition for happiness and easier if you have some idea of who or what you are grateful to’. 1
The program consists of graduate courses which survey the broad range of applied industrial/organizationalpsychology (e.g., leadership development, multi-cultural issues in the workplace, workplace ethics, job and task analysis, employee assessment, selection and placement, job performance evaluation, training and development, job motivation, structure and function of organizations, organizational development, and consumer psychology). Other courses develop professional skills in test construction, human resources assessment, consulting methods, statistics, and research methodology essential for professional practice in industrial/organizationalpsychology. Important areas surveyed by management courses include management and labor issues, personnel process, management development, organizational analysis, and entrepreneurship.
[Note: some personal work experience of human resource management and organizational behaviour is extremely useful for this module. Also, students who have not followed an HRM or organisational behaviour course at undergraduate level will find this module difficult and will have to work hard to familiarise themselves with the literature. This will involve considerable extra reading and study.]
compare Rogers’ self-image) and self-concept structure (aspects like roles and relationships). An example would be the hypothetical person John (see figure 1), who might be a successful young student; he is on good terms with his family and quite extroverted when going out with his friends. Therefore, the self-concept he would draw for himself could contain different roles (aspects) like “family member”, “student”, “peer group”; and different content (attributes) like “helpful”, “social”, “outgoing”, “intelligent” and “successful”. John might attribute some of these contents with one role and some with more. In figure 1 we can see that he associates “social” with the family and the peer role; this attribute connects these two aspects of his self-concept, whereas the student aspect stands alone. McConnell & Strain (2007, pp. 57-64) describe some phenomena regarding the self in connection with well-being, which can only be summed up at this point 13 . Firstly, there seems to be a negative correlation between the number of aspects (e.g. roles) and well-being: more aspects in one’s self-concept have a dampening effect on one’s well- being. An explanation for this might be an increasing level of stress and a diminished experience of control over the development of one’s own self (p. 63). Secondly, McConnell & Strain explain a concept they call “spill over” (p. 59), which describes the effect that a positive or negative impact on one of the attributes, which are connected to more than one aspect, influences the well-being of both aspects. If, for example, John receives negative feedback about him being social in a peer setting, this will also affect his self-image of the family aspect; therefore, both aspects will have a combined reducing impact on his self-esteem. If he receives positive feedback, accordingly it will have a combined positive effect. Feedback on not connecting attributes will only have a singular impact on the self-esteem. Thirdly, an individual with a more complex self-structure is less affected by the spill over effect, as feedback on special attributes impact only a smaller part of the self, whereas individuals with only one or two aspects are highly affected.
A) Relationship with self: Optimists have a positive thought about their abilities . These people attribute their success to their own abilities. One of the important issues in Islam that reinforces being optimistic to human nature is the notion of Fitrah. Fitrah refers to the human nature and inner predispositions in the state of perfection and uprightness according to which Allah created it . Fitrah includes the idea that human nature is good as well as benevolent and it grows towards flourishing and actualizing unless he/she deviates by a misleading environment and a polluting ecology . One of the major differences of the Islamic spirituality compared to other religions (e.g. Christianity) is the Muslims' beliefs in fitrah. Human nature has never been contaminated by Adam's sin. Although Adam and Eve made a mistake in eating from the forbidden fruit, they repented and Allah accepted their repentance . Therefore, fitrah is a
Depression is widely researched regarding a plethora of different subjects such as comorbid conditions (e.g. Gorman, 1996), different samples (such as new mothers) (e.g. Murray, 1992), different age groups (e.g. and treatment methods and side effects (e.g. March et al., 2004; Basterzi, Aydemir, Kisa, Aksaray, Tuzer, Yazici & Göka, 2005; Ostroff & Nelson, 1999). The use of antidepressants, once the favoured method of treatment is now coming into conflict with more modern developing models of therapy than purely pharmacological. The debate continues as neuroscience evidence shows possible neural similarities in the effect of antidepressants and CBT (DeRubeis, Siegle & Hollon, 2008). CBT is seen to have similar clinical effects as pharmaceutical treatment, creating a modulating effect upon the function cortical and limbic areas of the brain (Goldapple, Segal, Garson, Lau, Bieling, Kennedy & Mayberg, 2004). Evidence such as this promotes further research and indicates the ability for patients and service users to make informed decisions with regards to their preferred method of therapy. Evidence of this nature might also encourage patients to explore the less clinical and pharmaceutical routes where possible. Miriam Akhtar’s (2012) work states the importance of positivepsychology influences for the recovery from depression and how some self-help strategies can enhance recovery. However, if pure positivity and self-help strategies were enough to help all sufferers of mild to moderate depression recover then surely the prevalence of depression would not be increasingly common and causing other illness (Lépine & Briley, 2011; Moussavi, Chatterji, Verdes, Tandon, Patel & Ustun, 2007).
We cannot and would not want to return to the lifestyles of our ancestors, but we do need to take a positive approach to creating lifestyles that include physical activity. Many people who are physically inactive are not diseased or ill but could benefit their health (both physically and mentally) from regular activity. The aim of this chapter is to provide an up to date review of what is known about the effects of physical activity on psychological function and to raise awareness of this knowledge amongst psychologists. This chapter develops the principle that the body is important to how we think, feel and behave. The principles of psychosomatic medicine have clearly established the idea that how we think and feel will affect the functioning of the body. However, our task in this chapter is to show that the reverse is also true… that there is a somatopsychic principle (Harris, 1973) which is very much in line with the principles of positivepsychology. The somatopsychic principle is neatly displayed in the well-known phrase of ‘mens sana in corpore sano’ (‘a healthy mind in a healthy body’).