Rajeev M. Joshi, Mehta, N.N. et al. (2002). Studied the efficacy of Netilmycin and ceftriaxone in clean contaminated and contaminated surgical cases in 250 patients. Clean contaminated cases received a single dose of Netilmycin (300 mg) in combination with ceftriaxone (1 gm) pre-operatively. Contaminated cases were administered Netilmycin (200 mg) along with ceftriaxone (1 gm) once daily for 5 consecutive days including the pre-operative dose. The overall response to the therapy showed a success rate of 98.71% in clean contaminated and 84.04% in contaminated cases with infection rate of 1.29% and 15.96% respectively.
The stages of this woundinfection continues the population and virulence of the microbes increase continuously incorporation with the host. In some cases, woundinfection is highly severe, cause cellulitis or metastatic spread to the spine or other distant sites.  Acute wound was expected when a patient meet a cutaneous injury that was heal within an appropriate time duration, those are need treatment to heal the wound depend upon the site, type and depth of wound. For surgical patients they are require medications to avoid wound healing but for traumatic injury patients they are all need antimicrobial therapy for their wound healing process because on they have a chance to get various kind of microbial population accumulation and non- viable foreign materials wound occurs. 
Methods: The present retrospective study was conducted in RIMS Institute, during a period of 3 years i.e. from 2013- 2016. In this study a total of 50 cases were collected from MRD department. They were divided into two groups- cases and controls, each having 50 subjects each. Woundinfection was defined as inflammation or sepsis with or without positive bacterial cultures. With SSI, there may be fever, redness, swelling and/or pain in the area around the incision site. Complete information regarding demographic data, the type and indication for caesarean section, duration of labour, duration of surgery and rupture of membrane were recorded. Wound infections occuring after 30 days of LSCS & other gynaecological surgeries were excluded. All the results were analyzed by SPSS software 16.0. Chi-square test and student t test were used for the assessment of level of significance. Probability value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.
occurrence of post-operativewoundinfection; the analysis aimed to develop a multivariable model to allow prediction of woundinfection in the presence of potential predictors or covariates. Crude logistic regression analyses were performed as initial steps of qualifying covariates to be included in the multivariable logistic regression analyses. Covariates with p-values <= 0.25 were included to develop an initial reduced model. Multicollinearity among the covariates was assessed using variance inflation factors. Variables that tested insignificant (with p-values > 0.05) were then eliminated from this model and interactions were tested. Each variable was sequentially removed at a time and its significance was tested. Likelihood ratio of tests which were used to compare models and Hosmer and Lemeshow test was used to assess goodness of fit of the final model. All statistical tests were conducted by using Stata version 12.
tidrug resistant. This situation raises a serious concern. This suggests a very high resistance gene pool due per- haps to gross misuse, overuse and inappropriate use of the antibacterial agents . The pattern is best under- stood in terms of selective pressure exerted on the organ- isms based on the current antibiotics use. Fluoro-qui- nolones and aminoglycosides are being more frequently prescribed in our settings. Hospitals provide an environ- ment conducive to the spread of resistant organisms among population . Additionally, higher multidrug resistance frequencies in a hospitalized population with intense exposure to antibiotics had been reported . Limitations of the study being that anaerobic bacteria profile and fungal cultures were not done on wound swabs obtained from post-operativewoundinfection. A continuous monitoring and update studies on the local microbial isolates are an essential and mandatory re- quirement for a better management and treatment of post-operativewound infections. This would be supple- mented with proper infection prevention and control measures and a sound antibiotic policy. This would result in better patient care, safety and health care outcomes.
Between the period of January 2011 to September 2012, 185 cases of ventral hernias treated at TVMCH were studied and followed for a period of 6 to 18 months. Ventral hernias were common surgical problems second only to groin hernias. More than 45% of ventral hernias were Incisional followed by, umbilical, paraumbilical hernias and epigastric hernias.. Most of the Incisional hernias developed >5yrs of previous surgery. Swelling, pain and complications along with aesthetic concerns are the causes for seeking surgical solution .Most of ventral hernias were uncomplicated at the time of presentation, remaining presented with either obstruction or strangulation necessitating emergency repair. Incidence of Incisional hernias was more in females with male to female ratio of 6.7:1, while epigastric and umbilical hernias were more common in males with male to female ratio of 4:1 and 1.2:1 respectively. Previous surgery was the single most important cause for ventral (Incisional) hernias. Other etiological factors were multiparity, obesity, anemia, COPD, BPH, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism and smoking. Postoperativewoundinfection was important cause for development of Incisional hernias.
associated with increased post-operative ICU stay and hospital stay durations and delayed discharge. It is also associated with an increased risk of post-operative bleeding that needed blood transfusion, sternal woundinfection and myocardial infarction. In hospital mortality is significantly higher among the group with preoperative anemia. According to the concluded results, strategies to reduce preoperative anemia are important to improve the outcome of valve replacement surgeries, as preoperative hemoglobin level is found to be an independent risk factor for post-operative morbidity and mortality.
swelling comparing 2 in the Intra-oral group. Post –operativeinfection was less in combined group (0) after 2 weeks comparing Intra-oral group (2). Result shows that infection, wound dehiscence and plate exposure are directly interrelated. The chances of plate exposure and post- operativeinfection is proportional to wound dehiscence Intra- oral group had more change of above three complication. Conclusion: Although Intra-oral and Transbuccal combined approached had better outcome than Intra-oral alone approach. Further more study with more sample sizeis required for definite conclusion.
An interesting situation was observed during the ana- lysis of a post-operativewound in patient no. 50 who had had laparotomy due to sigmoid perforation. Initially no microorganisms were isolated in the classical method from sample 2 collected from a post-appendectomy wound; however, parallel sample 1 in the CZE analysis revealed a number of peaks that could be typical for bacterial colonies of cocci morphology G(+) (Figure 12). A repeated analysis of serum exudate from this wound demonstrated infection cause by Staphylococcus epider- midis. (Figure 12). It may indicate significantly higher sensitivity of the electromigration method comparing to traditional diagnostic techniques. Similarly, in the group of 30 isolated (diagnosed as a result of phenotypic tech- niques) infections of E. coli that were subject to final analysis in 3 cases the CZE spectrum turned out to be ambiguous, because based on its character it was possi- ble to diagnose a complex infection caused by E. coli and cluster-forming cocci with a great likelihood.
increasing importance on a worldwide basis and these pathogens are beginning to pose a serious threat. There is some evidence to suggest that over use of β lactams has imposed a selective pressure on pathogens to acquire resistance genes and mutate these to confers a broader range of activities (Ref. 34). ESBLs have been reported from all parts of the world. However there is wide variation of the prevalence even in closely related regions. ESBLs have been found in a wide range of gram-negative bacteria and the majority of the strains belong to the family Enterobacteriacae. Enterobacteriacae producing ESBLs enzymes are a clinical threat and have been associated with increased mortality in severe infection.
In this study, high prevalence of MDR-MRSA was found in the burns unit of Mulago hospital, predisposing patients to infection with intractable isolates and under- scoring the need for improved infection control practices in this setting. Ojulong et al 2009, reported a relatively lower prevalence (31.6%) from the general surgery ward, possibly because this earlier study determined MRSA infections in only patients with post-operative surgical wound infections . Although data are still limited, there are emerging reports of prevalent MRSA infections in sub-Saharan Africa .
Ioana Lola (2011) conducted a prospective study to assess the predisposing factors for postoperative infections among 172 patients following open heart surgery. The aim of the study was to collect the risk factors of pre, intra and postoperative variables for the development of nosocomial infections that underwent open heart surgery. Results revealed that infections occurred 24 (13.95%) out of 172 patients. 8 (4.65%) had superficial wound infections at the sternotomy site. 5 of them had (2.9%) central venous catheter infection, (2.32%) of patients had pneumonia, 9 (5.23%) of them had bacteremia, one patient (0.58%) had mediastinal infection and urinary tract infection. The mortality rate of infection was 25% among patients undergone cardiac surgery. The duration of mechanical ventilator was increasing the rate of infection among 67 (2.79%) and 11 (16.4%) patients had high risk infection due to readmission. The study concluded that the duration of long stay and readmission are the independent risk factors of infection for the postoperative cardiac surgical patients. Patient with diabetic mellitus is 5.9 times higher the risk of acquiring infection and increased 30% for everyday on mechanical ventilation, 8.6 times higher in patients who is readmitted to the intensive care unit.
there is low risk of infection and immunological reaction with PRP use as platelets play important role in host defense mechanism due to release of a signaling peptide that attract macrophage. This theory appears convincing but in our study any statistical significant relationship could not be established between woundinfection and use of PRP. Aseptic procedure environment, proper use of antibiotics and detailed explanation of instructions might be a cause to
Patients were monitored carefully in the post-operative period for complications. Of the 40 patients, 4 patients developed localized seroma (2 patients with obstructed para-umbilical hernia and 2 patients with obstructed incisional hernia). 4 patients developed woundinfection (2 patients with strangulated inguinal hernia and 2 patients with irreducible inguinal hernia).
The word “disinfection” means destruction of all pathogenic organisms capable of causing infection. In modern science, all the invasive procedures involve contact by a medical device or surgical instruments with a patient sterile tissue or mucous membrane. In surgical aspect, disinfection is vital and primary preoperative step to avoid the surgical site infection. During the 1850s Florence Nightinagle was a pioneer and reformer of hospital sanitations method although she was unaware that bacteria are cause of infections. In the late 1860s Lister introduced the concept of asepsis into the practice of surgery and started to disinfect skin, suture material and wounds leading to a reduction in mortality after amputations. In Ayurveda, the importance of maintaining the aseptic conditions is well explained in different compendiums like Kashyapsamhita and Sushrutasamhita. Sushruta stated flaming of instruments to be used for surgery preoperatively. He also included Dhoopan means exposing post-operativewound to medicated fumes of drugs containing analgesic and antibacterial properties. He has also mentioned the isolation of patient after operative procedure in the special chamber which should be previously fumigated and also described the daily fumigation of this chamber to protect the surgical site infection. This article is written to explore all the methods of disinfection mentioned in Samhita period and their relevance in today‟s era. For this purpose all classical and modern literature and journals are searched regarding methods of disinfection to prevent surgical site infection. At the end we can say that Sushruta is the pioneer of concept of disinfection. Various methods of disinfection to prevent the surgical site infection are developed on the base of ancient concept of disinfection.
The wounds were inspected on the fourth post- operative day, Woundinfection was diagnosed if there was either clinical or microbiological evidence. Clinical evidence of woundinfection included fever, tachycardia, erythematous reaction around the wound site, warmth and tenderness, purulent discharge while microbiological evidence was based on the findings from wound swab microscopy and culture. Wound dressings removed after collecting wound swab if any and the wound dressed thereafter till discharge. All the subjects were interviewed on day four post-operative day using a standardized questionnaire. The information was coded and fed into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17. The presence of association between hypothesized risk factors and woundinfection were tested using univariate analysis. Test of significance based on 95% confidence interval of Chi square was used to determine significant variables. Logistic regression was used to determine the independent risk factors for woundinfection. P value was set at <0.05.
This is a retrospective study which was carried out on 35 patients operated upon (either primary or revision) for variable spinal lesions from 2006 till 2016 and com- plicated by post spinal surgery infection. No patient was operated upon for primary pre-existing spinal infection or congenital lesions. On presentation, the patients were diagnosed to have post-operativeinfection by clinical examination, laboratory and radiological investigation. All patients were re-admitted to the hospital even those with superficial infections for fear of spread of infection to the deep layers where the urgent management was done. During the hospital stay, the patients were followed up laboratory and radiological investigations. The laboratory investigations included complete blood picture, blood sugar, culture and sensitivity from the wound, renal and liver function tests and C-reactive protein. The radiological investigations included plain X-ray, CT scan and MRI. After complete healing of in- fection, the patients were followed up for at least 6 months after discharge from the hospital for fear or recurrence of infection. Summary of the clinical data of cervical, dorsal and lumbar patients was categorized in Tables 1, 2 and 3 respectively.
The wound is a breach in the integrity of skin that leads to subcutaneous tissue exposure. [1,2] Wounds can be classified as pathological, post-operative or accidental.  Woundinfection is one of the principal cause of patient morbidity and mortality. [3-5] Wound infections are also considered one of the most common nosocomial infection  , for example, surgical site infection in United State accounted for about 31% of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). 
Post operative surgical wound infection Med J Malaysia Vol 45 No 4 December 1990 Post operative surgical wound infection Yasmin Abu Hanifah, MBBS, MSc (London) Lecturer Department of Medical Microbiol[.]
Introduction: Surgical site infection classified as Major SSI and minor SSI. A major SSI is defined as a wound that either discharges significant quantities of pus spontaneously or needs a secondary procedure to drain it and with systemic signs such as tachycardia, pyrexiaand raised white cell count. Minor SSI may discharge pus or infected serous fluid but are not associated with excessive discomfort, systemic signs or delay in return home.