The term of postmodernism suggests that the period came after modernism (since the 70-90ss of the 20th century). Postmodern texts are marked by the mixture of times, cultures, languages, real facts and fiction, the present and the past. Postmodernliterature is presented by such key figures in English literature as John Fowels , Julian Barns, Doris Lessing, A.S. Byatt, Pe- ter Ackroyd, G. Swift, etc. Out of them we have chosen John Fowels’ novels because of his originality, versatility and skill were nowhere more evident than in his most celebrated novels, among them “The Collector,” “The Magus” and “«The French Lieutenant’s Woman».” In “«The French Lieutenant’s Woman»,” for example, he combined the melodrama of a 19th-century Vic- torian novel with the sensibility of a 20th-century postmodern narrator, offering his readers two alternative endings from which to choose and at one point boldly inserting himself into the book as a character who accompanies the hero on a train to London. His teasing, multilayered fiction explored the tensions between free will and the constraints of society, even as it played with traditional novelistic conventions and challenged readers to find their own interpretations.
During the last decades, theories of interconnection and linking have been in the centre of many academic discourses: what goes back to the ancient hermetic worldview that regards everything as connected has been taken up in studies on our globalised world, for example as relationality in the form of cosmodernism. Thus, society has been regarded as linked in areas as different as social networks or globalised markets. In this paper, it is shown how such interconnections are created by storytelling. For this purpose, three metafictional novels with a multiplot structure are analysed. In Jonathan Safran Foer's novel Everything is Illuminated (2002), storytelling helps two very different characters to search for their identity and a traumatic family past influenced by the Holocaust. In the novel, three textual levels and several narrators make it visible that the search for identity and the past is only possible by interlinked stories and a process of co-authorship. The intricate structure of Catherynne M. Valente's fantastic novel Palimpsest (2009) thematises the connection between human beings and their stories which even spans different worlds. Metafictional structures – especially the structure of the palimpsest – illustrate how the whole world consists of stories written on other stories. David Mitchell's novel Cloud Atlas (2004) consists of six narratives set in different times and places which are connected by symbols, intertextual links, or intermedial adaptations. Hence, in the novel it is shown that despite wars, violence, and the struggle for power throughout history, human beings are connected across time and space – by their stories. By analysing these literary devices, a postmodern poetics of interconnection becomes visible that shows how human history is created by transglobal storytelling.
Page | 263 This paper is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. literary and non-literary forms to manifest reality in the current culture. To understand the corresponding relation between postmodernism and literature Shklovsky's theory about the history of narrative should be studied. He sees it as a continual making strange or defamiliarization, which has brought about the constant renewal of the form (Lemon & Reis, 1965, p. 57). Bakhtin shares a similar view, but sees narrative as defamiliarizing different ways of talking about the world (1981, pp. 5-38). Reality and the form of representing it can be defamiliarized and manifested unfamiliar. According to Bakhtin, in postmodernliterature the present is more focused because the concept of time has changed which opposes the traditional concept of unity or wholeness. It mostly focuses on contemporary history and a reality which is continually moving through present and present. He claims that novel has an original way of forming time and the absolute past tradition has no role in the creation of the novel as a genre. According to him the novel was created exactly when the object of representing reality was being disgraced to the level of a contemporary reality that was ambiguous and adaptable (1981, p. 38). In postmodernism the story returns to a sense of indecisiveness and defectiveness receding the present which is much more different from our contemporary awareness.
The origin of the word “Kitsch” (Werkkitschen) is German and this word is generally described as disprize, desublimation, commercialization, duplication and aesthetic improperness. All works excluding aesthetic concerns (aesthetic guided) were evaluated as kitsch in modernism and these kinds of works were not accepted as significant in modern literature. This style that was not accepted by modernism. Postmodernliterature and kitsch is tried to be included in art together with pop art. Thus kitsch is included in art as against modernism (see: AslÕúen, 2006: 6). Kitsch is fed with some instruments such as eclecticism, intertextuality, metafiction, plurality, a lasting place for itself. Specified as “Making art entertaining” (op.cit.: 3) kitsch had negative meaning at first, but nowadays it has a positive uncertainty and irony in literature. As the mass media gains more importance day by day meaning in some way thanks to postmodernliterature (see: Gelfert, 2010:164). “It’s main purpose is to convey the message to the addressee in a direct way and in a way that easily be understood and do not have any aesthetic concern for this purpose.” (op.cit.: XII). Kitsch is smartened with paradoxical items and includes heavy emotional themes and thus easily let people wander around realms of imaginary. “Fame” by Daniel Kehlmann contains kitschy elements and can be considered as it serves to postmodernliterature.
While the literature does not provide definitive conclusions on how our surroundings might impact allergen and subsequent allergenic illnesses.Dust and dusty climate in Karachi can increase the chances of allergy in dust allergic persons.Frequent and continuous construction of different buildings, roads etc lead to excessive pileup of sand, dust, animal dander, smoke in our surrounding which can be very fatal to persons allergic to the above especially asthmatic patients.Pollutants and pollution in our surroundings can again be a cause of allergy among individuals.According to a survey conducted on the overview of students, physicians , and pharmacies and medical stores we came to a conclusion that on a general overview 60% of the public suffers from dust allergy which is quiet a vast percentage. Though there allergies are not life threatening but they do find it difficult when surrounded by a dusty environment.Hence keeping in mind such a percentage certain measures must be taken both by the population, government, health practitioners and the allergic individuals themselves which may include preventive, cautious, awareness, emergency and other such programs to help control the spread of dust and allergens and relief patients of their allergic sufferings.
Lifespan is a function of a balance of two opposite processes that cause injure accumulation and aging on the one hand, and induce compensatory responses that restrict and repair such metabolic injuries for promoted longevity on the other hand. Aging is an increasing apprehension for the healthful postmodern lifespan. Data suggest increases in the number of healthy years but also compromised physical, mental, and social functions. Mitochondria are closely linked to skeletal muscle and skin cells functions. Decreased oxidative capacity of aged skeletal muscle is due to impaired mitochondrial function. Aging coincides with reduced endocrinological activities. Diet restrictions in rodent models have repeatedly and firmly elongated lifespan while retarding the occurrence of age-related pathologic alterations.
For other historians critical of the stance of postmodernity, the real problem is a fear that once evidential ‘facts’ (which are selected) and narratological ‘meaning’ (which is constructed) are separated, postmodernists will feel free to ignore, distort or destroy the ‘truth’. It seems that when ‘proper’ historians defend history (in the lowercase) against postmodern theory that they do so because they misunderstand the stance of postmodern historians like Hayden White. Nowhere is this better illustrated than in Gertrude Himmelfarb’s Telling It As You Like It: Postmodernist History And The Flight From Fact. Himmelfarb accuses White of presenting ‘an anarchic view of History’, pure relativism, and that in postmodern historiography ‘anything goes’ because, “What the historian sees as an event that actually occurred in the past, the postmodernist sees as a text that exists only in the present”. (Himmelfarb, 1992; cited in Jenkins, 1997, p.162) This switching of ‘event’ into ‘text’ is perceived by Himmelfarb as being most dangerous and particularly insidious when it comes to “what may be the hardest case in modern history” (Himmelfarb, 1992; cited in Jenkins, 1997, p.164) because a postmodern philosophy of history provides “the ammunition for revisionist sceptics” who deny “the evidence” and “the reality” of the Holocaust. (Himmelfarb, 1992; cited in Jenkins, 1997, p.164)
The shift from a modern to a postmodern (or late-modern, as some prefer to call it) culture, obviously requires new theological reflection. This cultural shift, which is still in the making, brings a new understanding of self and the world with it. Theology therefore has to reflect on the implications and compatibility of this new understanding of the self and the world for a Christian understanding of reality as revealed in the Bible and other relevant texts. In this paper I shall describe some dimensions of the cultural shift that is occurring and then reflert on the challenges and opportunities that they offer to theologians. My intention is not to formulate appropriate theological responses to these challenges and opportunities. Theolo gians are much better equipped to do that. I shall rather speak as a philosopher who attempts to interpret the culture we live in, and who wishes to invite and involve persons in other disciplines in the conversation - especially theologians, clergy, and other Christians.
There is some similarity between Mannheim’s project and that of postmodern theory; spelling out the characteristics of the postmodern is to point to the emergence of an epoch in which people share a perspective that informs both the way they grasp what is going on and the way they act. But the big difference is that the postmodern perspective is multi-faceted and seemingly devoid of coherence. As Lyotard puts it “[e]clecticism is the degree zero of contemporary culture” (1992: 17). The account of postmodernity is inspired by the attempt to identify a unitary world view, either a development of the modern or a shift to a new perspective. But what is discovered is a sharing of an anti-world view; the global outlook is no more than a myriad of local outlooks, each continually cycling through a series of competing perspectives. Its only unity lies in the tolerance of diversity and through a discovery of the failure of the project of modernity; “the discovery of a lack of reality in reality - a discovery linked to the invention of other realities” (Lyotard 1992: 19).
"Internationalization" of higher education is another process that has started in recent decades. It is the future perspectives of higher education in postmodern era. Some think globalization and internationalization are the same, while "Knight" considers these two concepts different from each other. In his view, globalization is an ideological concept that refers to the impact of new communication, technologies, global politics and their impacts on the economy, culture and politics in the world whereas the internationalization of higher education is a policy for the government to better use of global processes. (Knight, quoted by Hakimi, 1380).Besides, Scott believes that these concepts are different. In his view, the main difference between these two concepts is related to the existence of nation- states. He believes that the role of governments in internationalization of higher education are absolutely important and considerable, while the globalization process reduces the authority of the state. Secondly, internationalization is the sphere of diplomacy and culture, whereas the concept of globalization related to the capital system and the expansion of culture of consumerism (Scott 1990: 37).
Is there still a realist challenge in postmodern theology? J W en tze l v a n H u yssteen Prin ceto n Theological Sem inary A b stra ct In this article Jerom e A S to n e's ‘neo naturalistic philosoph[.]
They only note that, contrary to what postmodern authors affirm, metanarratives such as Christianity are not necessarily oppressive (Kelly 2011). But if we push the argument, we can say that postmodernism, or at least some elements of it, may create a space where Christian faith can develop. By stressing the intrinsic limitation of human reason and recognising the historian’s radical situatedness, postmodern authors point at new ways of searching for the Unknown, the one whom the followers of Jesus call God. This is the position adopted by Theobald. According to Theobald (2008), Christians have everything to gain from a posture of ‘learning’ (apprentissage) in the modern and postmodern world:
Every ethnicity-oriented writing provides a new outlook of the American patchwork, and should be considered as a valuable contribution to the mainstream writings. Becoming ever more absorbed in my research work, I started coming to grips with a series of puzzling but response–inciting questions. This paper is meant to grapple with such questions as: Which are the tenets of the postmodern self, and how does its fragmented condition accommodate instances of the African American sense of self and identity? Which is the relationship between selfhood and socialization, me-ness and community that undergirds two of Morrison’s most well known novels Sula and Beloved? Is the sense of self a multiple construct, or rather a chaotic absorption of such variables as communality, femaleness, linguistic indeterminacy and symbolism? How do the protagonists of each of the novels resemble and differ in their coming to grips with the postmodern chaos and the sense of alienation.
Just as in the rest of the crisis wisdom literature, the doctrine of retribution also plays an important role in the protest of the book of Ecclesiastes, but yet again in a slightly different way. Loader (1979:122–123) points out that in the extra-biblical crisis literature the protesting wisdom was never able to conquer the systematised wisdom, but in the books of Job and Ecclesiastes the doctrine of retribution is conquered. In Job the dogma of retribution is denied through the judgement of God in the epilogue and the relative connection between deed and consequence is left in peace. The dogma thus looses and the tension is discharged in favour of the protesting wisdom. In Ecclesiastes the doctrine of retribution is also combated and beaten, but in a more distinct way: not only is the doctrine of retribution in the sphere of the righteous sufferer annihilated, but also all human endeavours at success. The crisis in wisdom in this book thus does not result in the tension being discharged in favour of the protesting wisdom but instead in the continuation of tension. It is therefore not surprising that Qoheleth persists to proclaim the vanity of all human endeavours. Loader (1979:123) rightly remarks in this regard that for Qoheleth, life and the works of God cannot be explained in terms of certain wisdom structures. God is the unknown and distant one (Ec 3:11; 8:17) with whom humans cannot speak freely (Ec 5:1) and who does what he wants in terms of life and death (Ec 3:2–8), prosperity (Ec 5:18) and misery (Ec 5:12) and who does not require humans in terms of a particular order (Ec 2:14; 9:2–3). Spangenberg (1993:11) concludes in this regard that Qoheleth’s own experiences and observations lead him to proclaim that there are no guaranteed outcomes in human life and thus lead him to revolt against the systemised wisdom.
The terrorism of obscurantism is one of the hallmarks of Don DeLillo’s The Names (1982), distinguishing it as one of the "difficult writings" in his canon. Terrorism, however, is not confined to the novel’s poetics of writing, it constitutes, as the arch-motif of the novel, its politics as well. Relying on the Orientalist bulk of knowledge about the Orient, DeLillo, in this novel, inaugurates a Neo-orientalist trend in American postmodern fiction: generalizing the images of "Arab" terrorists to Iranians, paving the way for further Orientalist (mis)representations in future American fictions. DeLillo’s narrative, however, is by no means all-inclusive; rather, it is marked with some discursive gaps which destabilize the novel’s political claims on the "truth" of the terrorism under discussion. In this paper, first, through an intertextual reading, the novel’s ambiguous re-enactment of and departure from Orientalist discourse is explored, and then, it is argued that by making Iranians the objects of Orientalist representation, the writer expands the horizons of the discourse of terrorism. Besides, DeLillo’s anti-totalizing totalizational gesture in both undermining the Orientalist discourse and at the same time legitimizing it —what makes the novel thematically, or precisely saying politically, postmodern— is brought to light.
Baedecker to places in the literary imagination “that a traveler could expect to visit, leaving out heavens and hells and places of the future”(Foreword). But how did Le Guin get to Earthsea? Jane Langton, author of children’s fantasy, uses an image from E. Nesbit’s novel The Enchanted Castle to make her own analogy. There is a curtain between our world and the world that contains Middle Earth and Earthsea, Langton claims, and “once people have found the little weak spots in the curtain marked by magic rings, amulets, and the like, almost anything can happen”(166). Some fantasies, like those of Tolkien and Le Guin, occur entirely on the other side of the curtain. Others, including the ones I will examine here, occur in the liminal space between—where characters and readers can peek through the curtain—send ideas back and forth. Lewis’ Narnia and its famous wardrobe-portal is, like The Enchanted Castle, a trope of this tale-type. Aichele observes that such overlaps between our world and the fantastic realm are key to postmodern interpretations of metafantasy: “[the overlap] establishes an endless oscillation between worlds, a reciprocal interference with one another which becomes more and more violent until a blurring of every self-identical entity