11. Organic agriculture uses a greater level of di- versity among crops, crop rotations and production practices than commonly employed in conven- tional, industrialized agriculture, which often is based on monocultures. Organic farms have a gen- erally higher biodiversity, also due to set-aside ar- eas and other landscape elements. This improves ecological and economic stability. The diversity of income sources, as well as the resilience to adverse effects of climate change is thus increased. An ex- ample of the benefits is the enhanced biodiversity, which reduces pest outbreaks and severity of plant and animal diseases, while also improving utiliza- tion of soil nutrients and water (Smith et al., 2011). For improving resilience to a higher occurrence of heat waves under climate change, the use of agro- forestry and shade trees can be a very efficient mechanism for lowering critical temperatures. These diverse systems may also enhance carbon sequestration (Smith and Olesen, 2010).
FAMOUS is a coupled ocean-atmosphere global circulation model of horizontal resolution 7.5° × 5° (longitude × latitude) in the atmosphere and 3.75° × 2.5° in the ocean [Smith, 2012] and has been widely used in studies of climate and paleoclimate [e.g., Smith and Gregory, 2012]. FAMOUS has near-identical physics and dynamics to the HadCM3 version of the Met Ofﬁce Uniﬁed Model (MetUM) [Gordon et al., 2000], which was used in the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, but is run at a lower spatial resolution. FAMOUS has the advantage of being computationally efﬁcient, enabling the very long simulations required to spin-up the ocean circulation for Maastrichtian boundary conditions, while retaining the complexity of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model utilizing the primitive equations of motion. Since it is not computationally feasible to run a full stratosphere-resolving chemistry- climate model on these timescales, and because we are primarily interested in the radiative rather than dynamical effects of stratospheric perturbations on the troposphere and surface, we focus on validating the radiative forcings (henceforth RFs) and climate sensitivity simulated by FAMOUS against more complex models. Land average and global average surface air temperatures are 15.1 ± 0.1°C and 23.0 ± 0.1°C, respec- tively, in the “ Maastrichtian ” control run, and 8.0 ± 0.1°C and 14.8 ± 0.1°C in the “ preindustrial ” run — all of which are within 2°C of values obtained by other modeling work [Hunter et al., 2013].
space conditions required for the comfort and industrial air conditioning. Now days demand for AC system applications are increasing and include the areas of application like apartment buildings, banks, office buildings, industrial plants, schools, restaurants etc. This growing demand for air conditioning system forced manufactures to develop such system which is able to compete in the global market and satisfy the user requirements as well as environmental conditions. A refrigerant plays important role to produce desired cooling effects in AC system as required for providing comfort conditions. Currently numerous refrigerants are available in the market having their own merits and demerits so appropriate selection of refrigerant is very essential. An MCDM-TOPSIS Approach is used to select the appropriate refrigerant including the criteria for selection as Ozone upon Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP), Global Warming Potential (GWP), Latent heat of vaporization (LHVP) and COP (Coefficient of Performance) values .
were used to evaluate life-cycle environmental effects of each building through different phases: material manufacturing, construction, use, maintenance and demolition phase. The results showed that concrete structural-frame had more associate energy use and emissions due to longer installation process( 2005). Blengini performed LCA of building which was demolished in the year 2004 by controlled blasting. The adopted functional unit used in the current case-study was 1 m2 net floor area, over a period of 1 year. This residential building was situated at Turin (Italy). In this study demolition phase and its recycling potential were studied. The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase was initially focused on the characterisation and six energy and environmental indicators were considered, GER (Gross Energy Requirement), GWP, ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential), AP, EP and POCP (Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential). SimaPro 6.0 (2004) and Boustead Model 5 (Boustead I, 2004). were used as supporting tools in order to implement the LCA model and carried out the results. The results demonstrated that building waste recycling is not only economically feasible and profitable but also sustainable from the energetic and environmental point of view (Blengini, 2009).
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A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change is a grave threat faced by humankind .Changes in the environment-reportedly largely due to greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere by human activity-threaten to make earth uninhabitable for humans.The unnatural climate change we are expecting is the manifestation of a change in the climate of human kind over the past several centuries. To this end an integrated ecological-economic modeling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning formation,socio-economic drivers,as well as world food trade dynamics.Specially,first,impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio- physical soil and crop growth determines of yield are evaluated on a 5’X5’ latitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modeling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change.
as dead or living mulch is crucial. But biomass production is naturally limited in areas of low rainfall, and the need to feed livestock in the dry season competes with the prin- ciple of retaining crop residues on the soil surface. Crop residues, in particular maize stover, are used as fodder for livestock, especially in smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Consequently, biomass for mulch- ing is often in critically short supply so that the targeted application rates cannot be reached. Other constraints in many African regions are residue removal by termites or burning practices to clear land because of rodents, pests and weeds. Thus in many mixed farming systems, par- ticularly in semi-arid areas where livestock are of sig- niﬁ cant importance, the costs of retaining crop residues as a mulch may be too great in relation to the potential beneﬁ ts, which are often difﬁ cult to quantify. 4
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In Hinduism there is a strong calling to respond to the environmental crises. Global warming has negatively affected countless parts of nature, including many groves and forests held sacred by Hindus. Hinduism holds the belief that all organisms and nature are connected. We are therefore hurt by global warming just as much as nature is. Govindasamy Agoramoorthy and Minna J. Hsu maintain that “It is now time to reinvent an ecological way of living based on spiritual values in order to mitigate the climate change” (215). They are saying that we must work now to counteract the effects of global warming, especially before it becomes even worse. It is our responsibility to find a way to live without destroying the earth.
ABSTRACT: Global warming, climate change ,have taken the centre stage of academic research. A raging debate is on apart from the popular writings and research articles published on the theme. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change “Warming of the climate system is unequivocal as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice since the mid 20th century”. Global warming is the ‘talk of the town’ in this century, with its detrimental effects already being brought to limelight by the recurring events of massive floods, annihilating droughts and ravaging cyclones throughout the globe. The average global temperatures are higher than they have ever been during the past millennium, and the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere have crossed all previous records. A scrutiny of the past records of 100 years indicates that India figures in the first 10 in the world in terms of fatalities and economic losses in a variety of climatic disasters. Present study focus on the causes and effects of global warming on the planet earth.
The objective of this study was to assess different fuel combinations that can be adopted to reduce the level of air pollution and GHG emissions associated with the energy. The study bears significance to almost all countries that, due to the pressure of high energy demand, tend to settle for any available energy source without consider- ing the environmental effects.
Under various heat loads, with silver nano particles immersed as a working fluid, the heat pipe wall temperature is comparatively less as that of pure water. In case of silver nanofluids the thermal resistance of grooved heat pipes depends on the size of the nano particle. Nanofluid potential as a substitute for conventional pure water results in higher thermal performance of the nanofluid. This makes the nanofluid as more efficient cooling fluid with respect to devices with high energy density. Silver nanofluid heat pipe thermal performance is more then that of a conventional heat pipe.
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The need of an alternative refrigerant should acquire various desirable emblematic such as safe operation, thermal and chemical stability, material compatibility and low cost. In addition there are other environmental compatibility aspects such as zero ozone depletion potential (ODP), relatively low global warming potential (GWP), and in preference low smog formation potential i.e. should not be aerratic organic compound. Therefore, any substitute should not be inoffensive so creature as well as to the environment regulation. One has to adjustment on other aspects such as flammability, manufacturing feasibility, energy efficiency, import, redesign of the system etc. A few countries in Europe have given special scrutiny for the use of natural fluids like hydrocarbon (HC), ammonia, carbon dioxide, air etc. To avoid the use of synthetic refrigerants like hydrofluorocarbon (HFCs) as much as possible. Use of rightful design modification for prominent safety and standards are being revised to take, these development into consideration.
temperature (global warming 2). Policy talk about 2 degrees (Shaw, 2013), popular books about 6 degrees (Lynas, 2008), the popular slogan ‘mitigate for 2, adapt for 4’ and annual press releases telling us the global surface air temperature for the year all feed into this popular understanding of climate change. If scientists now say that what really matters is the amount of heat (energy) accumulating in the whole system, and not merely global surface temperature, then public understandings of global warming will likely be disrupted. (3) Climate policy has, up to now, been built around measurements of global warming 2 (derived mostly from land and marine surface thermometers) and yet is now being supposed to draw upon scientific insights into global warming 1/global heating 3. Scientifically, the basic physics related to greenhouse effect may not have changed, but one can see how critics may think the goalposts are being moved. Questions may also be asked as to why global warming was ever defined in a restrictive way anyway. Was it because of restrictions on what
Global warming, also referred to as climate change and green house gas effect, has been a continuous growing threat to life and ecosystems of the planet earth and is indeed one of the most challenging tasks of mankind to deal with. It is the gradual continuous increase in the average temperature of earth’s atmosphere and its oceans due to the green house effect caused by accumulation of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, chlorofluorocarbons and others in the atmosphere as a result of increasing industrialization and deforestation. The global surface temperature has increased from 0.74±0.18 ºC during the last century ending in 2005 (Solomon et al. 2007) and It is proposed and projected that in the coming decades global warming will further increase at a higher rate than before, that is, 1 to 6.4ºC by 21 st century(Solomon et al. 2007). This will affect the world’s
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By examining the sub-categories of supply chain processes (Table 9), it is shown that while climate change factors continue to dominate the components, the results obtained from the PCA highlight that different categories of supply chain processes have slightly differing patterns regarding environmental impacts. Again, for the sake of simplicity, the correlation of each extracted component needed to explain 95% of the variance is shown. For these processes this means that cement, glass, and steel have just one component each, whilst transport has three components. As with the random sample PCA, component 1 is consistently comprised of climate change (global warming potential) and ecological scarcity indicators, but differing results arise from running sector-specific processes compared to a random sample (as highlighted in Table 8).
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change during the last century (Sah et al. 2005). However, there are not many studies about changing area of glacial lakes. The assessment of increasing glacial lakes and their interlinkages with GLOFs are of great importance in view of their great potential for causing major catastrophes to human society (Huggel et al. 2004). These lakes have been increasingly observed to breach out, leading to outburst floods and debris flows (Fujita et al. 2007). Consequently, assessing the increasing size of glacial lakes and their flooding risk becomes vitally crucial (Dobhal et al. 2013). Therefore the present study was undertaken to map glacial lakes, their increasing extent and associated damage potentials in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), Indian Himalaya. The NDBR is located in Uttarakhand state of India and lies between the geographic coordinates of 79 ° 13 ′ E to 80 ° 17 ′ E longitudes and 31 ° 04 ′ N to 30 ° 06 ′ N latitudes.
In line with the EU international headline targets, actions towards environment friendly alternatives should be taken in all sectors and hierarchical levels. Industrial products and appliances are subject to energy labelling measures under the EU's Energy Labelling Directive  as well as ecodesign measures under the EU's Ecodesign Directive . There is a significant potential in optimising and improving the design of industrial products and appliances and with that reducing the impacts on the environment at the beginning of the product life-cycle as well as on their end .
fuels and other greenhouse gases, and ozone depletion. Heat-pumping technologies, i.e. refrigeration, air conditioning, and heat pumps, more or less unknown and hardly recognised by the public, have the potential for reducing the negative effects resulting from these boundary conditions. But the public awareness of these technologies has to be improved. Heat-pumping technologies are reliable, energy efficient, and environmen- tally friendly, they are in use world wide and the turn-over of the related industry is only 10 % less than the turn-over of the automotive industry. Heat pumping is one of the key technologies required to achieve the targets set at the Kyoto summit.
Agencies currently measure surface air temperatures above the land and near-surface ocean temperatures (depth less than 2 meters), and then calculate a global average temperature from thousands of locations, for each month and each year . Absolute temperatures vary from place to place, so the temperature changes (anoma- lies) are reported at each location. A global average anomaly is then calculated. This anomaly is very rough since vast amounts (90+%) of the earth’s surface are not included, i.e., temperatures of the soil and rock (centi- meters not meters down), mountains, and oceans below the near surface. Because the temperatures from these areas do not change significantly from year to year, , (, p. 263: Figure 3.3a,) their exclusion can and does exaggerate the anomaly.
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Along with other ecosystem services that wetlands provide, carbon sequestration in wetlands through accumulated plant biomass can potentially make these ecosystems net carbon sinks. This ecosystem service can potentially be beneficial to remediate the rising global carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and provide additional economic benefits to wetland restoration projects. However, the dynamic of accumulated biomass (carbon input) and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes (carbon outputs) in wetlands have not been well studied in brackish salt marshes with salinities > 20 ppt. This research was conducted to provide a clearer understanding of whether carbon sequestration can be considered a
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Palme realized that he would not be able to control science, so he proposed the establishment of a new intergovernmental body within the United Nation to handle the question. Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland grasped the mes- sage, and put it in focus in the Brundtland Report of 1988. IPCC was born and Bolin became its first chairman with a basic mission: “ to document the anthro- pogenic global warming ”; i . e . the goal was set before the project started. The Sun was purposely left outside “ because this is a project in meteorology and oceano- graphy ”, he said.