Governments and international …nancial institutions can play an important role in helping households manage daily risks and cope with losses whenever they occur. The notion that Poverty Alleviation Programs (PAP) should be a permanent feature of social policy and not simply a temporary response to crisis is now increasingly embraced by the international development community. During economic downturns, problems are much more serious and immediate and the appeals for public action are impossible to deny. But even when a country prospers, some households will still face hard times.
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Abstract— This study aimed to determine the of level of implementations of poverty alleviation programs in Isabela, Philippines. It includes the determination of social, infrastructure and economic development and implementation programs of Isabela, Philippines. The test of relationship between the perception of the respondents and the profile is conducted to find out the possible association between the type of respondents and the perception. The result of the test is useful in determining what particular recommendations and suggestions can be made for the kind of respondents. Study showed that the assessment noted that status of the implementation of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps), Social Housing Program and Farm-to-Market Roads (FMRs) in Isabela was generally implemented effectively. Accordingly, these implied that the implementation and commitment of the identified programs/projects had positive effects in the lives of the respondents and certainly gave them chance to improve their daily living and their children may attain better quality and secured life in the future. In addition, the findings of the study revealed that on the implementation of 4Ps, the four (4) LGUs had weak result of implementation on “Economic Resources”, substantial efforts could be done to improve the implementation of the program through consultation with the beneficiaries to identify what better and relevant option/s can be executed toward economic resources program; enrichment/reinforcement of the existing capacity/capability building provisions stated in their ELAs; improvement of the One-Barangay- One-Product (OBOP)/One-Town-One-Product (OTOP); strengthen collaboration with academic institutions in the locality; encourage membership in a cooperative; and build up partnership with agencies/NGOs.
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Abstract— This study was able assessed the extent of the level of awareness on poverty alleviation programs in Isabela. Specifically, it determined the economic, social and infrastructure development of poverty alleviation programs of Isabela, Philippines. The test of difference is important so that decisions can be made on different programs in considering different perceptions of respondents and its profile. The study used descriptive research wherein it used survey instrument for the assessment that was validated carefully by the group of experts. The respondents were dominated by males with ages 51 and above with two children, high school graduates, earning an income below minimum wage level per day and working as farm laborers or engaged in agriculture-related activities. On the analysis of the findings, among the three (3) poverty alleviation programs, respondents were “Aware” on the programs/projects of 4Ps and on Infrastructure Development and “Moderately Aware” on Social Housing. Generally, the 4Ps, Social Housing and Farm-to-Market Roads has been “Implemented”. In addition, assessment whether there was a significant difference in the perception of the respondents on the level of implementation of economic, social and infrastructure development programs in terms of their profile, results revealed in some indicators of the different areas of the three (3) programs that there is statistically significant differences in their perception when they were grouped according to their profile leading to the rejection of the null hypothesis in some of the indicators. The study recommended that there should be proper information dissemination on the alleviation programs for more familiarization on the advantages of the programs.
Employment guarantee scheme was experimentally started in 1965 and was subsequently expanded as part of an Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP) (Hema Arora, 2005). To implement a basic set of social and an economic objective, the Common Minimum Programs (CMP) was announced in 2004 to address the hunger and food security in rural areas. In August 2005, the Indian Parliament passed the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee (MGNREG) Act. This is hailed as one of independent India’s most ambitious interventions to address rural poverty and empower poor people. The NREGA follows a set of legally enforceable employment norms. Its aim is to end food insecurity, empower village communities, and create useful assets in rural areas. It is based on the assumption that every adult has a right to basic employment opportunities at the statutory minimum wage. Under the scheme, one member of every rural poor family is guaranteed 100 days of work at the minimum wage of ` 60 a day. All rural poor are eligible, not just those designated below the poverty line (BPL). One- third of the beneficiaries must be women. If five or more children accompany their mothers to any site, the implementing authority must appoint a woman to look after them on the site.
Abstract: The paper is aimed at providing a theoretical explanation why policies that affect only the supply side of the child labour problem may not be able to mitigate the incidence of child labour in a developing economy in terms of a three-sector general equilibrium model with agricultural dualism and child labour. Although a poverty alleviation program like subsidization of backward agriculture exerts a downward pressure on the child labour incidence through the supply side by raising adult wage income it ultimately worsens the problem by increasing the demand for child labour resulting from an expansion of backward agriculture. The paper finds that a policy of overall economic growth in the form of an FDI (foreign direct investment) is indeed able to put downward pressures on the child labour problem both through the demand and supply sides. Welfare of the child labour-supplying families also improves consequently.
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The approach towards poverty alleviation is based on the formation of self-help groups at the grass root level. This brings about the necessity for organizing them in a group by which they set the benefit of collective perception, collective decision-making and collective implementation of programme for common benefits. This organization holds the power and provides strength and acts as an anti dote to the helplessness of the poor. The group saving of self helps groups serve a wide range of objectives other than immediate investment. The approach has evolved over the years in India. Before understanding the strength of SHGs as a tool in Poverty Alleviation, it is imperative to understand the evolution of various Poverty Alleviation programs in India.
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The contribution of women is highly needed in Nigeria now that many poverty alleviation programs introduced by successive governments failed to achieve their objectives. Agbionu (2013) stated that one of the major reasons for the failure was because many of the programs were usually politically motivated with selfish interests. For instance Eyuiche (2010) stated that Obasanjo led PDP government announced a ten billion naira poverty alleviation program sometime in May 2000. The program was criticized according to the report for its political undertone. The critics confirmed that the money was used to attract voters to PDP. Specifically, the report stated that ₦3, 500 of the money was given to each of the relations of party members while the poor people were left out. Many other programs aimed at alleviating poverty in Nigeria have all failed as well because of insincerity of the policy makers and policy implementers. Some of the policies for poverty alleviation would have yielded fantastic results but selfishness, insincerity, and other social ills crippled them. This is why poverty in Nigeria has persisted and if drastic measures are not put in place to address it, it will definitely drag the name and reputation of Nigeria to the mud hence this study. In addition to the view above, McConnel (2007) is of the opinion that women have enormous potential to bring prosperity in the world and therefore encouraging women entrepreneurship is very important.
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Hunger, which shows the inability to obtain minimum calories and protein food in a country, is one of the important dimensions of poverty. According to 2013 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics, almost one in eight people in the world were affected by malnutrition in 2010-2012. The report further expressed that "almost all the hungry people, 852 million, live in developing countries, representing 15 percent of the population of developing countries". In Sub-Saharan Africa, hunger rises 2 percent annually since 2007. The statistics shows that from Year 2010 to 2012, the population of people affected by hunger increased from 175 million to 239 million. This indicates that nearly one in four Africans are hungry. The number of hungry people also rise from 13 million in 2004 - 2006 to 16 million in 2012 in the Developed regions (FAO, 2012) cited in 2013 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics. In essence, hunger causes and is both caused by poverty as hungry worker cannot make reasonable production. Poverty and hunger are caused by non-availability of quality food, poor sanitation, malnutrition and poor health standard (Oliveira et al, 2010).
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The coverage of PP AF is currently limited, compared to the needs. That it did not so far had a significant impact on poverty alleviation in the areas of its operation appears to be supported by a study conducted by Gallup. Almost 60% of those surveyed did not experience any increase in their income. PPAF was established because of the encouraging experience of micro- enterprises loan of the World Bank distributed through Banker’s Equity Limited wherein loan was extended to successful ongoing enterprises. The extent to which PPAF can achieve such a primacy is difficult to determine. Micro credit is not generally targeted to the poor. However increased access to credit facilities for those with out collateral can serve as a powerful instrument for income generation and poverty alleviation, if lending rates are not inordinately high and entrepreneurial training is also included in the package. It may be of interest to note that the partner organizations of PPAF have not been able to cover all costs from interest income despite high interest rate charged from the borrowers.
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the realization of the SevenPoints’ Agenda will go a long way to alleviate poverty in Nigeria and raise the living standard of the people. Unfortunately, significant impact was not achieved. The real income of the people have remained very low, virtually all sectors of the economy is experiencing poor growth. President Jonathan came into the helm of leadership in 2010 after the translation of President Yar’Adua. He developed his own strategy which focused on building on the strength of the previous vision 20:2020 and the initial National Implementation Plan was to address most of the challenges of Nigeria at the period. One of the transformation agenda was job creation. In other to improve the economy, Jonathan also focused on the development of human capital, infrastructure and real sector. Some programmes aimed at poverty reduction include: Community Service Scheme (SURE-P), Graduate Internship Scheme (SURE-P), You-Win Programme, National Strategic Health Development programme among others(FGN, 2014). A visible change was seen with respect to infrastructure, emergence of new institutions of higher learning and improvement of schools but yet poverty in Nigeria could not be surmounted.
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process, India has become one of the largest economy in the world. According to the National Sample Survey results, people living below poverty line have dramatically come down during the post economic reform era. People living below poverty line (BPL) came down from 45.3% in 1993-94 to 37.2% in 2004-05 and further to 21.9% in 2011-12. The percentage of persons below the Poverty Line in 2011-12 has been estimated as 25.7% in rural areas, 13.7% in urban areas and 21.9% for the country as a whole (Planning Commission). The proportion of children under three years of age who are underweight decreased from 43 percent in NFHS-2 to 40 percent in NFHS-3. According to the National Sample Survey data of the 66th round (2009-10) Average dietary energy intake per person per day was 2147 Kcal for rural India and 2123 Kcal for urban India. The proportion of households with calorie intake below average Kcal per consumer unit per day was 42.5% for rural and 45% for urban households. In 2011-12, India had 270 million persons below the Tendulkar Poverty Line as compared to 407 million in 2004-05, that is reduction of 137 million persons over seven year period. India accounts for one-third of the world poor, people living on less than USD 1.25 (about Rs 65) per day, a World Bank report (2013) on poverty has said. Urbanization in this country is mainly due to acute poverty in rural areas rather than due to the economic opportunities in urban areas. One half of India’s poor is located the three states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Maharashtra, West Bengal and Odisha account for 22.5% of poverty. About two thirds of India’s population live in rural areas, and almost 170 million of them are poor (NSSO). Although many rural people are migrating to cities, 3 out of 4 of India’s poor people live in the vast rural parts of the country (NSSO). Poverty is deepest among scheduled castes and tribes in the country’s rural areas. India’s poorest people include 50 % of members of scheduled tribes and 40 % of people in scheduled castes (NSSO).On the map of poverty in rural India, the poorest areas lie in parts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and West Bengal. As per the latest NSSO survey reports there are over 80 million poor people living in the cities and towns of India. The Slum population is also increasing and as per estimates over 61.80 million people were living in slums. With over 575 million people, India will have 41% of its population living in cities and towns by 2030 of its nearly 1 billion inhabitants, an estimated 260.3 million are below the poverty line, of which 193.2 million are in the rural areas and 67.1 million are in urban areas (NSSO).
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Abstract : The fact is that the rural development in India has always been remained the focus point of the economic development and growth during the entire planning period. Therefore, the Government of India has launched and initiated many poverty alleviation programs and schemes to combat the hindrances in the way of rural development. Despite the many moves towards rural developments, it has been observed by many studies that there are many hindrances in this process. However, the first initiative was taken as Panchayati Raj on 02 October 1959 from Rajasthan. Further, to eradicate rural poverty and strengthen of rural development some of the schemes such as: IRDP, PMGSY, SGSY, SGRY, IAY, JGSY, EAS & MGNREGA have been implemented. These plans and schemes have been implemented through the
Equity & Development 2006 A Better Investment Climate for Everyone 2005 Making Services Work for Poor People 2004 Sustainable Development in a Dynamic World 2003 Building Institutions for Markets 2002 Attacking Poverty* 2000 Entering the 21st Century* 1999 Knowledge for Development 1998 The State in a Changing World 1997 From Plan to Market 1996 Workers in an Integrating World 1995 Infrastructure for Development 1994 Investing in Health 1993 Development & the Environment 1992 The Challenge of Development 1991 Poverty 1990 Financial Systems & Development 1989 Public Finance in Development 1988 Industrialization & Foreign Trade 1987 Trade & Pricing Policies in World Agriculture 1986 International Capital & Economic Development 1985 Population Change & Development 1984 Management in Development 1983 Agriculture & Economic Development 1982 National & International Adjustment 1981 Poverty & Human Development 1980 Structural Change & Development Policy 1979 Prospects for Growth & Alleviation of Poverty 1978
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intention of this paper is to develop an online poverty alleviation system with suitable features and lack of ambiguities . In this system surveyor inserts the people data and system analysis the inserted data then identifies the root cause of poverty. Based on the system analysis or prediction results any institute or government organization can take steps to overcome the situation. So any Institute or government organization can take the opportunity of this system. The system generates a graphically pie charts and a table which shows the present condition of the poor people so that organization can take immediate steps actually what they need.
Namlea subdistrict is the capital of Buru Regency consisting of 11 villages and 9 hamlets. The area of Namlea subdistrict is 226.55 km² and has the largest population in Buru Regency. Inhabitants of Namlea sub-district according to the data of Central Statistic Bureau year 2018 is 34,326 inhabitants. This number has increased steadily every year with a population growth rate of 6.26 percent (BPS Data, 2018). With the addition of this population, it automatically results in a higher level of population density that indicates more and more problems that will arise as poverty develops in societal life. One of the efforts of the local government of Buru regency in alleviating poverty is implementing the village's Kalesang program as an effort to approach the handling of poverty that occurs in rural communities. "Kalesang Desa" is essentially a courage to think beyond the shell, the spirit out of the shackles of safe zones and the spirit to break down old habits into an attitude that is adaptive, positive, optimistic, apreciprocative and Democratic . The village's Kalesang program in Buru District is a breakthrough program focused on education, health and the potential of village mainstay, including forms of local wisdom in each village that needs to be preserved. Kartasasmita mentions the poverty alleviation policy can be
This paper aims to investigate the pro-poor tourism impact of the capacity building, stakeholders’ support and infrastructure development on poverty alleviation. This study focused on Malay, Iban, Bidayuh, Chinese, Kelabit, Penan, Berawan and others local communities; draws upon a sample of 520 from the Kuching and Miri division of Sarawak, Malaysia. Quantitative primary data method is used, and the data analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) software. The findings showed the positive effect for capacity building on poverty alleviation (H1), stakeholders’ support on poverty alleviation (H2) and infrastructure development on poverty alleviation (H3). This study makes a significant theoretical contribution to human development theory by investigating how pro-poor tourism impact rise wage, food, education, healthcare, voice and securities in humans’ daily life. Furthermore, this study discussed several practical solutions for the local communities to benefit from pro-poor tourism. Especially on the formal and informal way of regular communication among the local government, private tourism organizations and semi-government tourism departments with local communities to increase the livelihood benefits.
traditional livelihood occupations such as agriculture, fishing and handicraft production. This means that tourism expenditure has the potential to generate a large multiplier effect, which can stimulate various parts of the local economy. The economic multiplier in tourism is greater than in many other industries, especially in the informal sector, with its low entry barriers in terms of investment and skills. While many less economically developed countries struggle to develop their tourism due to inadequate infrastructure, lack of trained personnel and corrupt, inefficient and inexperienced government bodies (Harrison, 2001), attention has turned to initiatives that develop tourism from the bottom up such as ‘community- based tourism’, ‘pro-poor tourism’, or ‘alternative tourism’. A number of reasons for this new focus exist: if tourism is to be a tool for development it must focus attention on poverty alleviation. Evidence from the literature suggests small-scale enterprises present greater opportunities for control and profit by local people (Rodenburg, 1980) and that guesthouses import less than hotels and as a result the multiplier is greater (Milne, 1992). Furthermore, Britton argued that small- scale tourism enterprises have a greater impact on improving rural living standards, reducing rural-urban migration and countering structural inequalities of income distribution (Britton, 1982: 183). Small-scale tourism places value on natural and cultural resources and can be developed without great capital investment in remote and marginal regions where a disproportionate number of the poorest people live. Much of the labour requirements are for unskilled workers, improving the opportunities for women and disadvantaged groups to earn money (Roe and Khanya, 2001). As tourism can stimulate employment, the drive for young people to migrate to urban areas is reduced, leaving a more balanced population in remote rural areas. Tourism is also considered to stimulate small-scale and micro-enterprises empowering previously disadvantaged members of communities, and further helping to alleviate poverty.
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dividend will be visible throughout the economy — enabling the country to reduce defence expenditures and to focus on bringing the large public debt under control. But, macroeconomic stability has been threatened by the high rates of inflation. And, notwithstanding its luminous record in human development, approximately one-third of the population is categorized as poor, according to the Asian bank‘s report. However, if we consider poverty line a s USD 1.25 per day per person then in 2002 approximately only 14% of population in Sri Lanka lives below the poverty line, and these figures are also lowest among the selected developing countries. It is worth mentioning here that in Sri Lanka, poverty is mainly a rural phenomenon, as approximately 7 percent in urban areas, 85 percent in rural areas, and 6 percent belongs to estate sectors are living below the poverty line.
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better supervision, the integration of the various data bases created by the program, the potential use of the banking system for the payment of the stipends, etc. 4. Was It Right to Reorganize Food Subsidies? While the now-defunct generalized subsidy on tortilla did reduce inequality, especially in urban areas, and while it did reduce inequality more than subsidies on utilities such as water and electricity, it cre- ated distortions. It was also costly, it did not help the poor in the long term, and it was biased toward urban areas. The decision to phase out this subsidy was appro- priate. Should means-tested food subsidies be cut as well? This is a more difficult question because the LICONSA (subsidized milk) and TORTIBONO (means- tested tortilla subsidy) programs have larger impacts on poverty and inequality than generalized subsidies. Still, despite their potential impact on nutrition, it remains true that subsidies may not yield long-term benefits for the poor comparable to the benefits provided by PROGRESA (or DIF’s school breakfasts), which apparently helps in keeping children in school. More generally, given the wide array of food and cash programs in Mexico, it would be important in further work to provide cost- benefit analyses of the performance of the various programs, which would go beyond the impact evaluations provided in this Chapter. For this, the results of sur- vey-based impact evaluations should be combined with detailed administrative records on costs and outreach.
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It is important at this juncture to throw some light on the endogeneity problem that arises due to possibility of joint causality between poverty and crime. This has been addressed by researchers in numerous studies mainly focussing on crime deterrence variables such as expenditure on police force or number of police officers. Activities by poor people could be more likely criminalized because they lack power to influence criminal law compared to the wealthy people who can lobby to avoid their acts to be criminalized. In this scenario, inevitably there will be a high correlation between poverty and crime. If the criminal justice system is subject to such manipulation (which could be a result of rampant corruption and red-tape) then poor will more likely get convicted than the wealthy for the same underlying act. In this study, however, this problem is not relevant because criminal law is taken as exogenous in the model. Quality of legal system is taken into account to control for any association between crime and poverty due to poor and inefficient criminal justice system. Moreover, it was found that the pair- wise correlation coefficients between poverty, inequality and crime were small and rather insignificant. To consider any association between crime and poverty arising due to gap between rich and poor, income inequality is included in the model. Nevertheless, this relationship might be more complex than anticipated and such issues which lie in the purview of the political economy of criminal law (which could itself provide an explanation for this) are outside the domain of this paper.