The existing theoretical literature on child labour 7 , however, has not so far paid sufficient attention to identify both the demand and supply side effects of the povertyalleviationprograms on the problem of child labour in a developing economy with agricultural dualism. The focus of the present paper is to examine how different policies which are primarily designed to eradicate poverty affect the incidence of child labour in the society. We also analyze how these policies impinge on the welfare of the child labour-supplying families. A three-sector full-employment general equilibrium model with child labour and agricultural dualism has been considered for the analytical purpose. The economy is divided into two agricultural and one manufacturing sectors. One of the two agricultural sectors is backward agriculture (sector 2) that uses child labour. In this set-up we have examined the consequence of a price subsidy policy (in the form of increasing the Minimum Support Price) designed to benefit backward agriculture and the poorer section
Abstract— This study aimed to determine the of level of implementations of povertyalleviationprograms in Isabela, Philippines. It includes the determination of social, infrastructure and economic development and implementation programs of Isabela, Philippines. The test of relationship between the perception of the respondents and the profile is conducted to find out the possible association between the type of respondents and the perception. The result of the test is useful in determining what particular recommendations and suggestions can be made for the kind of respondents. Study showed that the assessment noted that status of the implementation of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps), Social Housing Program and Farm-to-Market Roads (FMRs) in Isabela was generally implemented effectively. Accordingly, these implied that the implementation and commitment of the identified programs/projects had positive effects in the lives of the respondents and certainly gave them chance to improve their daily living and their children may attain better quality and secured life in the future. In addition, the findings of the study revealed that on the implementation of 4Ps, the four (4) LGUs had weak result of implementation on “Economic Resources”, substantial efforts could be done to improve the implementation of the program through consultation with the beneficiaries to identify what better and relevant option/s can be executed toward economic resources program; enrichment/reinforcement of the existing capacity/capability building provisions stated in their ELAs; improvement of the One-Barangay- One-Product (OBOP)/One-Town-One-Product (OTOP); strengthen collaboration with academic institutions in the locality; encourage membership in a cooperative; and build up partnership with agencies/NGOs.
Abstract— This study was able assessed the extent of the level of awareness on povertyalleviationprograms in Isabela. Specifically, it determined the economic, social and infrastructure development of povertyalleviationprograms of Isabela, Philippines. The test of difference is important so that decisions can be made on different programs in considering different perceptions of respondents and its profile. The study used descriptive research wherein it used survey instrument for the assessment that was validated carefully by the group of experts. The respondents were dominated by males with ages 51 and above with two children, high school graduates, earning an income below minimum wage level per day and working as farm laborers or engaged in agriculture-related activities. On the analysis of the findings, among the three (3) povertyalleviationprograms, respondents were “Aware” on the programs/projects of 4Ps and on Infrastructure Development and “Moderately Aware” on Social Housing. Generally, the 4Ps, Social Housing and Farm-to-Market Roads has been “Implemented”. In addition, assessment whether there was a significant difference in the perception of the respondents on the level of implementation of economic, social and infrastructure development programs in terms of their profile, results revealed in some indicators of the different areas of the three (3) programs that there is statistically significant differences in their perception when they were grouped according to their profile leading to the rejection of the null hypothesis in some of the indicators. The study recommended that there should be proper information dissemination on the alleviationprograms for more familiarization on the advantages of the programs.
Governments and international …nancial institutions can play an important role in helping households manage daily risks and cope with losses whenever they occur. The notion that PovertyAlleviationPrograms (PAP) should be a permanent feature of social policy and not simply a temporary response to crisis is now increasingly embraced by the international development community. During economic downturns, problems are much more serious and immediate and the appeals for public action are impossible to deny. But even when a country prospers, some households will still face hard times.
The program has been financed partly by government subsidies and partly by bank credit. The District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) set up especially for the purpose of implement the program. The management of the program has been coordinated at the State level under the guidance of a High Power Coordination Committee. The responsibility for providing the policy frame and general guidelines for implementation has rested with the Ministry of Rural Areas and Employment at the national level. There have been some modifications in the scheme as a result of feedback from the field as well as findings of the concurrent evaluations. There has been a shift in the program strategy towards achieving qualitative results and investment in infrastructure. A new category of beneficiaries has been identified for assistance under the program. This category comprises of educated unemployed rural youth living below the poverty line, who are eligible for subsidies of up to 50% of project costs, subject to a ceiling of ` 7,500. The IRDP suffered from several defects which include include sub-critical investment, unviable projects, illiterate and unskilled beneficiaries with no experience in managing an enterprise, indifferent delivery of credit by banks, overcrowding of lending in certain projects such as dairy, underemphasize on activities like trading, service and even simple processing, poor targeting and selection of non-poor (Planning Commission, 2000).
The contribution of women is highly needed in Nigeria now that many povertyalleviationprograms introduced by successive governments failed to achieve their objectives. Agbionu (2013) stated that one of the major reasons for the failure was because many of the programs were usually politically motivated with selfish interests. For instance Eyuiche (2010) stated that Obasanjo led PDP government announced a ten billion naira povertyalleviation program sometime in May 2000. The program was criticized according to the report for its political undertone. The critics confirmed that the money was used to attract voters to PDP. Specifically, the report stated that ₦3, 500 of the money was given to each of the relations of party members while the poor people were left out. Many other programs aimed at alleviating poverty in Nigeria have all failed as well because of insincerity of the policy makers and policy implementers. Some of the policies for povertyalleviation would have yielded fantastic results but selfishness, insincerity, and other social ills crippled them. This is why poverty in Nigeria has persisted and if drastic measures are not put in place to address it, it will definitely drag the name and reputation of Nigeria to the mud hence this study. In addition to the view above, McConnel (2007) is of the opinion that women have enormous potential to bring prosperity in the world and therefore encouraging women entrepreneurship is very important.
The study is based on secondary data. The data have been compiled from various sources such as publications of the Planning Commission of India, Economic Surveys of India, Census of India, Central Statistical Organization of India, Reserve Bank of India and Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. After a careful review of literature on rural poverty (Subbarao, 1985; Alhuwalia, 1986; Bardhan, 1986; Desai, 1986; Mellor, 1986; Mellor and Desai, 1986; Vyas, 1986; Hirway, 1988; Hirway, 1991; Minhas, Jain and Tendulkar, 1991; Rao, 1992; Planning Commission, 1993; Vyas and Sagar, 1993; Kannan, 1995; Parthasarathy, 1995; Dev and Ranade, 1997; Dreze and Sen, 1999; Vyas and Bhargava, 2000; Deaton and Dreze, 2002; Planning Commission, 2002; Srinivasan, 2002; Basu, 2003; Government of India, 2004), in this study it is hypothesized that alleviation of rural poverty depends upon both public policy and socio-economic factors. The public policy factors include direct povertyalleviationprograms; rural housing for the poor; public distribution system and loans by regional rural banks. The economic and social variables, which influence rural poverty, are rural non- farm employment and rural literacy. With a view to capture the overall contribution of the all the policy variables and also that of other variables towards alleviation of rural poverty, multiple regression analysis has been used in this study. For regression analysis, state level data covering 14 major states have been used. Regression analysis has been carried out at two levels. At level I, only policy variables are included in the
The approach towards povertyalleviation is based on the formation of self-help groups at the grass root level. This brings about the necessity for organizing them in a group by which they set the benefit of collective perception, collective decision-making and collective implementation of programme for common benefits. This organization holds the power and provides strength and acts as an anti dote to the helplessness of the poor. The group saving of self helps groups serve a wide range of objectives other than immediate investment. The approach has evolved over the years in India. Before understanding the strength of SHGs as a tool in PovertyAlleviation, it is imperative to understand the evolution of various PovertyAlleviationprograms in India.
5. Pragmatic Poverty Eradication Policies and Strategies. Essentially, Malaysia has followed the “Growth with Distribution” policy since the 1970s. This policy has been the thrust of macro-perspective policies such as the NEP (1970-1990), NDP(1991-2000), and NVP(2001-2010). In Malaysia, the uniqueness of this policy is in the affirmative action strategies, giving priority and emphasis to the indigenous or Bumiputra communities in terms of benefits of povertyalleviation and restructuring programs. Various socio-political and economic justifications may be given for this overriding strategy, which in the end benefits the nation in general in terms of creating a more balanced and just society. There was much debate on the possible trade-off between growth and equity, but Malaysia has shown that both growth and equity could be achieved with prudent and efficient management of financial, physical, economic and human resources. Here lies the critical role of state, especially through public sector management in ensuring good governance and effective delivery mechanism of povertyalleviationprograms. i) Growth Policies. Malaysia has always believed that growth is a pre-requisite for redistribution. Macro policies that have contributed to sustainable growth include (a) Structural Change and Diversification Policy that ensures smooth structural change of the economy from a commodity producer to industry and services producer. (b) Sectoral policies, including (i) Agriculture and Rural Development Policy with respect to food security and sufficiency, land development, land rehabilitation, rural development, National Agriculture Policies 1( NAP1, 1984-1991), 11(1992-1997), 111 (1998-2010),
The research is conducted at Bone District in South Sulawesi. The target groups are six key SKPD-Regional Units: Regional Development Planning Agency-Bappeda Bappeda, Health Office, Education Office, Department of Women Empowerment and Child Protection, and Social Service Office, and Community Empowerment Board. The data used is primary and secondary data which is analyzed through statistic-descriptive and content analysis. Primary data includes the forms of innovative of local government related to poverty reduction and the constraints and obstacles in allocating budgets for poverty reduction. Secondary data includes planning documents such as Strategic Planning- RENSTRA, Annual Planning-RENJA, and Budget Documents- APBD. Contents analysis includes identification of programs and activities contained in planning and budgeting documents related to povertyalleviation, while descriptive analysis includes analyzing budget allocation realization for povertyalleviationprograms and activities in Bone District.
Abstract : The fact is that the rural development in India has always been remained the focus point of the economic development and growth during the entire planning period. Therefore, the Government of India has launched and initiated many povertyalleviationprograms and schemes to combat the hindrances in the way of rural development. Despite the many moves towards rural developments, it has been observed by many studies that there are many hindrances in this process. However, the first initiative was taken as Panchayati Raj on 02 October 1959 from Rajasthan. Further, to eradicate rural poverty and strengthen of rural development some of the schemes such as: IRDP, PMGSY, SGSY, SGRY, IAY, JGSY, EAS & MGNREGA have been implemented. These plans and schemes have been implemented through the
Africa is wallowing in abject poverty in spite of its abundant natural and mineral resources endowment. Besides, the level of inequality that have been during the colonial era gradually rosedue to majority engaged in subsistence agriculture, lack of industries and the actions of the privileged few at the helm of affairswidened the gap between the poor and the rich. Studies by Kolenikov and Shorrocks (2003); UNU/WIDER (2000); Addison and Cornia (2001);Canagarajahet al, (1997); Kanbur and Lustig (1999) have shown the prevailing income inequality in developing countries in general and specifically in Nigeria which has contributed significantly to poverty situation. This income inequality is reinforced by actions of leaders and those closer to power that diverts societal resources for personal use, and as such deny the masses .of the benefits accruable from the distribution of national income. Unbelievable, in 1996 and 1997, Nigeria was ranked one of the most corrupt countries in the world with corrupt perception index of 0.69 and 1.75 respectively (Transparency International, 1996,1997). But in 2009, 2010 and 2011, the corruption perception indices for Nigeria were respectively 2.5, 2.4 and 2.4. The World Bank (2012), stated that the poverty headcount of Nigeria is 62.6%. Poverty has really been raised by the actions of the leaders with respect to myopic perception and corruption.
process, India has become one of the largest economy in the world. According to the National Sample Survey results, people living below poverty line have dramatically come down during the post economic reform era. People living below poverty line (BPL) came down from 45.3% in 1993-94 to 37.2% in 2004-05 and further to 21.9% in 2011-12. The percentage of persons below the Poverty Line in 2011-12 has been estimated as 25.7% in rural areas, 13.7% in urban areas and 21.9% for the country as a whole (Planning Commission). The proportion of children under three years of age who are underweight decreased from 43 percent in NFHS-2 to 40 percent in NFHS-3. According to the National Sample Survey data of the 66th round (2009-10) Average dietary energy intake per person per day was 2147 Kcal for rural India and 2123 Kcal for urban India. The proportion of households with calorie intake below average Kcal per consumer unit per day was 42.5% for rural and 45% for urban households. In 2011-12, India had 270 million persons below the Tendulkar Poverty Line as compared to 407 million in 2004-05, that is reduction of 137 million persons over seven year period. India accounts for one-third of the world poor, people living on less than USD 1.25 (about Rs 65) per day, a World Bank report (2013) on poverty has said. Urbanization in this country is mainly due to acute poverty in rural areas rather than due to the economic opportunities in urban areas. One half of India’s poor is located the three states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Maharashtra, West Bengal and Odisha account for 22.5% of poverty. About two thirds of India’s population live in rural areas, and almost 170 million of them are poor (NSSO). Although many rural people are migrating to cities, 3 out of 4 of India’s poor people live in the vast rural parts of the country (NSSO). Poverty is deepest among scheduled castes and tribes in the country’s rural areas. India’s poorest people include 50 % of members of scheduled tribes and 40 % of people in scheduled castes (NSSO).On the map of poverty in rural India, the poorest areas lie in parts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and West Bengal. As per the latest NSSO survey reports there are over 80 million poor people living in the cities and towns of India. The Slum population is also increasing and as per estimates over 61.80 million people were living in slums. With over 575 million people, India will have 41% of its population living in cities and towns by 2030 of its nearly 1 billion inhabitants, an estimated 260.3 million are below the poverty line, of which 193.2 million are in the rural areas and 67.1 million are in urban areas (NSSO).
Within a few decades before the economic crisis of 1997-1998, Indonesia made considerable progress in tackling poverty is measured from the level of consumption. The crisis in the late 1990s showed how vulnerable such advances. To expand the progress that has been achieved and move forward again, the definition of poverty need to be developed further by recognizing the reality of poverty dynamics in a broad and multi-dimensional it. Redefinition of poverty leads to strategic choices that are different from a policy based solely on fulfilling the needs "of the population chronically poor." (UNDP Poverty Report 2001).
It is important at this juncture to throw some light on the endogeneity problem that arises due to possibility of joint causality between poverty and crime. This has been addressed by researchers in numerous studies mainly focussing on crime deterrence variables such as expenditure on police force or number of police officers. Activities by poor people could be more likely criminalized because they lack power to influence criminal law compared to the wealthy people who can lobby to avoid their acts to be criminalized. In this scenario, inevitably there will be a high correlation between poverty and crime. If the criminal justice system is subject to such manipulation (which could be a result of rampant corruption and red-tape) then poor will more likely get convicted than the wealthy for the same underlying act. In this study, however, this problem is not relevant because criminal law is taken as exogenous in the model. Quality of legal system is taken into account to control for any association between crime and poverty due to poor and inefficient criminal justice system. Moreover, it was found that the pair- wise correlation coefficients between poverty, inequality and crime were small and rather insignificant. To consider any association between crime and poverty arising due to gap between rich and poor, income inequality is included in the model. Nevertheless, this relationship might be more complex than anticipated and such issues which lie in the purview of the political economy of criminal law (which could itself provide an explanation for this) are outside the domain of this paper.
identified as the poverty line at the state level, and those households whose score fall below this cut-off score are classified as poor. The 2011 BPL Census is currently underway and unlike previous Censuses, it extends to urban areas as well. This Census is jointly conducted by various central government ministries such as Ministry of Rural Development, Ministry of Housing and Urban PovertyAlleviation and the Registrar General of India. The Census will also record the caste and religious backgrounds of the Indian population. BPL households in urban areas will be identified on the basis of three criteria: place of residence (e.g. those in vulnerable shelters), social vulnerability (e.g. those in homes headed by women or children) and occupational vulnerability (those in low-paid jobs or individuals on daily wages in the informal sector). The rural households owning certain consumer durables and over a particular credit threshold limit will be excluded from being counted as poor (BBC 2011).
The overall objective of this paper is to determine the role played by forestry in alleviating poverty in Kenya. It also seeks to examine and analyse the extent of poverty among people living in Cherangani Hills, West Pokot; assess the benefits of forestry to rural communities; investigate the relationship between forest dependence and poverty and to make policy recommendations on ways of enhancing the contribution of forests in alleviating poverty. Two methods were used to derive data for the study. Secondary data was obtained by review of existing literature related to the subject while primary data was obtained through a survey among 200 households. The survey was based on Multistage sampling procedure. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire, an interview schedule and discussions with key informants and analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis techniques. The findings revealed that 69.5% of the population had incomes falling below the official poverty line. Two categories of forest products had a net effect on rural poverty; timber products were mainly commercialized and traded by people with sufficient capital, while the poor mainly utilized non-timber forest products. The findings further revealed a significant positive relationship between poverty level and household size. There was a significant difference in poverty level among households having forestry as a source of income compared with those without it. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that forests act to ameliorate the incidence of poverty in the study area. It was recommended that to further enhance this contribution, it was imperative to undertake conservation programmes that were sensitive and responsive to community needs and that aimed to strike a balance between utilization level of forest resources and their renewable rate.
Therefore, the overall results revealed that the microfinance beneficiaries have higher level of education, greater increase in household size, greater level of sales, greater level of income and moderate improvement in health standard than the non-beneficiaries from the loan programme. This indicates that microfinance loans extended to the rural poor have transformed their wellbeing. These assertions can be justified by the success glory ascribed to microfinance institutions in some parts of the world. For instance, Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia (AIM) in Malaysia, Bank of Rakyat in Indonesia and Grameen Bank in Bangladesh (to mention three) have performed creditably towards the poverty reduction and increase in income of the rural poor households in their respective domains. In addition, the notion that microfinance can contribute towards the poverty reduction by increase in income, improved health standard, increase in the level of education and others have been confirmed by various studies (for example, Asghar (2012); Green et.al. (2006); Jha and Dang, (2010); Bashir, et.al., (2010); Muller and Bibi, (2010), Otu and Eko, (2011); Smith, (2010); Arun, et.al (2006); Khalily, (2004).
Because the indigenous populations are among the poorest, additional work on how to help them emerge from poverty should be conducted. For example, in the report on which this Chapter is based, the evaluation of government programs in agriculture did not have the information available to analyze structural issues related to different needs or interests among indigenous populations with communal or ejido tenure, where traditional governance and values persist. In addition, while this Chapter does compare the impact of education programs such as PARE on school performance among indigenous and nonindigenous populations (in Section IV), it does not discuss the evidence available in both the developed and developing world that bilingual education can be viewed as much more than teaching in two lan- guages. Bilingual education can be, in the case of marginalized peoples, a curricu- lum aimed at building skills, self-esteem, self-empowerment, parental involvement, and adaptive learning. In healthcare, work could be done on the use and effective- ness of indigenous medicinal treatments, and on whether programs such as PROGRESA and PAC should take into account indigenous medicinal practices. The data available for this Chapter also provided little information about a number of other indigenous initiatives, such as informal credit systems, that may create a synergy with particular types of government interventions (such as the Fondos Regionales Indigenas), and thereby improve the impact of government programs. The fact that some government programs are not building on such synergies is one of the main criticisms of government planning put forth by the indigenous leadership.
The coverage of PP AF is currently limited, compared to the needs. That it did not so far had a significant impact on povertyalleviation in the areas of its operation appears to be supported by a study conducted by Gallup. Almost 60% of those surveyed did not experience any increase in their income. PPAF was established because of the encouraging experience of micro- enterprises loan of the World Bank distributed through Banker’s Equity Limited wherein loan was extended to successful ongoing enterprises. The extent to which PPAF can achieve such a primacy is difficult to determine. Micro credit is not generally targeted to the poor. However increased access to credit facilities for those with out collateral can serve as a powerful instrument for income generation and povertyalleviation, if lending rates are not inordinately high and entrepreneurial training is also included in the package. It may be of interest to note that the partner organizations of PPAF have not been able to cover all costs from interest income despite high interest rate charged from the borrowers.