Power Bases

Top PDF Power Bases:

Gender and Professional Experience as Predictors of Consultants' Likelihood of Use of Social Power Bases

Gender and Professional Experience as Predictors of Consultants' Likelihood of Use of Social Power Bases

consultants resort to the use of harsh power bases, perhaps believing that a more assertive form of power would be more influential with experienced consultees? Although this seems unlikely in light of past research indicating that school consultants perceive soft power bases to be more effective than harsh bases (Erchul, Raven, & Ray, 2001; Erchul, Raven, & Whichard, 2001) and are more likely to use the soft power bases (Wilson, 2005), it is possible that consultants may use a harsh power strategy in a relational, or “soft,” manner. For instance, a consultant may politely use impersonal coercive power by nicely indicating that if a consultee does not comply with plans made during consultation, the consultant may need to inform the school administration, which may result in negative ramifications for the consultee (e.g., reprimand from the principal). Again, future research examining other variables that may influence consultants’ likelihood of use of soft power (e.g., personality characteristics such as introversion/extraversion), as well as research investigating which social power bases consultants would use when working with experienced consultees would help to answer this question.
Show more

178 Read more

The Relationship between Supervisors' Power Bases and Supervisory Styles

The Relationship between Supervisors' Power Bases and Supervisory Styles

Empirical findings. Since early studies by Strong (1968) and Strong and Matross (1973) were published, researchers have conducted many empirical studies to examine the nature and impact of counselors’ influencing characteristics or power bases. Many of these researchers focused on (a) the factors that are related to counselors’ attractiveness, trustworthiness, and expertness, reflecting the first phase of Strong’s (1968) model, and (b) the impact of counselors’ influencing characteristics on therapeutic outcomes of clients, which reflects the second phase of Strong’s model (Heppner & Claiborn, 1989). According to Heppner and Claiborn’s review, some research findings supported the positive impact of counselors’ influencing characteristics on client outcomes, including client satisfaction, self-concept, and premature termination. However, they also pointed out methodological weaknesses of social influence research in counseling, such as extensive use of analogue research designs, which led to findings with limited generalizability. Another weakness noted involved the Counselor Rating Form (CRF; Barak & LaCrosse, 1975), which researchers commonly use for measuring counselors’ influencing characteristics (attractiveness, expertness, and trustworthiness). Heppner and Claiborn reported that this instrument often has high inter-correlations among subscales,
Show more

191 Read more

The Likelihood of Use and Acceptability of Social Power Bases in School Consultation

The Likelihood of Use and Acceptability of Social Power Bases in School Consultation

Gender findings. The third hypothesis from Study One stated that female school psychological consultants would report they are more likely to use soft power bases than are male consultants. This hypothesis was not supported. This hypothesis was based on findings from Erchul, et al.’s (2004) study of gender differences in school psychological consultation, which found that female consultants perceived soft power bases as more effective in leading to consultee compliance. Failure to find support for this hypothesis was unexpected, given Witt and Elliott’s (1985) model of treatment acceptability, which suggests there is a relationship between effectiveness and usage. Overall, there was a positive relationship between the perceived effectiveness of the Raven (1993) social power bases and consultant reports of how likely they would be use the soft power bases, but the absence of a gender interaction was unexpected given the perceived effectiveness findings from Erchul et al. (2004). Perhaps the lack of significant findings can be related to a generalized personality or temperament similarity shared by female and male school psychologists. Alternatively, perhaps the shift from perceived effectiveness to likelihood of use makes the question more relevant to actual clinical practice, and therefore female and male school psychological consultants answered similarly. Several authors have researched gender differences in nonverbal behavior and in language (Aguinis & Henle, 2001; Carli, 1999; Eagly et al., 2003; Johnson, 1976; Tannen, 1990, 1994), and seemingly the only consensus is that the direction gender differences take is inconsistent. Perhaps this null finding supports the notion that gender differences are often subtle and difficult to pinpoint.
Show more

181 Read more

The ecology of program director leadership: power relationships and characteristics of effective program directors

The ecology of program director leadership: power relationships and characteristics of effective program directors

Main body: This perspective uses management theory to examine the characteristics of effective PD leadership. We underline the importance of authority, accessibility, adaptability, authenticity, accountability, and autonomy as core features of successful program directors. Additionally, we review how program directors can use the six power bases (legitimacy, referent, informational, expert, reward, and coercive) to achieve positive and constructive change within the complexity of the academic medical ecosystem. Lastly, we describe how local and national institutions can better structure power relationships within the ecosystem so that PD leadership can be most effective. Conclusion: Keen leadership skills are required by program directors to face a variety of challenges within their educational environments. Understanding power structures and relationships may aid program directors to exercise leadership judiciously towards fulfilling the educational missions of their departments.
Show more

6 Read more

Role power dynamics within the bridal gown selection process

Role power dynamics within the bridal gown selection process

The study’s limitations and suggested future research are as follows: First, the research focused on brides who live in the US. The power relations that influence brides during the dress selection process might be different depending on the geographical and cul- tural background of the bride. Thus, the research cannot be generalized. Second, the survey did not enquire about the participants’ sexual orientation and this should be addressed for future study. Participants’ sexual orientation and gender of their partner could affect their experience with wedding dress. Thus, it may be beneficial to conduct further studies to explore the effect of sexual orientation in the wedding dress selec- tion process. Third, brides may experience multiple powers during the wedding dress selection process; however, examining overlapped powers was not the focus of the study. Nevertheless, the topic of overlapped powers and how brides negotiate influences is definitely worth exploring and will deepen the understanding of the subject. Lastly, the open-ended survey method implies additional limitations to the study. In fact, Reja et al. (2003) suggested that several limitations are associated with surveys that include open-ended questions, such as missing data. The main reason being that open-ended survey does not allow the researchers to pose follow-up questions. However, the find- ings do provide a meaningful understanding of the phenomenon and will serve as a good starting point for future studies. In order to address this limitation and deepen the understanding of the phenomenon, it would be desirable for future research to include in-depth interviews with participants. A quantitative approach may also be advisable for establishing differences in power bases among various demographic backgrounds of the brides.
Show more

18 Read more

EFFECT OF MANAGER’S BASES OF POWER ON EMPLOYEE’S JOB SATISFACTION: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF SATISFACTION WITH SUPERVISION

EFFECT OF MANAGER’S BASES OF POWER ON EMPLOYEE’S JOB SATISFACTION: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF SATISFACTION WITH SUPERVISION

This study is intended to examine the relationship of the type of power bases used by managers upon employee’s job satisfaction, in particular on satisfaction with supervision. Power is a prevalent component in an organization and both managers and non-managers use it extensively. Manager uses different power bases in dealing with their employees to achieve organizational goals. And, employee’s perception towards the manager is influenced by that. For this study, French and Raven’s 5 dimensions of power bases were taken as the independent variables and their effect on employee’s satisfaction with supervision as the dependent variable. Data was collected from 180 respondents who were working in organizations located in Penang, Malaysia. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was used to analyze the hypotheses. The result indicated that reward, referent and expert powers were positively related to employee’s satisfaction with supervision. Both coercive and legitimate powers were seen to negatively influence satisfaction with supervision. At the last limitations and scope for future research were also discussed.
Show more

14 Read more

Effect Of Seawater On Physicochemical Characteristics Of Sumatra Lowland Peat

Effect Of Seawater On Physicochemical Characteristics Of Sumatra Lowland Peat

Indonesian peatlands is quite large with a broad range between 18-27 million hectares, the area are about 73% of the area of Asia peatland, which is equivalent to 50% of the world's tropical peat. Mainly distributed in Sumatra (35%), Kalimantan (32%), Sulawesi (3%) and Papua (30%) [11];[2];[10];[18]. Peat land in Sumatra Utara province consists of lowland peat (backswamp peat) covering an area of 325 295 ha distributed along the east coast of Sumatra island and plateau peat (higland peat) covering 6,289 ha in the highlands of Toba [8];13]. Constraints on the physical properties of peat those are bulk density is low, subsidance and irreversible drying. This obstacle can be managed by making advance arrangements drainage and groundwater would happen peat decomposition that causes the peat to become more dense and the water table in peatlands are not too deep. Low bulk density on peat soil can also be improved by providing the mineral soil on peat soil. Chemical constraints on peatlands include acidity, carbon-nitrogen ratio and high cation exchange capacity, availability of macro and micro nutrients are low and organic acids that are poison for the plants. High cation exchange capacity and the low exchange bases resulted smaller in the availability of bases. That base saturation should be increased up to 20-30% to be available for plants [12]. Sea water has dissolved salts of various compounds in different types and concentrations derived from various types of rock and soil drifting through surface runoff and underground streams.
Show more

5 Read more

The Current State of Religious Education in Russia by the Example of Comprehensive Schools and Higher Educational Institutions of Rostov on Don

The Current State of Religious Education in Russia by the Example of Comprehensive Schools and Higher Educational Institutions of Rostov on Don

In recent years the urgent need in increase in qualitative level of spiritual education of students of higher education institutions of Russia also appeared. The courses of educational character begin to disappear from technical colleges of Russia, through these courses students could learn about traditional cultural values of Russia, deepen the knowledge in the field of secular ethics, develop the critical relation to the obtained information. For the solution of this problem "the creation of departments of orthodox culture and theology in a number of the universities, including in DSTU, teaching disciplines of "The morality basis", "The bases of Orthodox culture", "Spiritual and moral fundamentals of world religions" in higher educational institutions of the country" is of paramount value [9] and also the inclusion of religious subject close to the contents of religious studies courses: philosophies, linguistics, pedagogics, psychology, law. Besides the called subjects in DSTU the following courses are given: religious studies, world religions, religion and policy and many other courses of religious orientation.
Show more

5 Read more

22 Conjugate acid pH

22 Conjugate acid pH

How do you determine the number of significant digits in a pH? You count only the digits to the right of the decimal point. For example, suppose that the concentration of hydronium ions in a sample of orange juice is 2.5 × 10 −4 mol/L. This number has two significant digits: the 2 and the 5. The power of 10 only tells us where to place the decimal: 0.000 25. The pH of the sample is − log (2.5 × 10 −4 ) = 3.602 059. The digit to the left of the deci- mal (the 3) is derived from the power of 10. Therefore, it is not considered to be a significant digit. Only the two digits to the right of the decimal are significant. Thus, the pH value is rounded off to 3.60.
Show more

13 Read more

Research on the Repeated Sequences among tRNA Sequences

Research on the Repeated Sequences among tRNA Sequences

Our hypothesis of tRNA sequences on the one hand supports the theory that a primitive tRNA consists of seven bases presented by Crick et al. in 1976 [21] and verifies the possibility that tRNA molecule chooses a hairpin RNA as the precursor of tRNA [6]; on the other hand, our hypothesis not only sustains the view that a hairpin structure is via indirect duplication and then produces another hairpin structure which evolves though base changes, insertions and deletions into the tRNA molecule proposed [5], but also better supports the model based on a direct duplication of a hairpin structure [22].
Show more

7 Read more

µ-bases and Algebraic Moving Frames: Theory and Computation.

µ-bases and Algebraic Moving Frames: Theory and Computation.

We establish new results on the theory and computation of µ -bases and algebraic moving frames for a vector of univariate polynomials, along with several related observations. First, we develop a new algorithm for computing a µ -basis of the syzygy module of n polynomials in one variable over an arbitrary field K . The algorithm is conceptually different from the previously-developed algorithms by Cox, Sederberg, Chen, Zheng, and Wang for n = 3, and by Song and Goldman for an arbitrary n. The algorithm involves computing a “partial” reduced row-echelon form of a ( 2d + 1 ) × n ( d + 1 ) matrix over K , where d is the maximum degree of the input polynomials. The proof of the algorithm is based on standard linear algebra and is completely self-contained. The proof includes a proof of the existence of the µ -basis and as a consequence provides an alternative proof of the freeness of the syzygy module. The theoretical (worst case asymptotic) computational complexity of the algorithm is O ( d 2 n + d 3 + n 2 ) . We have implemented this algorithm (HHK) and the one developed
Show more

141 Read more

Pembangunan Web Portal Berasaskan MOODLE Bertajuk ‘Acids And Bases’ Kimia Tingkatan Empat

Pembangunan Web Portal Berasaskan MOODLE Bertajuk ‘Acids And Bases’ Kimia Tingkatan Empat

Arahan yang jelas disediakan kepada setiap pelajar untuk menyiapkan tugasan dan memuat naik fail tersebut sebelum waktu yang ditetapkan. Tugasan ini adalah sebagai latihan pengukuhan bagi mereka berkenaan topik yang sedang mereka pelajari iaitu topik Acids and Bases. Pada ruangan tugasan ini, guru boleh menetapkan sendiri tarikh akhir untuk pelajar memuat naik tugasantugasan yang telah disiapkan oleh mereka. Selepas waktu yang ditetapkan, pelajar tidak lagi dapat memuat naik tugasan mereka di mana sistem akan menyekat sebarang proses memuat naik tugasan tersebut. Ini secara tidak langsung dapat membantu pelajar mendisiplinkan diri dan lebih peka terhadap sebarang maklumat mutakhir yang diberikan.
Show more

9 Read more

Design of Universal Measuring Equipment for Bogie Frame

Design of Universal Measuring Equipment for Bogie Frame

Primary suspension supporting base comprises a two-layer slide elements both longitudinal and lateral (see figure 3), and with a supporting column. By adjusting manually the two-layer slide element can adapt variety with dimensions of bogie frame, and a ruler can promote the precise alignment of fixing. The column of the supporting is composed of two sections (see figure 4), the upper column with several types to be adapted to the different types of the primary suspension supporting bases. Secondary suspension supporting base is the main supporting and positioning parts when the frame placed downward. It comprises of a lateral slide device and a supporting column, by adjusting the slide to support various types of frame.
Show more

5 Read more

STUDIES RELATED TO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF AMINOBENZYLATED MANNICH BASES OF UREA

STUDIES RELATED TO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF AMINOBENZYLATED MANNICH BASES OF UREA

Procedure for the synthesis of aminobenzylated mannich bases of urea 6a to 6j: Ice cold secondary amines (0.1 mol) viz Morpholine (0.9 ml) / Piperidine (1.0 ml) / N-methyl piperazine (0.9 ml) / Indole (1.2 g) in ethanol were added drop wise to an ethanolic solution of urea with occasional stirring at

5 Read more

Biologically active Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Mn(II) complexes of Schiff bases derived from allyl amine and vinyl aniline

Biologically active Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Mn(II) complexes of Schiff bases derived from allyl amine and vinyl aniline

The Schiff bases and their complexes individually exhibited varying degrees of inhibitory effects on the growth of the tested bacterial and fungal species. The antimicrobial results evidently show that the activity of the Schiff bases became more pronounced when coordinated to the metal ions.

8 Read more

SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME 2-NAPHTHYLACETATE MANNICH BASES

SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME 2-NAPHTHYLACETATE MANNICH BASES

Using 2-naphthylacetate as active hydrogen component, the following Mannich bases were synthesized via a general synthesis protocol: 1-hydroxymethyl-1-piperidinomethyl-2-naphthylacetate(I); 1,1-dimorpholinomethyl-2- Naphthylacetate(II) and 1,1-bis-dimethylaminomethyl-2-naphthylacetate(III).The structures of the final products was elucidated by a combination of spectral techniques (UV,IR , 1 HNMR and MS). The target molecules were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against six standard human pathogens. Significant activity was exhibited by compound I. It showed antimicrobial activity against all test organisms. Compounds II and III showed significant antifungal activity,
Show more

5 Read more

Represent Aggregate Knowledge in Data Warehouse and OLAP Systems by Gathering bases with Objects

Represent Aggregate Knowledge in Data Warehouse and OLAP Systems by Gathering bases with Objects

We should determine how to fully represent aggregation knowledge , aggregations may be performing in particular data cubes ( that mean in what way achieved the aggregate once the aggregate functions that are chooses , and how to choose the aggregations functions) that we explain in before . Ever after this knowledge is highly contextual and complex (count on user priority , data cube …), it is representing with bases appropriately. A base-based approach too ease traced : it enables us to explain how it has been applied and why a specific aggregate functions had chosen in a given situation .
Show more

9 Read more

Split alignment of genomes finds orthologies more accurately

Split alignment of genomes finds orthologies more accurately

The new method aligns the majority of genomic bases identically to previous methods, as expected. Neverthe- less, around 100 million human bases, which overlap a number of protein-coding regions, are in completely different alignments. The new alignments should be especially beneficial when searching for interesting and unusual features in genome evolution, because these are particularly confounded by alignment errors. One exam- ple is accelerated evolution, which is mimicked by par- alogy. Another is micro-rearrangements, which are sys- tematically missed in standard genome alignments based on colinearity [38, 39]. Indeed the new alignments sug- gest many interesting rearrangements (e.g. Fig. 5), but unfortunately it is not straightforward to tell true rear- rangements from assembly errors. The new alignments are available at: [40]. The software is available at [41], and also in the last-align package for Debian and Ubuntu [42].
Show more

17 Read more

BASES OF POWER, LEADERSHIP STYLES, AND DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILES OF UNDERGRADUATE BUSINESS STUDENTS IN GHANA

BASES OF POWER, LEADERSHIP STYLES, AND DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILES OF UNDERGRADUATE BUSINESS STUDENTS IN GHANA

This study sought to determine the differences in the bases of power, leadership styles, and demographic characteristics among undergraduate business students enrolled at a public university in Ghana. Sixty- three students took part in the study. Students were chosen using simple random sampling. A 5-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to collect data. Means, standard deviations, t-test, ANOVA,  2 , and Pearson’s r were used to analyze the results. The results showed that men had expert and legitimate power and exhibited transactional leadership style. Women had coercive and referent power and exhibited transformational leadership style. Students, irrespective of age or programme area, had legitimate power. However, students below 40 years exhibited transactional leadership style while students who were 40 or more years exhibited transformational leadership style. Management students exhibited transformational leadership skill; marketing and executive office administration students exhibited transactional leadership skills. The t test showed no significant differences in students’ bases of power and gender. Similarly, the NOVA was not significant for the differences in the bases of reward, coercive, expert, and referent power and students’ age. The chi- square test was also not significant for the differences in students’ bases of reward, legitimate, and referent power and programme area. The Pearson’s r was significant at the 1% level and showed moderate to high levels of inter-correlations among the dimensions of bases of power (and intuitively leadership style). Overall, the results showed that students had more expert power and weaker referent power. In addition, students exhibited transactional leadership styles.
Show more

13 Read more

A Novel Image Reconstruction Algorithm Based on Concatenated Dictionary

A Novel Image Reconstruction Algorithm Based on Concatenated Dictionary

Abstract—Image sparse representation plays a vital role in the process of image reconstruction. In recent years, several pioneering works suggested that signals/images could be represented sparsely with a redundant dictionary. The selection of components from the dictionary directly influences the precision of the reconstructed image, while the scale of dictionary influences the computational efficiency. This paper presents a novel method for image reconstruction, which decomposites the image by concatenating a redundant dictionary of several bases and then reconstruct the image efficiently by means of Matching Pursuit algorithm. The proposed method constructs the concatenated dictionary with cosine bases, wavelet bases and contourlet bases, which will lead to a better approximation of the original image. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can greatly reduce the computational complexity and generate a better reconstruction effect compared with previous methods.
Show more

6 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...