The Forum Imperii's decorative program included large-scale black and white figural mosaics flanked by rows of marble blocks; each of these featured inscriptions boasting about key events in the regime's history. This work examines the iconography of the Forum Imperii's mosaic decorative program and situates these visual statements into a broader discourse that encompasses the panorama of images that circulated in abundance throughout Italy and its colonies. Therein I highlight the Roman, particularly Augustan, models that Mussolini consciously exploited to depict himself as the founder of a new empire. Of special interest are instances of analogy to the figurative references displayed on state-issued postcards, medals, and stamps. This study of quotidian - often ephemeral - objects, fundamental in any archeological analysis, underscores not only the scope of the iconography and its audiences, but also the extent to which the minor arts, along with state architecture, functioned as integral components of a multi-faceted system of propaganda. I demonstrate how the Forum Imperii operated effectively in the aggregate of Fascist propaganda by exploiting the images already present in the collective memory of Rome, a memory established through Mussolini's observance of the Augustan model of ritual, policy, public display, colonization, and his belief in personal destiny.
' The concepts o f art and ornament are not unproblematic. The adequacy o f the term ‘art’ to refer to non- western visual creations has long been discussed, given its western origin and value-laden definitions, m ainly focused on the role o f the individual creator and the aesthetically pleasing contemplation o f the art object (Morphy 1999: 442). Moreover, as traditionally formulated, the concept o f art did generally not include creations such as ornaments and decoration, regarding them as having a lower level o f importance. N evertheless, several authors have convincingly argued that the term art can in fact be applied cross-culturally to study non-western visual productions because it can lead to fruitful results relating not just to their aesthetic properties, but to their functions within society too (Layton 1991a, Morphy 1994, W o lf 1993). To this, it can be added that such analysis o f these productions can broaden and sharpen the art concept itself, since new and different cases can pose new questions and challenges and shed light on new aspects and dynamics o f art existence. Furthermore, the argument that the concept o f art should not be applied to other societies because o f its ethnocentric underpinnings can be contested by noting that follow ing this trend, the use o f other concepts such as subsistence, religion or technology should also not be applied cross-culturally unless it could firstly be confirmed that such concepts are indigenous to the society under study. Finally, denying the possibility that other societies could produce art (in spite o f its very with different and socio/cultural-dependant dynam ics) falls into the ethnocentric perspective that such a proposition is precisely trying to avoid (Fiore 1996). The definition o f visual art used in this thesis is a very broad one, including objects and images (made on portable and non-portable objects, and on p eop le’s bodies) which have visual plastic features (see section 1.1.3.) and potentially semantic properties w hich are used for presentational and som etim es representational purposes (Morphy 1994: 655), and can communicate contents (Layton 1991a: 4-6). This concept will nevertheless be narrowed to body art, given the nature o f the research topic.
violence, third-party violence, self-inflicted violence and symbolic violence. The examination of news images of these four types of violence showed the different ways in which challengers and the state contest power in the public domain through the media, in both text and images. Various actors (the state, social movements, journalists, the audience) use news images to historicize and construct their narratives of unfolding events, as well as make transhistorical claims. In this process, they deliberately employ news images to advocate for their causes, align themselves with previous heroes of civil disobedience and play on the popular understandings of good and evil. While this project focuses on different types of media, they have affected their audiences in similar ways, providing the space not only to the state within which they emerged, but also to those who seek to reform the state, like all of the movements in this study did. The media are the environment within which images circulate and as such they influence who images reach and, to a lesser extent, what effect they may have on the viewers. The power of images lies in both their universality that connects them with their genealogical predecessors and their singularity that underscores the specific conditions in which they emerge, making the ultimate outcome of the protests uncertain. The dissertation contributes to the research on social movements, mass communication, conflict and social change. It also raises the question of how images can be analyzed and incorporated into sociological research.
Support Vector Machine (SVM) is one of the most widely used machine learning algorithm for classification, pattern analysis, and regression . It also has an ability to classify even high dimensional and noisy data. The intention of SVM classifier in the training data is to develop a feature space using the attributes and to recognize the decision boundary of feature space. The concept of SVM is to maximize the boundary to reach the maximum separation of the object classes. SVM might be linear or non-linear. Both linear and non-linear SVM can be used for human detection. Since the computation cost of non-linear SVM is higher, in this work linear SVM is used. The SURF features obtained from images with humans and images without humans are given as input to the SVM. It classifies the features based on which the images are classified as images with humans (positive images) and images without humans (negative images). The most popular and widely used SVM software is LIBSVM . In proposed method for implementation libsvm is used for Support Vector Machine classifier. Typically, usage of LIBSVM consists of two steps: first, to obtain a model it trains the dataset and second, to predict the information of the model from a testing dataset. For classification, LIBSVM uses output probability estimation and it also provides some special settings to solve unbalanced data problem. The extension of LIBSVM is available at libsvmtools . For classification, linear SVM uses certain parameters such as kernel function, cost, gamma. The kernel function is used to take data as input and transform it in a required form. Cost parameter in SVM is hard margin which controls the trade off the errors while training data. Cost range of proposed method values are 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 and 256. Gamma parameter is the inverse of the RBF kernel standard deviation which is used to measure two points. The proposed method uses MSER detector and SURF descriptor to extract effective visual features from the images. These features can then be used to train a simple, linear SVM to effectively detect images with humans. The proposed Human Detection method can be divided into different stages viz., 1) MSER region detection 2) SURF feature extraction and 3) classification.
Distributed Generator can be referred as small generating unit connected to the distribution network, which was not centrally planned and dispatched. Set of such generators can be called as Distributed generation (DG). The main reason for less generation by centrally located power plants is the time taken for installation of power plant. They include higher level of pollution as thermal power plants have large share in conventional power generating units. Benefits of distributed generation include power quality and reliability, transmission and distribution support, environmental performance, energy price risk management and some localized economic benefits. Voltage control is related to reactive power (Q) supply in the systems busbars using different equipment and technologies (Fabrice, 2015). This control is known as local control, since the reactive power can be supplied by the demand and thus reduces the voltage drop at busbars and improve the indices of power quality.
the pearl-spangled robe,’ said Euthymios Malakes to Manuel I Komnenos in 1161 as is known from a historical source (Papadopoulos-Kerameus 1913 cited in Magdalino 1993, 463). Hostile writers would describe the emperor’s clothes as dirty, foul smelling, and faded with age (Maguire 1997, 186-187). If an emperor was not well-loved by his people he could thus change his appearance or even his clothing to try and voice his opinion. This is something to take into account when judging images of the emperor and his wife. Writers were also fond of comparing emperors to saints or biblical characters. Such as the emperor Isaac II who was compared to the biblical king David by the writer Michael Choniates at the end of the twelfth century: ‘The emperor resembles David in almost all characteristics that adorn not only the soul but also the body. It is not possible to set them side by side at the present time, except insofar as one can be pleased by an icon of David, and by means of the icon briefly demonstrate the identity of the original characteristics….If, then, the emperor may be shown to resemble the icon of David, it is plain that the emperor must be much like David himself in all respects’ (Lampros 1879, 215). It was also possible for the emperor to be compared to ‘bad’ characters like Saul or with Herod if he was considered a bad emperor. Sometimes even comparisons with gods or characters from pagan religions were made, such as with the many-headed Hydra, with Dionysos or with Orpheus (Maguire 1997, 188).
The IPC is not a new technology but almost unknown among power engineers. Its working mechanisms, flexibility and speed of response put this technology in the category of the FACTS devices. It is a series connected device, which the major components in each of the phases are a reactor and a capacitor subjected to individual phase shifted voltages provided by two phase shifting transformers (PST). There are many IPC formations, depending on specific application requirements and on the method used to implement the internal consist of only passive elements including inductors, capacitors and PST (Chitra Selvi, 2008). An IPC with electronically switched phase shifting devices add dynamic regulation capabilities to the power system. As a consequence, not only the steady state stability properties but also the transient stability performance of the power system is enhanced, remarkably. After disturbances such as line outages, electronically based IPC can quickly redistribute the power INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH
In the original sentence, the three social images: “命 (Ming)”, “君子 (Junzi)” and “礼 (Li)” are translated as “the ordinances of Heaven”, “a superior man” and “the rules of Propriety” by Legge; and “religion” , “a good and wise man”, “knowledge of the arts and of the principles of art” by Ku Hungming. First, as to the translation of the Ming, Legge adopted the foreignization approach and translated it as “the ordinances of Heaven”, while Ku Hungming took the reader’s reception into consideration and translated it as “religion”. Owing to historical limitations, Confucius could not account for many phenomena that he came across. This, together with the influence of traditional ideas, led him to resort to the concept of “Ming”, which is governed by “Tian” (Heaven) and other supernatural powers. Strictly speaking, Confucius’ concept of “Tian” refers to the social and natural laws that he could not understand, the highest standard of moral or ethical ideas, or the mysterious power humans cannot control. Legge once criticized Confucius in the prolegomena of The Chinese Classics for being “unreligious” (Legge 1893:99), and that “by the coldness of his temperament and the intellect in this matter, his influence is unfavorable to the development of true religious feeling among the Chinese people generally” (ibid). Therefore, with his profound knowledge of Chinese culture, he translates Ming into “the ordinances of Heaven” instead of “the ordinances of God” or other dictions, thus faithfully transferring the original idea of Ming. While Ku Hungming translates the word Ming into “religion”, thus making it easy for Western readers to understand. In other cases, such as in the sentence “君子有三畏：畏天命，畏大人畏圣人之言” (There are three things which a wise and good man holds in awe. He holds in awe the laws of God, persons in authority, and the words of wisdom of holy man – by Ku Hungming), Ku Hungming translated “ 天 命 ” into “the laws of God”. Comparatively speaking, the translation of “religion” is not as appropriate as the other two choices of translation. This is because “religion” is a broad category, including many meanings beyond the Chinese term Ming.
In terms of global harmony and longevity, it is important to remember that there are liberal capitalist structures and economic hegemonies that appear, for their long-term survival, to be heavily dependent on natural energy resources that are often geographically situated in the lands of their perceived enemy. If amicable access to high-dependency products such as oil becomes impossible, it seems inevitable that a move back to potentially world-threatening nuclear energy resources will occur. Such a scenario can be resisted by those who have the power to make change. Like the ‘other’ slave in the Parable of the Pounds there are significant voices within each of the Abrahamic faith communities that offer pathways towards the development of mutually beneficial concepts of hope. By imaginatively integrating the perceived polarities, perhaps a retained truth embedded in the Gospel paradox can be embraced once again inspiring an attitude of reception, appreciation and hospitality to the ‘other’ in the hope that these actions will be reciprocated with responses of grace.
Of course, one objection comes to mind immediately: It is commonly known from media reports that the real Margaret Thatcher was actually dealing with cognitive impairment in her later years . Maybe it is this knowledge that informs our perspective on the movie and justifies our assumption that the protagonist is suf- fering from dementia, as well. Surely, this objection has its point. However, not only does the film itself not pro- vide sufficient grounds for the dementia interpretation. Indeed, its fundamental dramaturgic premise and mes- sage as a cinematic piece of art cannot be adequately understood, at all, as long as we regard it in the medical- izing perspective of dementia. The Iron Lady simply does not make sense when viewed as a “dementia movie”. The protagonist is not really cognitively impaired. After all, the whole plot is recapitulated from her point of view. And at its heart is not a story of cognitive decline, but a psychological conflict: The old Margaret Thatcher is struggling with loss, the loss of her political power, her public splendor, her lifelong companion. The central drama is not about her forgetting the past, but rather about her trying to let go of the past in order to be able to live on in the present.
Thus, the software enables automated analysis of GIT images of a patient. This software is a part of Landish capsular endoscopic complex. Recognition of pathological images is one of the most important tasks in images processing. The optimal solution is software based on histogram analysis. This method allows realizing the analysis. It increases the effectiveness of GIT analysis based on automated computer diagnostics. Moreover, it increases significance of the endoscopic examination.
Due to the wavelength of visible light range is 380 nm to 645 nm, and silicon solar cell could send out a wavelength of 1150 nm near-infrared at the time of electricity, we designed camera obscura for testing [10, 11]. There are three parts in the camera obscura, CCD camera fixed frame, the mirror support, Adjustable voltage power supply with constant current and solar energy battery components. We could get the near-infrared images by using CCD camera when loading positive bias voltage to battery components through the adjustable voltage constant current source. Test panels are loaded by the opening and closing Windows controlled of the cylinder, at the same time blocking the visible light. The dark room installed in solar cell production process middle pressure of each link, with the needs of the production process for detecting defects and power test. During the test electroluminescent drive mode using Panels connected to the constant dc source ， the size of the current can be adjusted according to the measured of the specifications of the panel accordingly. The adjustment range of general voltage was adjusted from 0 to 60 V in the production line, current range from 0 to 10 A. The smaller production site has, the smaller size of the obscura should have. In order to achieve greater size detection, plane optical reflector could be use to achieve infrared way, so as to adapt to different sizes of panels.
cation and selling people access to global communication networks in exchange for sur- rendering their privacy and becoming adver- tising targets” (p. 421). On the other hand, “once in cyberspace, people may have all kinds of ideas, including challenging corporate power, dismantling government authority, and changing the cultural foundations of our ag- ing/aching civilization” (p. 420). The typical web 2.0-business strategy in my opinion is not “selling people access”, but giving them ac- cess for free and selling the people as a pro- sumer commodity to third parties in order to generate profit. As I have tried to show, this relationship is highly unequal, the actual power of corporations in web 2.0 is much larger than the actual political counter-power that is exercised by the produsers. Castells acknowledges this at some instances in his book, for example when he speaks of “une- qual competition” (p. 422), but on the other hand he contradicts this realism at some in- stances by a certain web 2.0 optimism, for example when he says that “the more corpo- rations invest in expanding communication networks (benefiting from a hefty return), the more people build their own networks of mass self-communication, thus empowering them- selves” (p. 421). The power of corporations and other powerful actors on the web is not to a similar extent challenged by actual counter- powers that empower citizens. The dialectic of power is only a potential, but not an automatic actual or necessary dialectic. Political counter- power on the Internet is facing a massive asymmetry that is due to the fact that the rul- ing powers control more resources such as money, decision-making power, capacities for attention generation, etc. Power struggles are struggles of the less powerful against the powerful, there is no guarantee that they can emerge, that they can mobilize significant resources so that they do not remain precari- ous, and that they are successful. There are examples for relatively successful counter- power struggles that have made use of the Internet, as Castells shows in an impressive manner, but I am not so optimistic that it will be possible to seriously tackle the existing economic, political, military, and cultural power structures in the near or medium-term future. It is only a potential, not an automatism that citizens “overcome the powerlessness of
Ultrasound is a medical imaging technique that uses the variations in transmission and reflection of super-audible range sound waves (i.e., sound waves with frequencies beyond the human audible range of 20 kHz) from different types of tissues to produce images . In the last two decades, ultrasound experts have proceeded to introduce a new area of vascular imaging as instrumentation expanded from real time to duplex Doppler, then color Doppler to power Doppler . With the ability to provide information on both anatomy and flow characteristics, being the least invasive, lack of ionizing radiation, low cost, broad diagnostic applicability, portability and easy handling, ultrasound has become the initial screening and the fast-look follow-up examinations tool . Its high resolution and ability to visualize blood flow using power Doppler as well as blood velocity and direction using color Doppler further extended its application to vascular diagnosis. Challenges for ultrasound imaging include the dependence of the image quality on the skill of the operator, limited field of view, inability to image bony or air-filled structures, and the tradeoff between resolution and depth of penetration when selecting the imaging frequency since sound penetration is best at low frequencies whereas resolution increases with frequency . Limitation and challenges of Doppler ultrasound vascular imaging techniques will be discussed in detail later.
ance, then our algorithm shows a robust behavior at SNR > 22 dB. Decreasing SNR values increases algorithm estima- tion error. As an example for a specified image with L = 18 pixels and SNR = 15 dB, the motion length estimation error was about 10 pixels. At SNR = 20 dB, the estimation error was about 7 pixels for the same image. Figures 9 and 10 show noisy degraded images with low SNRs. Their motion blur pa- rameters were estimated successfully by our algorithm. Also we studied the eﬀect of changing the values of parameters a and c in (15) on the algorithm. The best values for these parameters were a = 20 and c = 230, that were calculated heuristically. Changing the values of a and c in the range of ± 5 and ± 10, respectively, did not have significant eﬀect on algorithm precision. But changing these parameters beyond these ranges decreases the precision of the algorithm.
In LEGP collimator, the holes diameter is relatively larger and the acceptance solid angle is wider. Its spatial resolution is degraded in relative to LEHR but its sensitivity is increased. In fact, this collimator is something between LEHR and LEHS. Image quality plays an important role in nuclear medicine imaging because the goal is to create a reliable image of the irradiated organs to diagnose or treat it correctly. The quality of the SPECT images are limited by several factors such as the attenuation and scatter of gamma ray photons inside the patient body, the detection efficiency of system and the spatial resolution of the collimator-detector system. Amount of the injected activity into the patient body, selection of energy window and intrinsic spatial resolution of collimator are major factors, which affect on the image quality. Because of the quantification of physical parameters are difficult or even impossible to calculate by experimental measurements. Many, papers have been focused on the simulation study based on the Monte carol method. Various simulation programs such as SIMIND, SIMSET, GEANT4 and … has been successfully applied in a variety of nuclear medicine procedure. In 1989, Ljungberg and colleagues at Lund University in Sweden introduced SIMIND as a proprietary code of SPECT. SIMIND software is written in Fortran 90 and includes two main parts: The first section defines the parameter (CHANGE) and the second part (SIMIND) performs the actual simulation (Ljungberg, 2009; Ljungberg, 2012).
is necessary to explain the various political, social and economic conditions and forces within which different accounting systems have emerged and changed. Although the role of Western influence is not denied, it is important to recognize as Hopwood (1989, p.4, emphasis added) says: All too clearly international pressures cannot be analysed in isolation of national ones. Nor can international standardization be seen as a smooth process of harmonization or even a gradual process of encroachment. More active forces are at work whereby national influences permeate and often, in the process, considerably modify, if not change, the international pressures and influences, however real the latter may be. Interests in new and different accountings, internationally oriented or otherwise, have to confront the nexus of national institutions, regulations and practices. To reduce everything to economic factors only could provide a misunderstanding of different events. Ricoeur (1986, cited in McSweeney, 1994) states, “it is completely meaningless to say that something economic acts on ideas in a causal way. The economic force of something material cannot have effects of another kind unless these effects occur within another conceptual framework”. Farag (2009), in his historical review of the evolution of accounting and accounting profession in Egypt, insisted on the changing in the economic conditions and the development in the public sector created a need for the development of the Uniform Accounting System in Egypt. The development in accounting standards is seen "as the structural adjustments of the economy accelerated, foreign capital inflows increased ... it became necessary to adopt a set of accounting and auditing standards". Even when accounting researchers begin to address accounting change in the Egyptian context in which it operates, for example Hassan (2008), the focus is on the coercive power of the state. Although he pointed to some extent to the role of accounting profession, the study is still grounded in the economic needs of the state. He pointed (p.480, emphasis added):
methodology for effective segmentation of the entire lung region from lung CT images. This can be achieved by combining the spatial based Fuzzy C-Means clustering and and morphological based techniques in an ordered manner. Removal of Background, Preprocessing, andoperation based on Morphological analysis is used for this effective segmentation. Abackground removal operator which is based histogramis used for removing the complete pixels which is present around the lung border. Preprocessing operation isdonein order to smoother and removing the unwanted noise present around the final segmented result. At last,operators based morphological computations are used for separating the edges around the lung for preforming the filling process around the small holes which is present in it.Leader et al in 11 developed aheuristic
SPECT is another conventional nuclear substance medical imaging technique. It varies in a slight manner from PET, as the tracer concentrations in former case are recorded as time independent events. It provides information at a higher level of flexibility which manipulated or reformatted as per need. SPECT records the changes or adjustments in the regions of interest which precedes the actual residing of abnormality in the body. PET and SPECT images are much more sensitive to changes in contrast levels of various hard and soft tissues even at picomolar level as compared to CT and MRI. PET and SPECT finds its widespread application in clinical oncology in terms of: detection of cancer, revelation of cancer spread, to check whether the tumour is responding to the treatment and determines the improper chemical functioning of many other organs of the body. The major types of cancers or lesions in body detected by PET and SPECT include: lymphoma, esophageal, melanoma, cervical, prostates, pancreatic, brain tumours and Alzheimer’s disease
Shankar Singh and Nitin Vijay Satpute proposed the design of a shock absorber with a linear generator and fluid damper. The contrived damper employs hydraulic amplification to improve the power output and henceforth achieve an effective damping co-efficient .The following damper shows consistent damping performance and improved fail-safe characteristics.