Instrumentation and Control Systems (I and C), Local Temperatures and Strain Measurement System, Non Destructive Testing System and Chemical Measurement System enable to obtain detailed information about actual service conditions of powerplantcomponents (Fig.1). Thermocouples and strain gauges are used for local measuring, near the "critical spots" of components. The data saved from these systems serve as input data to methods for evaluation in DIALIFE system. Recording the changes of temperature, deformation, media pressure, flow, chemical concentration in the media, etc. during operation is very important and it is in fact the history of plant operation. Archived data can be needed as a basis for evaluation and next decision making on plant in future.
The subjects in connection with the hypothesis described in b) are more complex. Firstly, even if we plan a manual dismantling, a partial automatic remote cut could be required. It is the case of big components and tanks that - because of dimensions, wall thickness, arrangement of the individual cuts to carry out, and limitation of the available spaces or of the complexity of the internals - seem correct to presume devices for the walls sectioning with the eventual assistance of the personnel, but without the direct contribution of operators. It should be selected the automatic device moved by pneumatic (or mechanic, magnetic, electric, etc.) actuator in order to optimise the execution times of the cut operations, the easiness of the arrangement in situ and, above all, the suction of the emissions to send to the filtering system (by absolute filter). Moreover, also a manual cut with a shielding at the worker inhalation, by means of very efficient protection methods (complete overalls), and a clean air flow directly towards the same worker, should be considered. This is not an agile, cheap and simple procedure, and not even easy to carry out and to maintain during the operation in situ, which obviously has characteristics of a large variability and depend strictly by the considerable complexity of layout, and a space arrangement with very discontinuous lines.
During more than twenty years of our practical activities in the field of crack assessment analyses we have carried out many analyses applying procedures of fracture mechanics. Modern computer programmes utilizing numerical methods such as finite element method or boundary element method provides effective and relatively fast means enabling critical dimensions determination and acceptance evaluation of cracks located in NPP components. The preparation of calculation meshes is the most complicated and time consuming step in the typical crack evaluation sequence. In common cases this task is practically unrealizable using hand-made method creation. Computer code ADINA, which we have applied up to now, offers very wide possibilities regarding any requested calculation modes. Nevertheless the construction of meshes containing various configuration of surface or subsurface cracks in arbitrary places of analysed body seems to be common weak point of any such programme especially in cases demanding manifold repeated “crack mesh generation“.
Abstract The micro-hydro-electric powerplant is a renewable energy plant which has many advantages over the same size of wind and solar renewable energy plants . It has a high efficiency (up to 90% s), high capacity factor (up to 60%) and slow rate of change (due to the water flow varies gradually from time to time). This paper deals with a suitable selection of the micro-hydro-electric powerplantcomponents such as the turbine type, which is the main part in the plant and generator size and capacity, which is the second main part component in the power station. Also a procedure is developed for calculation of transmission line voltage drop during the transmission of power to the load site, and to specify the transformer size and its protection facilities.
Exergy is not simply a thermodynamic quality, but rather it is a co-property of a system and the surrounding or more specifically the reference environment. Exergy is conserved only when all the process of the system and the environment are reversible. Exergy is destroyed when an irreversible process occurs  . In exergy analysis the same set of equations is applicable to all powerplantcomponents, disregarding the differences in the internal thermodynamic cycle of the components. This approach provides a common scale to compare performances of components which are thermodynamically different in nature. Following equation is the set of Exergyequations for open systems
Nuclear Energy has become one of the most important sources of energy in the world. Nuclear power plants comprise of heavy concrete shielding and metallic joints to protect the environments from the nuclear radiation. The smallest of cracks in the shielding could cause heavy damage to the entire vicinity of the plant. Thus, it is essential that utmost care is taken to detect even the slightest of damages to the structures as soon as possible. Ultrasonic techniques provide easy access and portability in these cases and hence are commonly used. The only problem is that most of the components of the nuclear powerplant are inaccessible to testing equipment. Hence, it may be necessary to generate the images on screen before doing the analysis for defects.Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection systems (PAULI) [Song et al. (2002)] can be used to obtain electronically scanned ultrasonic images of the inside of nuclear powerplantcomponents for nondestructive evaluation. This is just a modification of a medical ultrasound system that used 64 individual transceiver channels. Simplified integrity assessment procedure [Nuclear Electric Confidential (October,1998)][Dukić and Dukić (Sept. 11-14, 2000b)] can also be used to test the removable or accessible components like turbine casing, turbine rotor, etc.
There is one factor correlated with delays during the execution phase of energy projects: the presence of one major stakeholder (p-value: 5%). A major stakeholder is operationalised as a definitive stakeholder, powerful, urgent and legitimate - using the stakeholder classification framework of (Mitchell, Bradley, & Donna, 1997) In energy projects main contractors typically fit into this category of being a definitive stakeholder. Stakeholders, especially major ones, play an important role in the context of evaluating a project’s performance (Littau, Nirmala, & Adlbrecht, 2010). In the case of Flamanville 3, for instance, the main contractor, EDF is the client and main project owner, therefore a definitive stakeholder. Because EDF did not keep the requirements of the HSE (Health and Safety Executive) the authorities (other definitive stakeholder) stopped construction works for a month. Another example is provided by the case of Olkiluoto 3 (nuclear powerplant). The turnkey contractor Areva- Siemens consortium was responsible for causing many problems – among others the choice of inexperienced subcontractors, poor communication, and not clarified changes to plans, etc. – that led to execution delays (Ruuska, Ahola, Artto, Locatelli, & Mancini, 2011). Although the correlation seems strong, the causation is still unclear.
In operation, the machine used to heat water is called Boiler.In a simple a boiler may be defined as a closed vessel in which steam is produced from water by combustion of fuel(Kumar, Kumar, & Sharma, 2014). Steam boilers are closed vessels that contain water and will be heated so that certain pressures and temperatures can rotate the steam turbine. Because the heating process can be used to rotate the turbine requires a considerable time from 2-3 hours to a capacity below 100MW, so the failures in the Boiler operation are maintained so that the reliability of the electric power system remains optimistic.
Table II shows the main features for two common examples of current CSP plants. One represents the parabolic troughs with low concentration and synthetic oil HTF, which are the most common plant conﬁguration, existing since the 1980s. The second represents solar towers with higher concentration and molten salt as HTF, which have been constructed during the last decade. For both types of plants, the annual average eﬃciency of conversion from sunlight to electricity is less than 20%. This eﬃciency is similar to photovoltaic systems, but the complexity and cost of the CSP plants are much higher, and therefore the thermal conversion technologies are not able to reach the commercial success enjoyed by PV systems.
Abstract— Parametric study and thermodynamic analysis has been carried out for Ultra Supercritical Rankine cycle powerplant with feed water heaters and deaerator. The powerplant layout selected for the study is similar to an existing powerplant under NTPC with a power generating capacity of 800 MW at supercritical temperatures and pressures. The present study is for a hypothetical case where the steam condition for the existing powerplant is considered to be in ultra super critical state. The pressures ranging between 220 bar and 420 bar and the temperatures ranging between 500 0 C and 770 0 C have been studied in this cycle. The number of feed water heaters considered are three LP feed water heaters and one high pressure feed water heater. The deaerator pressure is varied from 60 bar to 200 bar for various mass flow rates and the resultant effect is studied and analyzed. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the cycle as well as the irreversibilities of all the individual equipment of the cycle are estimated.
The primary pipes are made by Z3CN20-09MCDSSs, followed by the French RCC-M Speciﬁcation (RCC-M, 2000), which have been safely served for more than 20 years in China nuclear powerplant. The microstructure evolution, tensile and impact properties and SPT (small punch test) properties of Z3CN20-09M CDSSs have been reported in details with the long term thermal ageing time. 6,7) However,
unacceptable and in fact discriminatory. It does not take into account the creations characteristic for these cultures: always created with new material, but with an ancient, o en just a sanctiﬁ ed technology by the sacred tradition to the highest perfection of its workmanship construction of cunning “ephemeral” building or perishable products, and therefore not the long-term preservation of unintended materials (Štulc, 2001, p. 246). In this context, Tomaszewski (2004) noted that the emphasis on the substance is a uniquely European phenomenon and it comes directly from the medieval cult of relics of saints. It points out that especially the Conference on Authenticity in relation to the World Heritage Convention, held in Nara, Japan in 1994 in collaboration with UNESCO, ICCROM and ICOMOS, brought to the attention the Far Eastern concept based solely on the form, functions and traditions of authenticity, which are based in faith in reincarnation. Nara document on authenticity (Poláková, 2007), dra ed by conference participants states in article 13: Depending on the nature of the cultural heritage, its cultural context, and its evolution through time, authenticity judgements may be linked to the worth of a great variety of sources of information. Aspects of the sources may include form and design, materials and substance, use and function, traditions and techniques, location and setting, and spirit and feeling, and other internal and external factors. The use of these sources permits elaboration of the speciﬁ c artistic, historic, social, and scientiﬁ c dimensions of the cultural heritage being examined. This paper suﬀ ers from some vague, resigns the establishment of particular criteria (due to the diversity of cultures) and, in the end, it calls for the elaboration of speciﬁ c criteria for the diﬀ erent cultural areas (Kroupa, 2004, p. 432; Štulc, 2007, p. 39). It is assumed that in our cultural environment the importance of original substance will play an important role in the future. Some exception is the plantcomponents, which, so far – according to the need for cyclical recovery (see below) – have a speciﬁ c position. One can only hope that their speciﬁ city – reminiscent, to some extent, the above-mentioned aspects of the cultures with non-European roots – will get even greater support also from the strict advocates of the original substance meaning.
Biomass accumulation and partitioning at key growth stages (GS39, anthesis and maturity), leaf area, plant height, and yield components, were analysed for phenotypic variation (Supplementary Table S1). As expected, the spelt Oberkulmer usually accumulated more total biomass and accordingly more mass for each plant organ (leaves, stems and spikes) at each stage than bread wheat Forno, but showing lower HI and similar grain weight per spike. Higher leaf area, lower SFI, taller plants and faster spike growth from GS39 to anthesis were also found in Oberkulmer. The RILs derived from Forno × Oberkulmer showed large variation and transgressive segregation in all traits (Supplementary Table S1). H 2 differed
base case (PC) scenario shows that without installing co-firing and CCU systems, the profit of powerplant is estimated to be at USD 497,574,754.30/y. By installing co-firing system (CPP), it can be seen that profit is slightly reduced by 0.79 % at USD 3.9 million/y although annual cost of fuel is decrease. This is due to the fact that retrofitting a co-firing system in existing powerplant involves minor modification on the boiler or furnace combustion system, resulting in the small addition to the investment cost. Trade-off between cost reduction and cost addition are not sufficient enough for CPP to achieve the baseline profit. This minimal decline of profit can be recovered through government incentives. Although there is no existing incentive regarding co-firing technology in Malaysia, it can be suggested that this technology should be considered for an incentive under renewable energy scheme due to the utilization of biomass as biofuel. CPP displays a great environmental performance with CO 2 minimization at 13.96 % as compare to the baseline emissions. This shows that
The increased number of renewable power plants pose threat to power system balance. Their intermittent nature makes it very difficult to predict power out- put, thus either additional reserve power plants or new storage and control technologies are required. Traditional spinning reserve cannot fully compensate sudden changes in renewable energy power generation. Using new storage tech- nologies such as flow batteries, it is feasible to balance the variations in power and voltage within very short period of time. This paper summarises the con- trolled use of hybrid flow battery, thermal and hydro powerplant system, to support wind power plants to reach near perfect balance, i.e. make the total power output as close as possible to the predicted value. It also investigates the possibility of such technology to take part in the balance of the Lithuanian power system. A dynamic model of flow battery is demonstrated where it eval- uates the main parameters such as power, energy, reaction time and efficiency. The required battery size is tested based on range of thermal and hydro powerplant reaction times. This work suggests that power and energy of a reasonable size flow battery is sufficient to correct the load and wind power imbalance.
However these optimistic expectations have not come true , as all the existing designs of MHD generators could not to provide the sufficiently long-term operation in the capacity of energy source, that is to create the necessary resource. It is caused by the fact, that the design of DC MHD generator has an essential shortcoming. The electric current in working substance flows between metallic electrodes and the cathode is bombarded by ions of very high energy. The result of such a bombardment is rather fast cathode destruction. All the attempts to solve the problem of electrodes destruction problem had no success. The most successful designs of MHD generators had resource o hundreds of hours, when for operation in an industrial power supply system it is necessary to provide the resource of tens thousands of hours.
A model has been designed to study about the proposed industrial plant. Here a thermister has been used to sense the over temperature. A microcontroller is used to automatically control the exhaust fans. When the thermister will sense the over temperature its resistance will fall down and a small current will pass through it which will go to the microcontroller as an input pulse. By getting this input pulse the control unit sends the output instruction to turn “ON” the fans as per the requirement. When the temperature will gradually fall down, the supply to the fans will be cut down one by one, hence they will be turned “OFF” one by one. It seems that the modules which are hit first by the wind are the coolest and the module with the highest temperature is the point at which the air exits the array .
Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers that collect solar energy and convert it to heat. Power generated by using different methods in CSP plant. This thermal energy can then be used to produce electricity via steam turbine or heat engine that drives the generator. The sunlight hits the earth’s surface both directly and indirectly, through numerous reflections and deviations in the atmosphere. On clear days, the direct irradiance represents 80 to 90 % of solar energy reaching the earth’s surface. On a cloudy or foggy day, the direct component is essentially zero. Unlike , photovoltaic cells or flat plate solar collectors, CSP powerplant cannot use diffuse part of solar irradiation which result from scattering of direct sun light by clouds, particles, or molecules in the air, because it cannot be concentrated. However, one of the key benefits of choosing CSP over PV is be that CSP plants can more easily provide ancillary services and provide dispatch able power on-demand using long-term storage.