In accordance with national building regulations, human safety and health should not be compromised in any way by the structures. Noncompliance with existing standards can increase the risk of fire in buildings. This study aimed to assess the impact of national building regulations on the reduction of the fire risk level in an industrial structure. In this study, the fire risk level of the building and contents, occupants, and activities were calculated in a powerplantcontrolroom using Fire Risk Assessment Method for Engineering (FRAME). In the following, by assessing the existing situation, the effect of the implementation of national building regulations was determined on the reduction of fire risk level.
decisions quickly and correctly. The DSS aim is to provide SA and, where operator action is required, prioritised alternative solutions to a problem by utilising decision theory techniques. In addition, the DSS should be able to apply the optimal solution if there is no response from the human operator within a certain time, to ensure that the power system recovers from events. There are a variety of DSS applications in the power domain that includes demand response , fault diagnosis of generated alarms , power system restoration , and nuclear powerplant operation . Visualisation is critical to relay key information to the operator to better comprehend a situation and to make accurate decisions and faster actions.
In the numerical simulation, an electrical switchgear rooms in nuclear plants were applied as an evaluation room model. Fire in motor control cabinet in the switchgear room on nearby cable tray was applied to the fire source. From numerical results, the heat configuration and temperature in the switchgear room was evaluated and radiation heat from fire to the cable trays was calculated.
The main goal of this work is to propose a man – machine interaction evaluation method, using a study of case in which the model MHP/CE-Combustion Engineering , that was used in the licensing of a Nuclear PowerPlant, comparing to the model GOMS  that enables the workload evaluation of an operator during an accident using a structured Cognitive Processor, different from that used by CE-80+, which doesn't use such processor. Modifications were done in the original program to adapt the GOMS’ commands to the actions used in the operator tasks. The study consists in the simulation of a Steam Generator Tube Rupture event in the controlroom of Angra-1 Nuclear PowerPlant, considering the normal operation shift. This specific event demands from the shift the performance of several operational activities, fast decisions, as well as the accomplishment of many cognitive actions.
headroom modeling fixed-power factor DG as negative load, but also presents a method combining OPF and genetic algorithm (GA) together to find the best available sites within a distribution network for connecting the distributed generators required for reaching the targeted optimal power flow. It is also very important to take into account the economic or technical indices as objective functions, whereas the trade-off between incentives for DG developers and distribution network operator (DNO) is defined. Yet, there are some up-now facts that the DG connection to distribution network may reduce the utilization of the existing network and bring a great deal of cost sunk. The economic potential for DG connecting to distribution network has not been evaluated. These planning models only concentrate on the economic benefits of either DNO or the developer, instead of the improvement of the social energy efficiency, which might cause problems due to the fact that this is against the principle of integrated resource planning at present. It should be noted that it is well known that DG could diminished (or delay) the investment cost of electrical network (7).
airflow was coming in through the larger fan’s shutter. During Trials 2 and 3, conscientious efforts were made to prevent this bypassing. First, a 0.6 m 0.6 m piece of 25.4 mm polystyrene foam was used to cover the plastic shutters of the larger fan in both the Test and Control rooms. Since this required entry into the pig pens, beginning in late-December 2018, a large plastic bag was placed over the larger fan cone to prevent short-circuiting. However, placement and removal of the foam board or the garbage bag was a challenge because the larger fan being temperature-controlled turned on when the room temperature exceeded the SP temperature by 2.3 C (Table 2.1 and Fig. 2.3). Therefore, depending on forecast short- term weather and age of pigs, and in consultation with the nursery manager, the larger fan was covered to prevent short-circuiting. However, it was not possible to prevent short- circuiting on those days were forecast daytime high temperatures could have caused the larger fan to operate which likely affected the performance of the fTSC.
The proposed configuration assures smooth power transfer and fast response during grid fault and transient conditions. The entire system is investigated under low frequency and high frequency transient conditions and the simulation analysis has been done elaborately From the overall results, it is observed that synchronous reference frame control scheme based unified HVDC transmission provides optimal DC link voltage regulation and thus it has better compensation capability to reduce transients and ensures better power transfer between WPP and onshore grid.
7. A. Objective of the Research: over the years numerous studies have been conducted in solar collector field producing extensive material and valuable experience on different control procedures. This wide source of information and experience on controlling can be analyzed using development and turning environment. For diagnostically purposes, the software has extended by including additional features. The controller adjusted to operate in changing conditions by introducing extended feedback approaches where predicated disturbances are compared with the present situation which is known by the controller
amount load shedding, which based on the frequency reduction, or the rate of change of frequency (ROCOF). The combination of Intelligent load shedding methods has also been studied and developed such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN) , fuzzy logic algorithms , genetic algorithm (GA)  or particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. These methods minimize the load shedding costs at steady state operation of pow system , . A good load shedding program should be shed with the minimum number of load buses and as quickly as possible, and must meet the system's permissible frequency conditions. On the other hand, in large disturbances of the power system, frequency decay is often associated with voltage decay. Voltage decay at load buses reduces system load, therefore the reduction in frequency is slowed and the actual load shedding by UFLS is reduced relative to the level required  - . In most practical conditions, the amount of load shedding may be more or less the amount of power the system needs to maintain the frequency, which may lead to cost losses as well as affects the objects that the system serves.
In this study, two new MPPT controllers used in the PRO powerplant are proposed and evaluated, including MFC and FLC. To optimize the performance of the MPPT using FLC algorithm, GA optimization is used to find the optimum parameters for the membership functions of both the input and output variables in FLC. Then, the four MPPT controllers are compared in selected case studies. One is the start-up of the PRO and the other is the fluctuating operated PRO due to the varied temperature and salinities. Finally, based on the comparisons, the major characteristics of these four methods are presented. Therefore, according to the results, some conclusions can be drawn: 1) using MPPT at the start-up of the PRO, compared to P&O and IMR algorithms, both MFC and FLC are capable to adaptively change the step-pressure to balance the trade-off relationship between the rise-time and the steady-state oscillation; 2) optimized FLC and modified MFC algorithm are capable to deal with the operational fluctuations. MPPTs using FLC and modified MFC have the better performance than the MPPTs using P&O and IMR algorithms, meaning faster convergence and lower oscillation during all the tested start-up and steady-state transitions; 3) the comparable table can be served as a useful guide in choosing the right MPPT algorithm for a specific PRO application.
ACUREX has served as a benchmark for many researchers across academia and industry working in process modelling and control. The plant is mainly composed of a distributed solar collector field, a thermal storage tank and a power unit; solar radiation is the main source of energy, however, ironically it acts as a disturbance to the plant due to the daily cycle of radiation and passing clouds. Due to the stratified tank technology used for storing the thermal energy of the plant, the field inlet temperature is also a dominant disturbance to the plant. Hence, designing an effective con- trol strategy that can handle the constant changes in solar radiation and the field inlet temperature while maintaining the field outlet temperature at a desired level will enable longer plant operating hours and cost reductions .
The analysis and synthesis of aerodynamic properties of the wind-driven power-plant (WP) construction with a vertical axis of rotation and useful interference of the stator and the rotor, that exceeds classical type analogues on energy characteristics, were conducted. The required functional dependence of the rotor rotative moment of WP on the angular speed of its rotation and the wind speed on the basis of aerodynamic optimization and researches of optimal shape and construction of WP was obtained. Respective aerodynamic power was calculated. The example of frequency stabilization of the rotor rotation through control of variable element of optimized form WP construction was considered. Method of maintaining the given angular speed of the rotor with a given deviation for a given time was proposed.
In the Existing system presents the stability improvement and power-flow control results of a DFIG-based offshore wind farm (OWF) connected to a one-machine infinite-bus (OMIB) system using a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC). An oscillation damping controller (ODC) of the proposed SSSC is designed by using modal control theory to render proper damping to the dominant mode of the studied synchronous generator (SG). A frequency-domain approach based on a linearized system model using eigen value analysis is accomplished. A time-domain scheme based on a nonlinear system model subject to a disturbance is also performed. It can be concluded from the simulation results that the proposed SSSC joined with the designed ODC can effectively improve the stability of the studied OMIB system with an OWF under various disturbances. The inherent low-frequency oscillations of the OMIB system can also be effectively suppressed by the proposed control scheme.
In order to describe and analyze the control logic of FECS accurately, timed places control Petri nets (TPCPN) is used for the modeling of FECS. On this basis some simulations are done to analyze the operation process, including uploading fuel elements into the core for the first time and emptying the core. The results show that as TPCPN has the advantages on describing complex con- trol system and contains time properties, it can describe the control logic of FECS very accurately. It also facili- tates the simulation with software Arena.
Quality control of the linear accelerator is also very important. There are several systems built into the accelerator so that it will deliver exact dose that the radiation oncologist has prescribed. There are various acceptance tests /protocols to meet the requirements of IAEA/AAPM or other reputed Association . The Medical Physicists are responsible to make specifications of all QA tools and equipment and to perform the entire acceptance tests of the LINAC machine at the installation and commissioning period. Report and documentation of all the performance parameters given by the manufacturer is also very important for further maintenance of the machine.
Fuzzy proportional derivative (FPD) control developed is a multi-input single output controller model. The inputs are error (E) and derivative error (DE). Output is a signal control (U). Fuzzy logic controller can provide desirable both small signal and large signal dynamic performance at same time . The structure of the FPD control that has been designed for shell and tube heat exchanger is represented by Figure 3.
As can be seen in Figure 2.1, a VPP is a multi-technology unit that includes both renewable and non-renewable generators as well as storage systems connected with smart devices. Various types of DG units, such as Gas Turbines (GT), fuel cells (FC), storage battery, Photovoltaic (PV) systems, and wind turbines (WT) can be connected to form a VPP system [2, 10, 17]. Furthermore, it includes consumers who often use smart appliances, and smart meters [2,90,91]. The ability to create VPPs has been made possible by the availability of advanced Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systems. The motivation behind creating the VPP technology is to coordinate the various types of energy resources to minimize the cost of power generation and maximize the profits received from the sale of that power [2, 18,92].To better understanding of conceptual meaning of the VPP the components of the system is explained in details in the following section.
While the enhanced air conditioning system is being designed, the consideration of the type of control system must be included in a modeling design. In particular the controller must be able to avoid the inefficiency of having the air conditioning operate all the time. Several control options were considered at presence sensing circuit, which would turn the air conditioning off when people are not in the room with the air conditioning and a temperature sensor input, which would change the air conditioning operation depending on room temperature . Based on the observation of the using the present conventional air conditioning application, it always working all the time without a systematic control. Therefore, the control of the air conditioning is adjusted through a feedback control system to monitor and maintain a constant temperature based on the data input from the sensor.