Practice Based Learning

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Enabling Practice Leaders to Reduce Patient Harm through “System Base Practice and Practice Based Learning and Improvement”

Enabling Practice Leaders to Reduce Patient Harm through “System Base Practice and Practice Based Learning and Improvement”

“First do no harm” call from Hippocrates (5th century BC), call for hygiene from Nightingale (1820-1910), pre- cede the modern thrusts in this mission that include US Institute of Medicine (IOM) Report “to err is human” [1] and Donaldson’s report “An Organization with a Memory” [2]. In 2004 WHO formed World Alliance for Pa- tient Safety. The progress towards improvement has been very unsatisfactory. This calls for systems approach and practice-based management. Various accreditation authorities have started paying attention to this. For ex- ample, ACGME has recently called for implementation of “Next GME Accreditation System” [3], paying due attention to “System-Based Practice and Practice-Based Learning and Improvement”.
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VET and Practice Based Learning: Current models of integration

VET and Practice Based Learning: Current models of integration

For the purposes of this paper, ‘Practice-Based Learning’ may be defined as the engagement of student learning activities through the collaboration with a tertiary institution, industry partner and workplace learning. This includes although is not limited to, industry based placements, work based learning programmes integrated with the formal curriculum at a certificate level. Practice based learning has generated a great deal of debate and differing points of view from various researchers have been acknowledged. Indicated in the literature there are some identified issues with course delivery and workplace experiences providing continuing challenges for both employers and educators in delivering an incorporated system of vocational education at the workplace in partnership with a tertiary provider. However there is a general agreement amongst all stakeholders that practice based learning has developed and improved learners/employee’s skills and vocational knowledge through positive integrated course work and workplace training.
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Educating Genetic Counseling Graduate Students :Impact of Year of Training, Learning Styles, and Use of Practice-Based Learning on Satisfaction with the Learning Environment

Educating Genetic Counseling Graduate Students :Impact of Year of Training, Learning Styles, and Use of Practice-Based Learning on Satisfaction with the Learning Environment

While some researchers contend that effective learning can be achieved by assessing learning styles, others do not support this assertion. Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer and Bjork, (2009) argue that learners can acquire knowledge by several learning styles, thus it is not beneficial to focus on one specific style. In these authors‘ critique, they assert that studies have not supported the idea that learning outcomes are increased when students are taught to their learning style. Further criticism stems from the lack of cohesiveness and common vocabulary describing learning styles among those who contribute to this field (Coffield, Moseley, Hall & Eccelstone, 2004). Concerns have also been raised about the psychometric properties of the various learning style inventories which lead to questions about the utility of these measurements (Coffield, Moseley, Hall & Eccelstone, 2004: Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer & Bjork, 2009). Although criticisms about incorporating learning styles into the classroom to attain effective teaching exist, the same researchers who criticize this practice also recognize there may be some benefit in evaluating learning styles. Specifically, that awareness of learning styles and engaging in dialogue about them can assist in promoting change in the educational setting
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The Epistemic Practice of Networked Learning

The Epistemic Practice of Networked Learning

The focus on learning spaces further reflects at least two trends in the Networked Learning community and the field of learning and education in general. The first of these trends is the growing awareness of the significance of the socio-material place of learning in determining activities, interactions, and learning outcomes (Carvalho, Goodyear, & de Laat, 2017). The second trend concerns what might be viewed as the dialectical opposite of this focus, i.e. the significance of boundary crossing (Akkerman & Bakker, 2011; Wenger, 1998) for initiating and inspiring new cognitions and practices. These trends combine also in the first theme which we see emerging from the chapters of this book as an area of focus deserving further investigation in the future: mobility, new forms of openness and learning in the public arena. (Dohn et al 2018)
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Practice-based small group learning programs

Practice-based small group learning programs

Synthesis Two main PBSGL formats exist. The first is self-directed learning, which includes review and discussion of troubling or challenging patient cases. The contents of such programs vary with different teaching styles. The second format targets specific problems from practice to improve certain knowledge or skills or implement new guidelines by using patient cases to stimulate discussion of the selected topic. Both formats are similar in their ultimate goal, equally important, and well accepted by learners and facilitators. Evaluations of learners’ perceptions and learning outcomes indicate that PBSGL constitutes a feasible and effective method of professional development.
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Learning networks and the practice of wisdom

Learning networks and the practice of wisdom

Given these limitations, our purpose in this paper is to consider how far learning networks, with their foundation in action learning and associated concepts, can be considered as sites for the generation of wise action. Of course, this is entirely dependent upon how one defines wisdom. Although wisdom has been a central preoccupation for philosophers, theologians, scientists and artists throughout history, it remains a significantly under-examined topic in organization studies, lacking any systematic application to managerial learning and practice (Kessler & Bailey, 2007), and only rarely exposed to empirical scrutiny (Sternberg, 1990). Much of the debate about wisdom has focussed on defining its essence and explaining how to acquire it. However, this approach tends to get stuck in definitional traps that attempt to distinguish between information, knowledge and wisdom as discrete categories (Bierly et al., 2000; Levinthal, 1997). Such essentialist assumptions produce a view of wisdom as some sort of super-charged form of knowledge that sits at the pinnacle of a pyramid composed of data, information and understanding, and delivers useful outcomes. According to Labouvie-Vief (1990), this typically Western notion of wisdom is logos dominant in its emphasis on rationality, instrumentality, and accumulation. She argues it is this logos mode of knowing that brings stability and logical cohesion to the practice of wisdom.
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Placement Learning Code of Practice

Placement Learning Code of Practice

5. This Code of Practice provides a universal reference point for those University Schools and Professional Service Teams that deliver placement learning. It offers guidance on staff liability, unpaid placements and insurance issues. The Code has been produced so all Schools and Professional Service Teams, students and placement providers are clear about what their responsibilities are regarding placement learning and the support and training they will receive. This Code aims to provide clear guidance so that staff and students are able to optimise placement learning opportunities. It sets out a series of principles and procedures that should be followed whenever placement learning is integral to a programme of study at undergraduate or postgraduate level or volunteering through the University.
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Evaluating Mobile Learning Practice

Evaluating Mobile Learning Practice

The ‹reader› has to construct a relationship between the image and the written text but the framing as traditional grammar exercise provides coherence and continuity related to fragments that are originally from different contexts, i. e. school and everyday life. As a consequence, the learning unit as a whole tells a totally different story than its constituent parts: the learner tells us something about himself in relation to school learning. He is able to deal with learning material and content in terms of the curriculum and in meaningful ways. He is an expert in a specific subject domain and is able to provide this knowledge in a structured way to others. He is an expert in modes of representation prevalent in his everyday life as well as in modes that are characteristic for school and school-based learning. He knows how to combine text-fragments and pieces of information in order to produce a coherent and meaningful learning object. Also, he is able to transform subject experiences, knowledge and meanings into objective and meaningful products. By doing so, his knowledge is reconfigured and fits into the conceptual frame of the school and the curriculum. He is constructing user-generated contexts.
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The learning practice formation of rural working class learners based on their funds of knowledge

The learning practice formation of rural working class learners based on their funds of knowledge

The theoretical grounding of the article is the funds of knowledge approach popularised by Moll and his colleagues (see Moll, Amanti, Neff and González 1992; 2005), and the work of Zipin, Sellar and Brennan (2013), who developed the FK concept for analytical application in poor schools in Australia. An FK approach places the analytical focus on the inherent capacities of people to productively exercise their agency in deeply impoverished circumstances. Challenging a deficit perspective, it emphasises the view that humans are creative cultural hybrids who mobilise their skills and knowledge to establish adaptive practices to sustain livelihoods. An FK perspective enables us to focus on the emergent learning practices of the selected school learners as they navigate and negotiate their community and domestic contexts. In the light of this, the article specifically discusses how they build their learning practices along the following dimensions: family-based FK, community-based FK, peer-based FK, and media- and IT-based FK.
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Perfecting practice: a protocol for assessing simulation-based mastery learning and deliberate practice versus self-guided practice for bougie-assisted cricothyroidotomy performance

Perfecting practice: a protocol for assessing simulation-based mastery learning and deliberate practice versus self-guided practice for bougie-assisted cricothyroidotomy performance

Residents at each study site will be assigned to receive either DP + ML, or self-guided practice using a computer-generated randomization process. Participants will be blinded to the study group assignments. For practical purposes, we will cluster 4–6 participants with 1 instructor who will facilitate the training using one of the two instructional methods. This group size aligns with recommendations from surgical education litera- ture for procedural skill training that demonstrates the optimal trainee:instructor ratio for procedural skills training [37]. All instructors are board certified emer- gency physicians with expertise in procedural skill train- ing. Prior to the session, each instructor will receive an introduction to the task trainer, a briefing on how to conduct the training and a standardized approach to BAC performance. The instructors assigned to the DP + ML session will also receive an introduction to the BAC checklist and explicit instructions to facilitate mastery learning followed by deliberate practice [38]. The in- structors assigned to the self-guided practice session will be told explicitly that they can only provide feedback
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Development of professional practice through problem based learning in human nutrition and Dietetics

Development of professional practice through problem based learning in human nutrition and Dietetics

Abstract. Although competency-based education is well established in health care education, research shows that the competencies do not always match the reality of clinical workplaces, especially in nutrition area. Student of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, have reported shortcomings in their general competencies, such as organizational skills, teamwork, knowledge to develop proposals for intervention. Were given to students a problem-based learning (PBL) activity with collaborative learning competence for to investigate their evolutions in collaborative learning and the knowledge in nutrition education. The results suggest that the PBL provided better preparation with respect to several of the competencies. The effect of PBL for the experienced students' collaborative learning and education nutrition competencies is especially promising in the professional development of future nutritionists.
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Knowledge ‘Translation’ as social learning: negotiating the uptake of research-based knowledge in practice

Knowledge ‘Translation’ as social learning: negotiating the uptake of research-based knowledge in practice

Potential barriers to active and collaborative learning In healthcare settings, joint or team working can be about creating new ways of thinking and communicating across professional boundaries that includes negotiating shared knowledge and ways of doing things that are ac- cepted in context [56, 57]. Of course, simply linking in- dividuals together in a practice group or team does not instantly create a learning culture or a community of practice. The presence of strong boundaries established along occupational or disciplinary lines is known to con- strain knowledge sharing [57, 58]. Co-creation of know- ledge and meaning across established professional boundaries, whether in teams or in communities of practice, depends on the cultivation of trusting relation- ships and accumulation of social capital, both of which require time and effort [59]. In addition, moving toward an effective culture of learning and practice change re- quires a willingness to address professional divisions around roles and identities. An unwillingness to examine issues raised by boundaries, possible conflicts, roles and existing power differentials within healthcare contexts limits communication and the exchange or movement of knowledge [60, 61].
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Transforming the first year learning experience through research based media practice

Transforming the first year learning experience through research based media practice

On the basis of student feedback from the 2007-2008 offerings of the course, which indicated that the work load was excessive (see Table 2, criterion 6 which shows ratings ranging from 2.6 to 45.7 on a scale of -100 to +100) and taking into account the comments such as the student cited above indicating not all students saw the connection between the research-based approach and the learning objectives of the course, the curriculum was revised to focus more on media practice informed by and through research. This practice-led approach, as Fewster and Wood (2009) note, has evolved into a key method of investigation within the creative arts over the last decade in the UK and Australia (Haseman, 2006; Piccini, 2002). Such an approach encourages participants to constantly reflect on their practice (Schon, 1995) as they engage in practice-based research through the creative design process. The final artefact derived from the creative process serves as a research “text” within itself; the creative conclusion to the work is the research, which in this case study was the production of a digital story based on a social issue and the development of an online presentation of the students‟ research findings. This situates this practice-led case study as combining traditional qualitative research, relying on written text with the performative, expressed in “still and moving images” (Haseman, 2006, pp. 102-103).
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Application of Problem-based Learning Strategy in Science Lessons – Examples of Good Practice

Application of Problem-based Learning Strategy in Science Lessons – Examples of Good Practice

In the report regarding education, made by the Academic Society from Romania (SAR), in March 2010, the authors define competencies in Sciences as the ability of using a methodological and knowledge corpus, implicated in the explaining of natural world, in order to identify questions and to pull conclusions based on empiric evidences. For Science and Technology, the essential knowledge includes the basic principles of the natural world; fundamental scientific concepts; principles and methods; technology, technological products and processes; comprehension of the science and technology impact upon the natural world. These competencies, as enunciated in the mentioned report, must help individuals understand better the progresses, limitations and risks of the scientific theories, applications and technology in society (in relation with: the process of decisions taking, values, aspects of moral order, culture etc.).
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The Theory and Practice of Online Learning

The Theory and Practice of Online Learning

Receiving streaming video feeds on a home computer is not difficult. Newer versions of Windows®, Apple OS®, and Linux come with pre-installed streamers for audio and video. Generally, these stream- ers are sufficient for most educational applications. As is the case with streaming audio, different formats require different applications; however, most multimedia applications now available for the home market have been designed to receive both audio and video streams. Superbowl XXXV (Clancy, n.d.), held in January 2001, saw the recre- ational and commercial use of streaming multimedia go to new heights. Long known for its glamorous halftime shows and extremely expensive commercials, this event was different from those of past years because of the means by which the commercials were broadcast. For those unable or unwilling to sit through hours of football to see a few commercials, several online video streaming sites encoded and broadcast the com- mercials within minutes of their traditional broadcast. By noon of the next day, hundreds of thousands of people had a chance to see what they had missed the night before. This application illustrates how events or sequences can be decomposed to extract only the relevant compo- nents. This technique is now driving the creation of modular, chunk-sized content objects, often referred to as learning objects, or more precisely, as knowledge objects.
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Towards a situated media practice: Reflections on the implementation of project-led problem-based learning

Towards a situated media practice: Reflections on the implementation of project-led problem-based learning

Each project generated its own set of unique problems and required the students to generate solutions, having identified the resources available to them. These resources included additional technical workshops where partic- ular skill gaps had been identified by the student team. Generally, problems during this stage were typically focused on creativity and how ideas which were often very ambitious could be achieved. For example, having under- taken a test shoot, a group of students realized how difficult it would be to deliver their idea. Rather than abandon their initial idea, the students were encouraged to stick to their plan and in this way work creatively to solve the problem, consequently reworking their idea into a more practical solution and thereby further developing critical skills and experience. Other problems faced during this phase were of a logistical nature and required students to develop capabilities in relation to communication, negotiation, planning and decision- making. Of course, the usual issue of group working often dominated discus- sions with students whose projects were falling behind schedule and this often fuelled another learning curve for the project participants.
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Supporting practice-based undergraduate students in academic study through creative learning strategies

Supporting practice-based undergraduate students in academic study through creative learning strategies

A key dramatic text that is explored on the course is “The Rover”, by seventeenth century playwright Aphra Behn (1677). Possibly the first commercially successful female playwright in the UK, Behn’s play, set in Naples during the Lenten carnival, explores how in a time of oppressive laws and customs, the carnival setting was used for the inversion of traditional roles and identities (Aughterson, 2003). Restoration play texts may be linguistically challeng- ing for students, many of whom have not studied drama from this historical period before. Although all students on the degree course had completed their first semester in higher education successfully, it was observed through this module delivery, that many of them were not still comfortable with the transition from further education to higher education. The group were from varied backgrounds with varying levels of experience and knowledge . Many had come from courses which were heavily practice-based and there was a reluctance to study theoretical and academic
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"Now I know the terrain": phenomenological exploration of CFTs learning on evidence based practice

"Now I know the terrain": phenomenological exploration of CFTs learning on evidence based practice

mysteriously incomplete. It gives you the start of a shift, but you know (your body knows) a more complete shift is possible” (p. 15). Our research participants reported their experiences with resonating with that felt sense and making meaning of it. This included discussion about their challenges with that process both individually and in the environments they worked in. Ken noted it as an individual experience saying that it was “by far the most difficult training and learning process that I’ve ever been in” while George spoke to the challenges he experienced in his work environment and how he managed those. He described how “more and more” of his colleagues were “doing things that can be programmed” as a means to respond to “government” and the “paymasters”. George went on to describe his colleagues’ efforts to address how government funding was spent by looking to “evidence-based practice”. For George this meant a “move” that would allow him to retain and attend to his felt sense about what was effective in his work with families. He described it as follows:
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Promoting Teacher Engagement with Assessment for Learning through a Flipped CPD based Community of Practice

Promoting Teacher Engagement with Assessment for Learning through a Flipped CPD based Community of Practice

Flexible Environment: To embed a learning model that creates flexibility for when and where learning may take place, affects the traditional practice of both teacher instruction and student learning. Traditional education has the student engaged in direct teacher instruction at school, while at home they independently practice the skills they “learned” through homework decided and assigned by their teacher. The flipped learning method flips that approach; creating direct instruction lessons that introduce/review a standard or topic to students through videos, screencasts, or an alternative vehicle that effectively and efficiently delivers a group lesson to students outside of class time. By changing how and when the lessons are delivered, the instructional format within the classroom changes too; in class the student will be spending time furthering their development and understanding of the new concept that was introduced through differentiated instruction provided by their teachers. What has changed with this new approach is that the teacher-centred element of the lesson has been reassigned to out of class learning and what remains is an enhanced student-learning approach to education. “The time when students really need me physically present is when they get stuck and need my individual help. They don’t need me there in the room with them to yak at them and give them content; they can receive content on their own.” (Bergmann & Sams, 2012).
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Defining practice: exploring the meaning of practice in the process of learning to teach

Defining practice: exploring the meaning of practice in the process of learning to teach

Alongside the implementation of core practices, Grossman (in Arbaugh et al. 2015) advocates a longer teacher training period over 3-5 years, a view that has also been voiced in the UK by Orchard and Winch (2015). However, Grossman situates this training period entirely in the practice-based environment. This suggested movement to a wholly practice-based setting offers a diffe e t isio to that e plo ed G oss a i he ea lie o k The Maki g of a Tea he (1990), where the importance of the acquisition of instructional strategies is also combined with the development of concepts about the purpose of teaching and a theoretical understanding of the curriculum through subject-specific coursework. In the case of Vanessa, one of the student teachers presented as a case study, collegial interaction proved to be e i po ta t, “he felt strongly that much of her learning occurred through her interactions with peers during her teacher education program, in which sharing and ollegialit e e e ou aged. (Grossman, 1990:75). There is an emphasis here on reflection and internalised learning, reminiscent of Dewey s distinction between the inner and external attention of children (Dewey, 1904:44). Hasty movement to the practical application of classroom skills could lead to a focus on behaviour management by necessity, hindering the developing understanding of how and why children learn.
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