Practitionerinquiry is a form of professional learning defined as the systematic, intentional study by educators of their own practice (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1993; 2009). Educators engage in systematic reflection and take action for change by asking questions or “wonderings,” gathering data to explore their wonderings, analyzing the data, making changes in practice based on knowledge constructed, and sharing learning with others (Dana & Yendol-Hoppey, 2014). Through this process, practitioners gain new understandings of their philosophies and actions, and are able to make more informed professional decisions that shape their own practice and that of other educators (Oberg, 1990). By connecting theory with practice, inquiry encourages changes in teaching while
Despite the limitations listed above, this study sheds light on how we can foster learning from practice in practice with early program novice teachers with implications for teacher education. First, practitionerinquiry can be conducted in short field experiences with early program teacher candidates. The pairs and trios of teacher candidates were initiated into the complex, situated, and expansive view of the work of teaching (Hatch & Grossman, 2009) by their teacher researcher stance. They, in fact, witnessed first-hand that learning teaching includes both what we learn in our formal education in colleges and universities, but also what we learn through studying our own practice. Their studies “fostered learning about and from practice in practice” and thus addresses the gap identified by Darling-Hammond for teacher education. The roots of this practitioner research originate in the issues, dilemmas, questions, or wonderings that interested them. Their close examination of their teaching enabled them to see an event in a way that they had not seen it before (Rhine and Bryant, 2007), all at a time when they were early program teacher candidates within short field experiences, an underreported area of teacher education. This work with teacher candidates affirms the value and the feasibility of fieldwork coupled with practitioner research noted by other researchers (Hostetler, et al.). The power of this work is in its ability to uncover unintentional practices of early educators so they can improve their practice early on in their teacher preparation programs and thus become well-started novices (Sykes et al.), a significant outcome for us as teacher educators. In addition, practitioner research coupled with short field experiences might offer flexible ways of including this promising practice in teacher programs that struggle to fit everything in.
homes. Yet there is limited appreciation of why staff sometimes struggle to manage residents’ healthcare needs, or understanding of their working relationship with District Nurses (DNs), whose responsibility it is to provide nursing support. Methods: This PhD study, in a metropolitan area in the UK, was conducted by an experienced DN and involved three phases. This paper focuses on the first two phases. Phase 1 data included: semi-structured interviews (n=8), reflective field notes based on non-participant observation, documentary analysis of policies, procedures and assessment tools and other contextual data from one care home (case study site). The practitioner
A paradigm is a worldview, a ‘pattern of beliefs and practices that regulate inquiry within a discipline by providing the lenses, frames and processes through which the investigation is accomplished’ (Weaver and Olson 2006). Research within nursing is carried out largely within four paradigms: Positivist, post-positivist, interpretive and critical social theory (Weaver and Olson 2006). For many years the positivist paradigm was the dominant one within nursing, based on the assumption that nature is ordered and there is a single reality that can be studied, defined and described through the process of careful measurement (Burns and Grove 2001). It being that this reality can be known to the researcher as long as they use and apply the correct methods to study it, values objectivity and calls for researchers to hold their personal beliefs, values and biases in check as these could risk influencing the behaviour of others (Polit and Beck 2007, Savin-Baden and Howell Major 2013). However, over the years researchers began to question the use of positivism, as causality is not able to explain what is happening in complex social situations, nor is it appropriate if one is interested in accessing data from the perspective of the first-person, focusing on the ‘felt’ or phenomenological experiences of participants (Edwards 2001, Appleton and King 2002). So rather than trying to objectively measure ‘truth or reality’ researchers began seeking ways to understand human knowledge and experience (Savin-Baden and Howell Major 2013).
In a world where majority of the children with speech disabilities will expe- rience some form of bullying, our inquiry aims to put power in the hands of the victims to take charge of their wellness. Our project gives adults and children an opportunity to explore their new-found awareness of what the most vulnerable victims go through and the importance of creating a safe channel to voice their opinion without the fear of victimization. Our work is of significance to educa- tors, speech and language pathologists, administrators, parents, and curriculum developers who are interested in creating an equal platform in which no child is bullied.
the likelihood of sustained impact on student outcomes. Indeed, in 2009 Timperley and colleagues showed what this could look like, using a ‘teacher inquiry and knowledge building cycle’ and produced student gains that were four times the national expectation in New Zealand. They concluded that there were crucial links between the teachers’ active engagement in their own learning journey and the way in which this is associated to their students learning needs. In addition, Hattie (2009) has shown that teachers make a significant difference in learners’ outcomes and provides some guidance on ‘good bets’ and areas for teachers to focus their energies on. However, we have already emphasised that we don’t think telling teachers what to do or how to do it is either effective or defensible and that it is better (from both a pragmatic and ethical position) to have a dialogue in which different kinds of expertise can be shared. We are convinced that in practitionerinquiry the stimulus from the practitioner’s own classroom is central and that the focus on particular content areas is a distraction from developing professional autonomy and research skills. This was christened the ‘Bananarama Theory’ by Professor Steve Higgins: “it ain’t what you do, it’s the why that you do it”.
Questions arise about the differential expectations of children’s attainment between parents and practitioners. Statutory frameworks frame learning expectations and developmental goals for the children, providing practitioners with an assessment-based understanding of outcomes and milestones. However, involving parents incorporates a different understanding and interpretation of child outcomes (Cottle & Alexander, 2014), with a renegotiation within differing parental generations of what is expected in issues surrounding play, discipline and education (Jackson & Needham, 2014). Therefore, confusion and conflict may be a feature of practitioner and parental relationships, alongside those of wider family who are also involved.
“If we dissect what we do right and apply the lessons to what we do wrong, we can solve our problems and reenergize the organization at the same time. In the long run, what is likely to be more useful: demoralizing a successful workforce by concentrating on their failures or helping them over their last few hurdles by building a bridge with their successes? Don’t get me wrong. I’m not advocating mindless happy talk. Appreciative Inquiry is a complex science designed to make things better. We can’t ignore problems; we just need to approach them from the other side” (Whitney & Cooperrider, 1998). It sounds really simple, but using AI in practice is a bit more complicated than how these AI proponents pretend it to be.
To compare various aspects of prescribing behaviors of Medical Practitioner of public and private Sector registered medical practitioners. A pilot survey was conducted for a period of 2 months for Government and private hospital of Udaipur district. After doing a pilot survey of physicians, major factors influencing their peer prescription behavior were found. Quality of medicines is most important for physicians, as it is not only helps curing the disease but also helps in building their reputation. Physicians on the basis of company image and consistent results with a product, judge the quality of products. So company image is also on high priority in their mind while prescribing medicines.A regular visit by a smart, dedicated, well groom having soft skills medical representatives is the best tool of promotion for a pharmaceutical company. Presenting good quality literature, journals and sponsorship for conferences or personal tours are preferable promotional tools in comparison to organization of free camps, personal gifts, medicine samples or any other incentive. It is vital that sales professionals become involved in the process doctors must go through in order to change their clinical behaviours and prescribing habits. If the information a representative has to offer is presented to the physician as an opportunity for learning and improving the problem-solving process, everyone benefits – the doctor, the patients and the representative. By training representative to view time with a doctor as a part of a larger educational process, you make it possible for them to contribute to that learning process and meet their goals more quickly. Scientific information is more effective when used as an educational tool rather than a sales tool.
expeditious, the burdens on chairs and secretaries of many of the administrative functions associated with the initial establishment of an inquiry should be minimised as far as possible. A support unit could help with this. We also believe that any support unit should be demonstrably independent of government and should make use of expertise contained in the offices of the Comptroller and Auditor General, the Parliamentary Ombudsman and, perhaps the Committee Offices of the House of Commons or the House of Lords. We should not keep reinventing the inquiry wheel. We welcome the concept of a support unit but recommend the Unit’s size and role should be limited and proportional to the relative infrequency of large inquiries and to the degree of guidance and advice which can be made available through other means. The accumulated experience of past inquiries, such as the procedural elements of inquiry reports, subsequent lectures, presentations and internal notes as well as official guidance should be consolidated and made available on a publicly accessible website. Given its small size we further recommend that such a support unit should be co-located with a central government department such as the Cabinet Office or the Department for Constitutional Affairs. However, in recognition of the need for independence for inquiries the unit should operate independently of its host department and should include secondees from bodies versed in investigatory processes such as the NAO, the Ombudsmen community and Select Committee staff.
DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2019.92008 77 Open Journal of Modern Linguistics specific learners’ needs. Thus, the new trends in this field of language teaching led the educational system to train teachers as to be qualified to teach the courses upon the learners’ central needs. The new trend towards learning English also has changed the concept of grammar translation method for a set of rules to language communication method as explained by Widdowson (1978) and Hut- chinson and Waters (1987). Dudley-Evans and St. John (1998) have assumed that ESP is a multi-dimension approach which required a variety of roles to per- form. These roles are assigned to the ESP practitioner such as researcher, course designer and material developer, language instructor, learning assessor, course evaluator, collaborator, facilitator, creative, and motivator. To perform these roles, the ESP practitioner should have a significant awareness of psychological needs, profound knowledge, and open minded, curious and enthusiastic with ESP. That is why John Swales (1985) prefers to use the concept of an ESP practi- tioner instead of an ESP teacher for the variety of roles and not to just a teacher. As a result, an ESP practitioner should be up-to-date (i.e. aware of latest devel- opments in the field of language teaching). Therefore, the area in which we teach, decides which specific terms should be used and how to build learners’ motivation. For example, if we want to teach business students, the teacher should adopt creative and convenient techniques to encourage students to learn the language (Hussin et al., 2000). As such, if the students are much motivated to learn the language, they will find themselves much interested in dealing with their subject-matter. For that reason, learning a language should not be only for academic practice but also for job-related purposes and for social communication.
practitioner must request a waiver (Form SMA-167) and fulfill the requirements of CSAT. CSAT will then notify DEA of all waiver requests. DEA will review each request. If DEA approves this waiver, the practitioner will receive a Unique Identification Number. If a practitioner chooses to dispense controlled substances, the practitioner must maintain, separate from all other records, for a period of at least two years, all required records of receipt, storage, and distribution. If a practitioner chooses to prescribe these controlled substances, the practitioner must utilize their Unique Identification Number on the
Much has been said as to what makes a good Open and Distance Learning (ODL) practitioner - or lecturer if you prefer. It is easy to make statements and observations, but it is, however, essential to establish exactly what an ODL practitioner is and then to establish if there is a set of characteristics that can be attached to such a practitioner. That, in essence, is the main aim of this study; namely, to investigate the characteristics of a good ODL practitioner. With the increase in student numbers at ODL institutions, there is a need for an increased number of ODL practitioners who are able to provide the quality education that the ODL students desire or need (Roberts, n.d.:1). In order to satisfy the objectives of the study, a self-administered survey was distributed to the ODL practitioners within an ODL institute. The results of this study revealed that there is a difference as to what these respondents saw in terms of the relevant importance of some characteristics. It is evident from the results that an ODL practitioner should have good subject knowledge, and should be fair and ethical.
The mission of the Nurse Practitioner Healthcare Foundation (NPHF) is to improve health status and quality of care through nurse practitioner (NP) innovations in educa- tion, research, health policy, service, and philanthropy. NPHF goals are to expand access to quality care and facilitate professional and patient educational opportunities. In addition, the NPHF engages in new research opportunities, fosters innovative inter- disciplinary collaboration, and provides NP resource support to public health policy makers. In that spirit, NPHF periodically provides White Papers addressing relevant healthcare issues.
In order for students in the Family Nurse Practitioner Concentration to be eligible for graduation, they must complete all didactic and clinical coursework outlined in the student’s program of study. The student must successfully complete clinical courses, must maintain academic progression standards, and finish all clinical requirements.