capacity for adopting its principles? . . . what was it that enabled the Jew to exercise so decisive an influence in the process that made modern economic life what it is?” 94 The Jews here serve as that agent of change bridging the traditional and modern; but with the discarding of Roscher’s comparative, organic folk-theory the Jews are not simply more forward than other nations, a bridge in consequence of their elder status, they themselves must always already have been . . . the Jews are an ahistorical construct. 95 The second part of his study attempts to explain this commercial aptitude in three ways: through history, religion, and race. As before, Sombart will circle in on his subject, moving from the least important to the most important point. Sombart ultimately will discount history, dissolving it into a symbiosis of religion and race. These are the historical circumstances which contributed to Jewish commercialism: the Jews’ dispersion over a wide area,
sometimes masters’ sons had an exemption). In principle, those youths with the good fortune
to find a master had a strong incentive to complete their apprenticeships. 5
That said, several recent studies that have presented quantitative evidence about persistence within apprenticeship have shown high rates of early exit. Around 40 percent of apprentices in London and Bristol in the 1690s left their master before their terms finished; Dutch orphan apprentices in the eighteenth century frequently moved between masters and crafts; more than half of the apprentices at the charity Albergo di Virtù in late eighteenth- century Turin left early, as did a quarter to a third of charity orphans in Lyon in the same period; in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Vienna, termination rates mostly ranged around 30%, depending on occupation and gender, and reached 57% among locksmiths. Moreover, urban courts in London facilitated the cancellation of apprenticeship contracts: a mechanisms that we might expect to have tightened contracts actually made them flexible. Those studies suggest that the viability of apprenticeship was not undermined by premature terminations. Yet not all places saw the same levels of exits: the scattered numbers on exits available for early modern Germany are generally lower (12 percent or less); in Göttingen in the mid- nineteenth century, over 95 percent of carpenter and cabinet maker’s apprentices completed their apprenticeships. Moreover, several of the most detailed studies are for places or groups that are, potentially, exceptional in nature: large, economically dynamic cities (Bristol; London; Vienna); orphans and charity recipients; areas with ‘weak’ guilds (England;
Apprenticeship does have its defenders, who emphasize that it was a critical avenue for skill formation in early modernEurope: it is the
historical antecedent of industrial apprenticeship and present day firm- based training schemes, it socialised youths into the urban world, and it provided a means to facilitate and manage migration, facilitating the flow of labour from agriculture into manufacturing and services. The craft training supplied through apprenticeship has been identified as a conduit for technological change in pre-modernEurope. 4 The most optimistic view of apprenticeship is probably best expressed in the idea that, for most, service ‘provided stability for a child, a secure future, with guaranteed employment and limited competition’. 5 However, even among those who have sought to rehabilitate corporate apprenticeship, Smith’s view that this pre-modern institution worked in the manner envisaged in law and custom often survives. 6 Whether the outcome was socially beneficial or not, the working assumption in most of the literature has been that apprenticeship contracts were stable and largely effective: the most
In summary, the papers contained in this insightful collection are a valuable contribution to the fields of queenship, gender studies, early modern history and in some cases, literature. However, I would argue that this collection would be better served by a different title, as the current one, a remnant of the conference from which these papers originate, does not adequately sum up the admirable contents of the volume. A better title perhaps would be ‘The Representation of Female Rule in Pre-ModernEurope’ which I think would both highlight the collection’s focus and include the clearly medieval sovereigns such as Isabeau of Bavaria. The collection would also benefit from the addition of a few supplementary papers on some of the key female sovereigns of the early modern era, as mentioned previously, which would round out this volume and balance out the surfeit of papers on Elizabeth Tudor. Overall though, this is a worthy collection which adds to our understanding of the lives and careers of these female rulers with particular regard to how they wished to represent themselves and how our current perception of them is influenced by the ways in which others have represented their rule.
standing at just under a meter high, (84.5 cm), William Vynyard’s figure of st george, his horse and their reptilian adversary were carved in the 1520s from a single piece of english oak.49 dragon and visible elements of the saint and his steed were polychromed, an entirely typical decorative feature of contemporary devotional sculpture.50 a sense of material verac- ity was achieved through the incorporation of genuine hair for the horse’s tail, textiles for the saddle, studded leather for the reins and most strik- ingly of all, the perfectly proportioned full plate iron armour for man and horse. that the style of armour was intended to be that commissioned and worn for a joust or tournament is suggested by the broken lance on the base of the statue and gripped in the dragon’s claws, as well as the rein- forced left pauldron or shoulder-plate. significantly, the suit was crafted by William Vynyard according to contemporary continental fashions for armour; the waistline is pinched (as stressed by a copper belt), there is an emphasis upon the commanding upper body (achieved through vertical ridges running down the breastplate), and the figure’s sabatons or shoes are squared-toed, a clear contrast to the long tapering footwear which had been fashionable in the previous century.51 these traces of stylistic and technical engagement with italian fashions, the centre of quality armour production in late-medieval europe, would undoubtedly have been interpreted by an organisation of skilled metalworkers as an unam- biguous statement of Vynyard’s personal artisanal virtuosity. an impres- sion which would have been heightened by the scale of the suit; differing from a full-sized armour simply in having its articulated parts made solid.52
Over the past few years natural products have become increasingly popular and the field of natural herbal remedies has flourished to a great extent. Natural herbs have been used for Medicinal purposes for many countries, and continue to be a medicament for various ailments even with the revolution in antibiotics and other synthetic medicine in modern scientific world. Pyrexia or fever is caused as a secondary impact of infection, malignancy or other diseased states. It is the body’s natural function to create an environment where infectious agents or damaged tissues cannot survive. It is now clear that most antipyretics work by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase and reducing the levels of PGE 2 within the hypothalamus. Recently, other mechanisms of action for antipyretic drugs
Al-Ahmad saw Islam as the only remaining barrier to Western capitalism and rampant consumerism. Plagued by the West blended a Nietzschean critique of modern technology with a Marxian one of alienated labor, also attacking the cultural hegemony of the West. The text was peppered with references to Albert Camus, Eugene Ionesco, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Franz Kafka. (Afary and
Ironically, a similar situation existed in pre-Renaissance Europe. Artisans routinely produced works that included coats of arms, tapestries, textiles, and utile objects such as goblets in addition to painted and sculptural works that reflected life. Sculptural additions to architecture, fresco, and mosaic, regarded today as art, had a utilitarian function. Many of these creations routinely provided a format for teaching illiterate masses complex theological tenets and expounded on cultural traditions and world views. It was only after artists began to specialize in specific genres catering to the needs and tastes of their patrons that art became segregated from everyday life.
As already noted, one of the principal sources of new wealth for the mercan- tile classes was the trade in Asian commodities and, to a considerable extent, the most politically contested commodities in European societies were those goods imbued with an exotic allure; the sensuous sheen and drape of the silk cloth and the sparkle of silk ribbons were an affront to traditionalists. These au- thorities were willing to see these fabrics draped on cathedral alters or forming cardinals’ robes but were offended to see them on the backs of burgers and their wives. The essence of fashion is its process of self-definition and adherence to change, which was exemplified in the reception of silks through the late me- dieval and early modern periods. Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga’s inventory, for example, listed “turkish style” clothing, crimson and green “moorish” damasks, several kinds of velvets and silks and cushions of brocade “from Alexandria”. 29
55% of your grade (cumulatively) is based on two review essays. Each essay will be 6-8 pages in length and address the literature on a specific topic in the gender history of modernEurope. You will be given several topic choices as well as suggested readings for each topic; these topics will build upon the topics we will have already addressed in class. You must analyze two sources, at least one of which must be from the list provided This review essay is intended not to summarize the
Catholics continued to trust in the sacred power of images and relics. During the later sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the cultic use of images – the veneration of paintings and sculptures of Christ and the saints – flourished throughout Catholic Europe. 6 No Protestant image – not even a miraculous portrait of Luther – was a place of holy presence akin to the Jesuit reliquary examined in this volume by Mia Mochizuki. 7 Yet Catholic belief in immanence, in the intermingling of the spiritual and material, always co-existed with scepticism about the value of the visual. Catholic reform, from the late Middle Ages onwards, emphasized the importance of inner
memory. 44 Mnemonics became Bruno's stock in trade. Pope Pius V, in fact, was interested in learning the art of memory. Having heard of Bruno's outstanding memory, the Pope thereby requested the mnemonist's presence in Rome. Though there is no documentation of this encounter, Bruno claimed at his trial that he had dedicated in 1568 a small book to Pius V entitled L'Arca di Noè. 45 I believe that in this now-lost work, which refers to one of the ancient time's greatest collectors, Noah, Bruno provided Pius V with instructions on how to benefit from the patient improvement of memory. Shortly after his meeting with Pius V, Bruno's fame as a mnemonist continued to spread across Europe. Henry III of France requested Bruno's presence in Paris. Bruno stated on May 30, 1592, while on trial in Venice, that "King Henry III called me one day, seeking to find out if the memory I had and professed was natural or the result of magical art; to whom I gave satisfaction; and with that I told him and made him try himself; he learned that it was not by means of magical art but science" (Firpo Il processo 161-62). 46 The fruit of this encounter was a book. Bruno dedicated to Henry III what is perhaps his best- known treatise on the art of memory, De umbris idearum (1582). 47 This work is the first of Bruno's on the art of memory to survive the grueling test of time (we know that numerous earlier works to which Bruno referred during his trial also pertained to the mnemonic arts, such as the Clavis magna). Even if no one will ever know how Giovanni
In Reformation studies, the printed Bible has long been regarded as an agent of change. This dissertation interrogates the conditions in which it did not Reform its readers. As recent scholarship has emphasized how Protestant doctrine penetrated culture through alternative media, such as preaching and printed ephemera, the revolutionary role of the scripture-book has become more ambiguous. Historians of reading, nevertheless, continue to focus upon radical, prophetic, and otherwise eccentric modes of interaction with the vernacular Bible, reinforcing the traditional notion that the conversion of revelation to print had a single historical trajectory and that an adversarial relationship between textual and institutional authority was logically necessary. To understand why printed bibles themselves more often did not generate unrest, this study investigates the evidence left by a subset of Bible readers who remained almost entirely unstudied -- that is, early modern Catholics. To the conflict-rich evidence of ecclesiastical prohibitions, court records, and martyrologies often employed in top down narratives of the Counter-Reformation, this project introduces the alternative sources of used books and reading licenses. What these records reveal is that Catholic lay readers were not habituated to automate critical reading practices in the presence of biblical texts; what they demanded from ecclesiastical authorities and publishers instead were books that could provide them with access to their church's sacred rituals and to its public expression of exegesis. The liturgical context of appropriation apparent in these Catholic books became visible in their evangelical counterparts enabling a cross-confessional history of sacred reading. This broader story is situated within the annotated Bible of one Catholic reader, Thomas Marwood (d.1718). The components of his book expose his overlapping reading communities and the disparate social and institutional contexts that structured them. Contextualizing each part illuminates the extent to which the conditions and traditions for reading the scriptures were shared across confessions and contested within them. This dissertation recovers a place for Bibles and their readers not only within early modern Catholicism, but within the Reformation era generally.
Thus for the first time in South Indian history, a permanent stone structure for royal gifting was built which meant the institutionalization of the practice of royal liberality and that gifting was an essential aspect of medieval South Indian kingship. Although the balance portraits are small, the symmetrical structure of the Balance was a powerful symbol of the generosity of the king. In addition, the structure, located near the Vitthala temple and on the important road between the palace area and the temple cities or puras acted as a visual reminder of the generosity and largess of the kings. Necessitated by the changing political ideology, religion and societal changes, there was a transformation in the character and pattern of royal gifting which was substantiated by gift giving imagery. The king visually reaffirmed his superiority and autonomy as the pre-eminent person in the kingdom, subject to no one, ruler of all, as one who enjoyed the exclusive right to give gifts. Royal gifting was an act of devotion and Hindu dharmic ideology but also colored with an awareness of its material and symbolic value. It sustained the temple which was a citadel of economic power and an instrument of authority. Ostentatious gifts increased political stability and social order that affirmed the ethics of obligation and reciprocity and enhanced the sanctity of Vijayanagar kingship. The visual representation of dāna can throw a substantial light on liberal aspects of kingship in the context of historical evidences to illustrate in new ways, its close linkage with diverse institutions and patterns of shared relations centered around magnanimous architecture and visual imagery.
knowledge required by raison d’Etat to be effective, it must be kept secret; ‘[a]t the time this was an explicit part of raison d’Etat called the arcana imperii, the secrets of power’ (Foucault, 2007, p. 275). In particular, the states ‘enemies and rivals’ must not be able to learn the real resources available (Foucault, 2007, p. 275), since ‘the more the forces of the state are unknown, the more they deserve respect’. 36 Following the Peace of Westphalia, this need for secrecy only intensified as the prospect of ultimate imperial dominion via endless territorial expansion gave way to a field of relatively fixed and yet aggressively competitive states. To maintain balance and equilibrium, these states would have to compete in ways that increased their forces but did not bring about the ruin of the others or the breakup of the whole (see, Foucault, 2007, p. 297-300). As a result, raison d’Etat was increasingly delineated in ‘diplomatic terms’, ‘essentially defined by the constitution of a Europe’ (Foucault, 2007, p. 300), and began to make use of several different mechanisms 37 which would allow competition while maintaining ‘peace through the plurality’. Foucault referred to one of these mechanisms as an ‘information apparatus (appareil)’ 38 , a dimension of which was precisely secrecy, or more specifically, keeping hidden the knowledge that the state must develop. As he put it, this will mean
Rule; secondly, he is categorical that nationality does not equal ethnicity. Nationality is a broad category in which the idea of the ‘homeland’ is the common bond between people, rather than membership of an ethnic community. Nationalism can thus encompass many ethnic groups under its banner (p. 48). The section then continues, by arguing that scholars seeking the origins of both ‘national consciousness’ and nationalism in Ireland should be examining the 16th and 17th centuries, rather than the 18th and 19th as has previously been widely claimed. In doing so, Bradshaw identifies the twin forces of Renaissance and Reformation as playing central roles in this development. The Renaissance, he argues had a dual impact through increasing the sense of ‘national sentiment’, while the revival of classical learning also expanded the vocabulary of the ‘nation’, and enabled the articulation of different conceptions to their medieval forebears. Similarly, the Reformation across Europe more tightly bound politics with religion, while also contributing to a strengthening of a ‘national psyche’ in religious terms (p. 52). After exploring medieval Ireland and its ‘national’ heritage, in which Bradshaw dismisses the idea of ‘nationalism’ or ‘national consciousness’
issue 17 – September 2015
Social dialogue is a key part of the European social model, with European social dialogue having been launched at the historic Val Duchesse meeting 30 years ago. However, since then, established approaches to social dialogue in Europe have been challenged by industrial and social change. Ongoing shifts towards greater decentralisation of collective bargaining have resulted in a polarisation of Member States and the crisis has resulted in an increased trend towards unilateral decision- making by governments at the expense of social partners’ autonomy. In response to these challenges, the new Juncker Commission has set about a ‘relaunching’ of social dialogue. This issue of Foundation Focus looks at the current state of play of social dialogue in Europe, focusing in particular on Eurofound’s extensive research findings from both its Europe-wide surveys and its observatories.
importance and relevance of this research lies in its originality. The primary aim of this paper is to synthesize the diverse and fragmentary scholarship in an accessible single source. The secondary aim is to provide an overview of the changing social practices of European women who owned libraries, as those practices developed through history from the ninth to the eighteenth centuries. The scholarly literature is dominated by a few highly specific studies on individual collectors—with large gaps in coverage. Performing content analysis on existing scholarship will contribute to library literature by creating an original synthesis of disparate material. This paper will summarize existing research into a coherent narrative that describes and explains the history and context of women book collectors throughout Europe,