prebiotics and gut flora

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Probiotics and prebiotics

Probiotics and prebiotics

Nutrient metabolism: The gut flora mainly derives their nutrients from carbohydrates in diet. Fermentation of the carbohydrates byorganisms such as Bacteroides, Enterobacteria, Bifidobacterium, Fecalibacterium, and Roseburia result in the synthesis of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyrate, acetate, and propionate which are rich sources of energy. The oxalate that is produced in the intestine as a result of carbohydrate fermentation and bacterial metabolism is used by organisms such as Oxalobacterformigenes, Bifidobacterium species and Lactobacillus species, which is reducing the risk of formation of oxalate renal stones (Magwira. 2012). Thenormal flora in the human gut has also been reported to impart a positive effect on lipid metabolism by blocking the inhibition of lipoprotein lipase activity in adipocytes. Moreover, synthesis of vitamin K and vitamin B is another major metabolic function of the normal flora. The gut flora, particularly Bacteroides intestinalis, and to a certain extent Bacteroides fragilis and E. coli, also has the ability to deconjugate and dehydrate the primary bile acids and convert them into the secondary bile acids deoxycholic and lithocolic acids in the colon. The normal gut flora has also been shown to exert a healthy metabolome in the serum by increasing of, citric acid, fumaric acid,pyruvic acid and malic acid, all of which are markers of energy metabolism [8] . Recent studies have discussed that gut flora is also involved in breakdown of several polyphenols (phenolic compounds) which are consumed by human in the food. More in the same point, polyphenolic secondary metabolites are found in a various of plants, fruits (Marín, 2015).
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FORMULATION OF SYNBIOTIC DRINK TO ENHANCE INTESTINAL GUT FLORA

FORMULATION OF SYNBIOTIC DRINK TO ENHANCE INTESTINAL GUT FLORA

Probiotic organisms are closely associated with the host’s health as they act as an important biodefence in preventing colonization and proliferation of pathogenic bacteria in the intestine 5 . Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon 6 . Prebiotics enhances the fermentation and colonization of friendly bacteria like lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium bifidus. It comes in various forms like inulin, fructooligosaccharide, galactooligo- saccharides of which inulin is the most common.
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Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics - A Review

Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics - A Review

Relationship between prebiotics and probiotics Prebiotics when combined with probiotics have many advantages Basically, prebiotics selectively stimulate the growth of probiotics, which is dose and strain dependent. Prebiotics serve as a selective growth substrate for the probiotics strain during fermentation, during the period of storage, or during its passage through the gut. These two combinations implant live microbial dietary supplements and create a congenial environment for their sur vival in gut flora. Thereby, this

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Pregnancy outcomes in women taking probiotics or prebiotics: a systematic review and meta analysis

Pregnancy outcomes in women taking probiotics or prebiotics: a systematic review and meta analysis

The probiotics industry exceeded $35 Billion in 2015 and it is expected to continue to grow rapidly in coming years [1]. Probiotics are living microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit by re-inoculating or balancing the host’s micro- flora, [2] prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates that nourish probiotics and healthy bacteria and synbiotics are combinations of probiotics and prebiotics. They can be given as biological supplements or in food [3] such as yogurt, [4] making them readily available for consump- tion. Probiotics have proven benefit for gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome [5]. That said, there is uncertainty regarding what is the proper way of grouping (or not) different probiotic types and species [6].
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Dietary green-plant thylakoids decrease gastric emptying and gut transit, promote changes in the gut microbial flora, but does not cause steatorrhea

Dietary green-plant thylakoids decrease gastric emptying and gut transit, promote changes in the gut microbial flora, but does not cause steatorrhea

During the three-month human intervention previ- ously published in Appetite, all subjects reduced their body-weight. However, the present study includes only 34 women out of the original 36 enrolled in the pre- viously study [12]. The differences found in gut microbiota between thylakoid and control group could thereby be caused by body-weight changes, but since the previous study also showed changes in appetite- regulating hormones, we propose it is the other way around, since a change in the gut microbiota have been shown to result in increased secretion of SCFA, PYY and GLP-1, due to colonic fermentation [2, 32]. Previous studies describing the effects of thylakoids have shown decreased amount of cholesterol, in- creased secretion of satiety hormones, and significant weight-loss [12, 13]. Thereby we propose that also the gut microbiota corroborates in the mechanistic expla- nations for these results.
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MIRACULOUS HEALTH BENEFITS OF PREBIOTICS

MIRACULOUS HEALTH BENEFITS OF PREBIOTICS

Mechanisms of Action: Prebiotics affect intestinal bacteria by increasing the numbers of beneficial anaerobic bacteria and decreasing the population of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Probiotics affect the intestinal ecosystem by stimulating mucosal immune mechanisms and by stimulating nonimmune mechanisms through antagonism/competition with potential pathogens. These phenomena are thought to mediate most beneficial effects, including reduction of the incidence and severity of diarrhea, which is one of the most widely, recognized uses for probiotics. Probiotics reduce the risk of colon cancer in animal models, probably due to their role in suppressing the activity of certain bacterial enzymes that may increase the levels of procarcinogens, but this has not been proven in humans. Well-designed, randomized clinical studies are still required in order to define the role of probiotics as therapeutic agents in inflammatory bowel disease.
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The effect of inulin and fructo oligosaccharide supplementation on the textural, rheological and sensory properties of bread and their role in weight management: A review

The effect of inulin and fructo oligosaccharide supplementation on the textural, rheological and sensory properties of bread and their role in weight management: A review

The difference in structure between inulin and FOS has a major impact on their functionality whereby inulin is able to form gels via small crystallites and is not perceived as being sweet, it has therefore been successfully used as a fat substitute, whereas fructo-oligosaccharides are more soluble, taste sweet (a sweetness of about 30% of that table sugar) and are mainly added as sugar replacement as well as for their prebiotic properties (Coussement, 1999, Niness, 1999). In both cases, they provide low calorie bulk (1.5 kCal/g (Hosoya, Dhorranintra & Hidaka, 1988, Roberfroid, 1999) as fat or sugar replacers and have found a number of uses in food production (Franck, 2008). Inulin, in particular, is an excellent fat replacer in water continuous phase products (Wouters, 2010) and has been successfully introduced in low fat dairy products (Aryana, Plauche, Rao, McGrew & Shah, 2007, Meyer & Peters, 2009) where it is now commonly used (Elleuch, Bedigian, Roiseux, Besbes, Blecker & Attia, 2011). Indeed, yogurt drinks fortified with inulin were preferred to the control in a recent consumer study (Allgeyer, Miller & Lee, 2010). There have been several attempts at introducing inulin and FOS in low fat meat products such as mortadella (Garcia, Caceres & Selgas, 2006) and sausages (Archer, Johnson, Devereux & Baxter, 2004, Beriain, Gomez, Petri, Insausti & Sarries, 2011) with promising results in terms of acceptability (Garcia, Caceres & Selgas, 2006; Beriain, Gomez, Petri, Insausti & Sarries, 2011) and satiety (Archer, Johnson, Devereux & Baxter, 2004). Prebiotics in bakery products have also attracted a lot of interest as fat (Capriles, Soares, Pinto e Silva & Areas, 2009, Devereux, Jones, McCormack & Hunter, 2003, Zahn, Pepke & Rohm, 2010) or carbohydrate (Armstrong, Luecke & Bell, 2009, Brennan & Samyue, 2004, Hempel, Jacob & Rohm, 2007, Taylor, Fasina & Bell, 2008) substitutes.
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Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics

Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics

T-lymphocyte recognition and re- sponse to subsequent exposure to the same or very similar molecules. Thus, T-lymphocyte recognition of specific oligosaccharides bound to intestinal pathogens plays an important role in preventing gastrointestinal illness. Given these important influences on in- testinal microflora colonization and im- mune function, the infant’s early diet and intestinal microbial environment are thought to serve as pivotal factors in overall health. Probiotic bacteria, postbi- otic bacterial byproducts, and dietary prebiotics are believed to exert positive effects on the development of the muco- sal immune system. It is also believed that exposure to “nonbeneficial” micro- organisms and antimicrobial agents in the newborn period may result in im- mune dysregulation in susceptible indi- viduals and may lead to some chronic disease states. There is evidence that hu- man milk contains mononuclear cells that traffic intestinally derived bacterial components from the mother to her in- fant. The ingested human milk contain- ing the bacterial components derived from the mother are thought to influ- ence her young infant’s developing im- mune system. This process is termed “bacterial imprinting,” and its overall biological effect requires further study. 31
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 PROBIOTIC: AS EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF DISEASES

 PROBIOTIC: AS EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF DISEASES

presumably by breaking down bile in the gut thus inhibiting its reabsorption (which enters the blood as cholesterol). A meta-analysis that included five double blind trials examining the short term (2-8weeks) effects of a yogurt with probiotic strains on serum cholesterol levels found a minor change of 8.5 mg/dL (0.22 mmol/L) (~4% decrease) in total cholesterol concentration, and a decrease of 7.7 mg/dL (0.2 mmol/L) (~5% decrease) in serum LDL concentration. A slightly longer study evaluating the effect of a yogurt with probiotic strains on twenty-nine subjects over six months found no statistically significant differences in total serum cholesterol or LDL values. However, the study did note a significant increase in serum HDL from, 50 mg/dL (1.28 mmol/L) to 62 mg/dL (1.6 mmol/L) following treatment. This corresponds to a possible improvement of LDL/HDL ratio 14 .
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Aerobic gut bacterial flora of Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and their virulence to the host

Aerobic gut bacterial flora of Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and their virulence to the host

different insect species, and they can be used as bio- logical control agents against insect pests (Khetan 2001). Among entomopathogens, the entomopathogenic bac- teria (EPB) play a key role in the commercial control of insect pests and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the species on which most of the scientific community and industry efforts have been focused (Owuama 2001 and Ruiu et al. 2013). Apart from Bt, many different EPB belonging to different species of Bacillus and other genera, such as Bacillus sphaericus, Paenibacillus papillae, and Serratia entomophila, are available as insecticides (Federici 2007). Many insect life cycles are associated with symbiotic microorganisms, and there is increasing evidence that symbiotic microorganisms influence many insect features such as sex determination, nutrient exchange, nutrition, and digestion processes (Rajagopal 2009; Douglas 2014; and Brune 2014). However, some insect groups are not obligatory dependent on their microbiota (Douglas 2014). Symbiotic microorganisms, especially bacteria, can be used in the biological control of insect pests through the use of different methods, e.g., they can be used to express insecticidal toxins or proteins by using genetic engineering techniques (Beard et al. 1998). In addition, changing the dynamics among bacterial microbes in the insect gut could be used for controlling insect pests. For different
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Gut microbiota manipulation with prebiotics in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial protocol

Gut microbiota manipulation with prebiotics in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial protocol

Background: Evidence for the role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging. Strategies to manipulate the gut microbiota towards a healthier community structure are actively being investigated. Based on their ability to favorably modulate the gut microbiota, prebiotics may provide an inexpensive yet effective dietary treatment for NAFLD. Additionally, prebiotics have established benefits for glucose control and potentially weight control, both advantageous in managing fatty liver disease. Our objective is to evaluate the effects of prebiotic supplementation, adjunct to those achieved with diet-induced weight loss, on heptic injury and liver fat, the gut microbiota, inflammation, glucose tolerance, and satiety in patients with NAFLD. Methods/design: In a double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study, adults (BMI ≥ 25) with confirmed NAFLD will be randomized to either a 16 g/d prebiotic supplemented group or isocaloric placebo group for 24 weeks ( n = 30/group). All participants will receive individualized dietary counseling sessions with a registered dietitian to achieve 10 % weight loss. Primary outcome measures include change in hepatic injury (fibrosis and inflammation) and liver fat. Secondary outcomes include change in body composition, appetite and dietary adherence, glycemic and insulinemic responses and inflammatory cytokines. Mechanisms related to prebiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota (shot-gun sequencing) and their metabolic by-products (volatile organic compounds) and de novo lipogenesis (using deuterium incorporation) will also be investigated.
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Characterization of the gut microbiota of Papua New Guineans using reverse transcription quantitative PCR

Characterization of the gut microbiota of Papua New Guineans using reverse transcription quantitative PCR

Despite the role the gut microbiome plays in human health, to date most studies investigat- ing the microbial composition have focused on people living in socio-economically developed countries. Relatively few studies have investigated the composition of the gut microbiota in low socio-economic settings where the greatest improvement in health outcomes is needed; and specifically, where the burden of infectious diseases remains high. Based on the limited data to date, it appears that there are differences in the composition of gut microbiota, both within high-income European countries [10]; and particularly when comparing people from socio- economically developed settings to those that live a non-Western or traditional subsistence life- style [9,11]. Moreover, when detailed analyses have been conducted in low socio-economic set- tings, typically studies have focused on children and sample sizes have been small [9,12,13]. Two recent studies in Malawi have used appreciable sample sizes, although with the focus on children only [14,15]; with only one sizable study looking at adults and children from high- and low-income settings [16]. Thus, there remain large gaps in our knowledge in this field, par- ticularly from the Asia-Pacific region. To address these issues, we have used reverse transcrip- tase real-time PCR to determine the prevalence of the recognized important groups of bacteria
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Gut flora enhance bacterial clearance in lung through toll-like receptors 4

Gut flora enhance bacterial clearance in lung through toll-like receptors 4

Commensal microflora in the gut are reported to be important regulators for the intestinal haemostasis and the intestinal innate immunity [8]. In the present study, we further demonstrate that gut flora are critical in enhancing lung inflammatory reaction against E.coli pneumonia. MPO system plays an important role in the microbicidal activity of neutrophils in the innate immune response to infection [17]. However, an acute innate immune phagocytes response to bacteria in the lung has also been characterized by the infiltration of neutrophils [18], thus, they are necessary for this pro- cess. Our data clearly demonstrate that commensal depletion decreases E.coli intratracheal injection-induced MPO activity. This indicates that gut flora are important in maintaining neutrophils infiltration in the lung while bacteria invasion. LPS, a TLR4 ligand, supplementation with oral antibiotic pretreatment reverses commensal depletion-induced reduction of MPO activity, suggesting that oral TLR4 stimulation increases neutrophils infiltra- tion in the lung. Moreover, oral antibiotic treatment with or without LPS supplementation does not change
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High Rate of Transfer of Staphylococcus aureus from Parental Skin to Infant Gut Flora

High Rate of Transfer of Staphylococcus aureus from Parental Skin to Infant Gut Flora

more common in the adult intestinal flora today than it was 20 years ago (8, 10). We therefore regard contamination from maternal fecal or vaginal flora during delivery as a minor source of the S. aureus strains found in the infants’ bowel flora. The data presented here instead suggest that the main source of these strains is the skin flora of the parents. Indeed, 90% of S. aureus strains found in infants’ feces 3 days after delivery and 75% of the strains occurring up to 1 month of age were identical to a strain present in the parental skin flora 3 days after delivery. We regard it highly unlikely that the direc- tion of spread was the reverse: from infant to parent. S. aureus colonized only 20% of 3-day-old infants, but the colonization rate rose steadily to reach 64% in 2-month-old infants. This confirms our earlier findings of maximal intestinal S. aureus colonization between 2 and 6 months of age, suggesting that most strains derive from the home environment and not from the hospital (15). In Sweden, rooming-in and short hospital stays after delivery is practiced, which minimizes colonization of infants by hospital bacteria (6). In accordance with this, there was no indication that infants born in one hospital shared the same strains. Most families had their unique strains, al- though a few strains seemed to be shared by several families.
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Investigation of botanical additives for growth of xiphophorus helleri (heckel.) and it’s gut autochthonous bacterial flora

Investigation of botanical additives for growth of xiphophorus helleri (heckel.) and it’s gut autochthonous bacterial flora

probiotic (Lactosacc) containing organisms similar to SBM probiotic feed and observed a systematic reduction in the growth of Penaeus indicus when fed with higher dose of lactosacc due to poor digestion and assimilation of yeast and excessive faecal loss. Both probiotic feed fed fishes did not show any significant protection (P>0.05) against P. fluorescens 58C, although there was marked difference in the fishes exhibiting fin and tail rot (Table 2). Similarly, Robertson et al. (2000) and Abraham et al. (2007b) observed less evidence of minor health problems such as fin and tail rot in probiotic fed group. The fact is that the aquatic animals are quite different from the land animals for which the probiotic concept was developed. In finfish and shellfish, gram-negative facultative anaerobes prevail in the digestive tract and symbiotic anaerobes may be dominant in the posterior intestine of some herbivorous tropical fish. Aeromonas, Plesiomonas and Enterobacteriaceae are dominant in freshwater fish (Sakata, 1990). Most microbes are transients in aquatic animals and may change rapidly with the intrusion of microbes coming from water and food. A consequence of specificity of aquatic micro flora is that the most efficient probiotics for aquaculture may be different from those of terrestrial species (Steeve et al., 2001). Many of the earlier studies used commercial probiotic for land animals and also demonstrated the interest on the use of bacterial addition in aquaculture feeds. But, the survival of probiotic microbes is uncertain in the gastrointestinal tract of aquatic animals and so also the desired beneficial effect as has been observed in CA probiotic feed fed groups. After the pioneer studies by Maeda and Liao, (1992), attempts have been aimed at seeking autochthonous bacterial strains with probiotic properties. Although the results of the present study with antagonistic strains Lactobacillus sp. P21 and Bacillus sp. P3 isolated from fish gut are encouraging, further studies are required to elucidate their usefulness for commercial application in ornamental fish production. The results of the present study would form the basis for future
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Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics: An update

Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics: An update

Probiotics are live non-pathogenic microorganisms, which have a beneficial effect on the health of the host. They are present in the gastrointestinal tract without causing any side-effects. Probiotics can be used for several conditions, e.g. antibiotic- induced diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Prebiotics are known to be a non-digestible food ingredient. They exert a favourable change in the balance of Table II. An overview of human intestinal microbiota 2,4,7

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Supplementation of prebiotics in infant formula

Supplementation of prebiotics in infant formula

In recent years, attempts have been made to make intestinal microbiota in formula-fed infants similar to those found in breast-fed infants, mostly by adding pro- and prebiotics. Human milk oligosaccharides are structurally very complex, have a huge diversity and currently are not available for commercial use. 4 However, several prebiotics have

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Probiotics, prebiotics and amelioration of diseases

Probiotics, prebiotics and amelioration of diseases

associated with benefits for host health [43]. Subsequently, the term “prebiotic” was generally ac- cepted to selectively refer to food ingredients that are non-digestible and show beneficial effects on the host by stimulating the growth and/or activity of probiotics in the colon after fermentation [44]. Under this definition, there are many different kinds of food ingredients reck- oned as the prebiotics. Among these, many dietary fibers which are composed of carbohydrates (polymers of mono-sugars) are most emphasized and highlighted as prebiotics. Dietary fibers basically resist the hydrolysis by human digestive enzymes in the small intestine; however, they can be fermented by colonic microbiota bacteria. Many different kinds of carbohydrates belong to dietary fibers. These include resistant starch (starch and starch degradation products), non-starch polysaccharides (cel- luloses, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, and mucilages), inulin, and oligosaccharides such as fructooligosaccha- rides (FOS, a subgroup of inulin with the degree of polymerization (DP) ≤10), galactooligosaccharides(GOS, DP 2–8), and xylooligosaccharides (XOS, DP 2–10) [45]. Among the fermentative products of prebiotics pro- duced from the microbiota, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are studied most intensively, though they may not be the only biologically active products derived from microbiota fermentation. SCFAs are mainly composed of acetate, propionate and butyrate, and many other metab- olites and gases are produced after fermentation of pre- biotics by microbiota bacteria [46]. SCFAs can act as energy sources absorbed through colonic mucosa [47]. Among these, acetate is mainly metabolized in muscle, kidneys, heart, and brain. Propionate undergoes metab- olism in the liver and is a neoglucogenic substrate that may inhibit cholesterol synthesis and regulate lipogen- esis in adipose tissue. By contrast, butyrate is mainly me- tabolized by the coloniccommensal bacteria, where it acts as a preferential substrate and regulates cell growth and differentiation by different mechanisms [48].
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Chemopreventive Potential of Probiotics and Prebiotics

Chemopreventive Potential of Probiotics and Prebiotics

Inflammation plays an important role in progression of carcinogenesis by promoting cell proliferation and inhi- biting apoptosis. Infiltration of macrophages, increased production of cytokines, reactive oxygen species such as nitric oxide, superoxide [49], and elevated conversion of primary to secondary bile acids are seen in bacterial mediated inflammation. Pattern-recognition receptors’ (PRRs) have been identified and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are two groupings where PRRs and probiotics play a major role in immunity. Probiotics influence the immunity of the host by their adhe- sion, metabolites, and also by cell wall components. They influence both innate and acquired immunity (Figure 1). Adhesion of probiotics to gut immune cells may trigger the signal transduction pathway for production of immune response cells. Toll-like-receptor (TLR) signaling is important in innate immunity and effects host microbial composition and functions. TLR was one of the first PRRs identified and was originally found in Drosophila melanogaster [50]. Rachmilewitz et al. (2004) [51] evaluated the effects of irradiation and heat treatment on the benefits of probiotics and the TLR system. It was discussed how TLR systems contain specific receptors that recognize and act by different response systems (e.g. TLR2 detects peptidoglycan and lipopeptides, TLR3 re- cognizes double-stranded RNA, TLR4 binds LPS, TLR5 binds bacterial flagellin, etc.) and that probiotic effec- tiveness depends upon the system that they trigger. This report specifically focused on colitis and TLR9 as it re- cognizes unmethylated CpG dinucleotides and is expressed by multiple cells (e.g. dendritic cells) within the immune system. The unmethylated CpG sequences are typically found in the DNA of bacteria and viral, thus it is a valuable identification point for probiotic and pathogen research.
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Studies on the Comparative Physiology of Digestion

Studies on the Comparative Physiology of Digestion

The alimentary system consists of a chitinous fore-gut, comprising an oesophagus, a cardiac fore-gut, and a pyloric fore-gut, a mid-gut which is the longest part of the gut and possesses[r]

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