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Study on thermal performance of precast concrete sandwich panel (PCSP) design for sustainable built environment

Study on thermal performance of precast concrete sandwich panel (PCSP) design for sustainable built environment

The heat conduction from exterior concrete surface to interior concrete surface is the primary concern in this study. The panels were wrapped with aluminium foil around the sample to reduce the heat loss to surrounding and to minimize the radiation from the halogen lamp reaching the sides of panels during the experiment, and also to ensure one dimensional heat transfer. Thermocouple shows in Figure 3.6 is used to measure the temperature of exterior and interior surface of specimens for every 30 minutes. While, Figure 3.8 shows the experimental setup before and after panel covered with aluminium foil.
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Structural behaviour of precast concrete sandwich panel using recycled aggregate concrete under transverse load

Structural behaviour of precast concrete sandwich panel using recycled aggregate concrete under transverse load

waste are created, consequently becoming a special problem of human environment pollution. For this reason, in developed countries, laws have been established to restrict this waste in the form of prohibitions or special taxes for creating waste areas. As production and utilization of concrete rapidly increases, there is a concurrent increased consumption of natural aggregate as the largest concrete component. For example, two billion tons of aggregate are produced each year in the United States. Production is expected to increase to more than 2.5 billion tons per year by the year 2020. This situation leads to a question about the preservation of natural aggregates sources; many European countries have placed taxes on the use of virgin aggregates. A possible solution to these problems is to recycle demolished concrete to produce alternative aggregates for new structural concrete. Recycled concrete aggregate (RAC) is generally produced by a two-stage crushing of demolished concrete, and screening and removal of contaminants such as reinforcement, paper, wood, plastics and gypsum. Concrete made with such recycled concrete aggregate is called recycled aggregate concrete (Transportation Applications of Recycled Concrete Aggregate, 2004).
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Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with double shear truss connectors under eccentric load: preliminary result

Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with double shear truss connectors under eccentric load: preliminary result

Abstract. Recent years in Malaysia, precast concrete sandwich panel gained its popularity in building industries due to its economic advantages, superior thermal and structural efficiency. This paper studied the structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with double shear truss connectors under eccentric load. Preliminary results were analysed and studied to obtain the ultimate load carrying capacity, load-deflection profiles and strain distribution across the panel thickness at mid depth. The achieved ultimate load carrying capacity of PLFP due to eccentric load from the experimental work was compared with values calculated from classical formulas (if it is more than 1 comparison) developed by previous researchers. Preliminary results showed that, the use of double shear truss connectors in PLFP was able to improve its ultimate load carrying capacity to sustain eccentric load and achieve certain compositeness reaction in between the wythes.
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OVERVIEW OF EMPIRICAL EQUATION PREDICTION FOR ULTIMATE AXIAL LOAD OF PRECAST LIGHTWEIGHT FOAMED CONCRETE SANDWICH PANEL (PLFP)

OVERVIEW OF EMPIRICAL EQUATION PREDICTION FOR ULTIMATE AXIAL LOAD OF PRECAST LIGHTWEIGHT FOAMED CONCRETE SANDWICH PANEL (PLFP)

Benayoune [5] suggested an expression to determine ultimate load carrying capacity for precast concrete sandwich panel which subjected to axial load. He developed the expression by using experimental and FEA results, in the equation, the effect of reinforcement used in precast concrete sandwich panel was included. This equation increases the slenderness function and incorporates the contribution of the steel reinforcement to better fit the FEA and experimental results. However, the equation developed by him was only applicable for panel with slenderness ratio lower than 25, and therefore the expression developed can’t be used for taller panel with higher slenderness ratio.
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Advances in Precast Concrete Sandwich Panels toward Energy Efficient Structural Buildings

Advances in Precast Concrete Sandwich Panels toward Energy Efficient Structural Buildings

Jiang [45] carried out a direct shear push-out test to assess the performance of Precast Concrete Sandwich Panel (PCSP) with W-shaped Glass Fibre-reinforced Polymer shear connectors. The results indicate an elastic-brittle response caused by the pull-out of the connectors before the ultimate strength was reached. This indicates that the SGFRP material did not exhibit ductility behaviour. Many investigations have been carried out on the structural performance of PCSP with the alternative materials as summarized in Table 2(a)-(c). Despite the numerous investigations in this regard available in literature, no corresponding report yet regarding the thermal performance of the PCSP assemblies [40, 57]. Even though, report have shown that there is opposite behavior between the load capacity and thermal efficiency: increasing number of shear connectors increases the load capacity, but decreases thermal performance. However, Salmon [57] reported that the thermal conductivity of CFRP material is about 14% of steel conductivity, which encourages more research in using FRP as shear connector in PCSP system.
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Use of CFRP Grid as Shear Transfer Mechanism for Precast Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels.

Use of CFRP Grid as Shear Transfer Mechanism for Precast Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels.

Precast prestressed concrete insulated sandwich wall panels have been used over the past 50 years. One of the earliest reported uses of concrete sandwich wall panels for building construction was in 1906. With the advancement of the materials and methods of construction over decades, the production of these panels has been improved and become more efficient. Typical sandwich wall panel consist two layers of concrete separated by foam core. The two concrete wythes are typically connected by different type of shear connectors. The materials for production have evolved over the years and higher quality control is achieved in construction of these panels as they are casted in a factory (PCI Committee on Precast Sandwich Wall Panels, 2011). Shear transfer mechanisms have evolved from solid concrete zones to steel truss mechanism. A major criterion in the recent advancements of precast concrete sandwich panel technology has led the building owners to attain Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) certification. LEED maintains requirements and guidelines for thermal performance of building envelopes, focusing the precast industry’s attention toward a more thermally efficient panel system.
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Thermal Resistance of Two Layers Precast Concrete Sandwich Panels

Thermal Resistance of Two Layers Precast Concrete Sandwich Panels

In modern architecture, one of the main emphasis is on sustainability through minimization of thermal transfer between outside and inner parts of buildings that can be achieved through the provision of insulation layer between the building components, thus, leading to the paradigm shift to precast concrete sandwich panel (PCSP) systems [1]. This is agreed by Gervásio et.al. [2], who highlighted the material efficiency and energy efficiency as two main factors contributing to the building’s sustainability. The earlier is refers to the use of environmental-friendly materials and the minimization of construction waste both during construction and at the demolition stage of the building. While the latter is defined as the optimization of energy used during the building’s service period for heating, cooling, lighting, etc. Introducing an insulation material to the building is one way of improving the energy efficiency of the building. Thus, PCSP system have gained popularity in civil engineering applications due to its thermal performance [3], [4].
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The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

Precast concrete sandwich panel or PCSP technology has advanced gradually over the past four decades in North America. The first prefabricated panels were of non-composite type and consisted of a thick structural wythe, a layer of insulation and a non-structural wythe (Seeber et al., 1997). PCSP have all of the desirable characteristics of a normal precast concrete panel such as durability, economy, fire resistance, large vertical spaces between supports, and potential usage as shear walls, bearing walls, and retaining walls. On top of that, PCSP can be relocated to accommodate building expansion. The hard surface on both the inside and outside of the panel provides resistance to damage and a finished product requiring no further treatment.
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The structural performance of precast lightweight foamed concrete panel (PLFP) with double shear connectors

The structural performance of precast lightweight foamed concrete panel (PLFP) with double shear connectors

Precast concrete sandwich panel normally consists of two layers of high strength skins or wythe and are separated by a lower strength core layer. The wythes are relatively thin while the core is relatively thick but lighter in weight. The common materials used for wythes are steel, aluminium, timber, fiber reinforced plastic or concrete while the materials used for the cores are balsa wood, rubber, solid plastic material or polyethylene, rigid foam material (polyurethane, polystyrene, phenolic foam), or from honeycombs of metal or paper (Benayoune et al., 2006). Figure 2.1 presents a few types of sandwich panel elements (An, 2004). Such sandwich structures have gained widespread acceptance within the aerospace, naval/marine, automotive and general transportation industries as an excellent way to obtain extremely lightweight components and structures with very high bending stiffness, high strength and high buckling resistance (Mahfuz et al., 2004; Liang and Chen, 2006).
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Precast reinforced concrete sandwich panel as an industrialised building system

Precast reinforced concrete sandwich panel as an industrialised building system

ABSTRACT Malaysia needs to produce affordable quality homes to house the country’s growing population and meets demands arising from migration of people to economic centres in the urban areas. The country is therefore looking for suitable alternatives to conventional building systems to provide affordable quality housing to its citizens. As a part of this effort, the civil engineering department at the Universiti Putra Malaysia, has undertaken extensive experimental and theoretical investigations to develop a load bearing system using Precast Concrete Sandwich Panel (PCSP). A description of these investigations is presented in this paper. The paper also concludes with some major results and a discussion of further research is provided.
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Structural behaviour of precast lightweight concrete sandwich panel under eccentric load: an overview

Structural behaviour of precast lightweight concrete sandwich panel under eccentric load: an overview

This paper presents the overview on structural behaviour of precast lightweight concrete sandwich panel. In Malaysia, demand of affordable housing is increasing due to increasing number of population. Precast concrete sandwich panel is an alternative solution to the conventional construction method due to its ease of construction. The question arises on how to develope a precast panel which is lightweight but with higher strength to sustain the applied load. This paper aims to provide some findings from previous reseach in this field especially on the panel's structural behaviour subjected to eccentric load. It is hoped the overview on this subject matter could be used as guidance for future research on developing a lightweight sandwich panel system in low to medium rise building construction.
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Structural Behaviour of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel under Axial Load: An Overview

Structural Behaviour of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel under Axial Load: An Overview

Foamed concrete is classified as having an air content of more than 25%. The air can be introduced into mortar or concrete mixture using two methods. First, preformed foam from a foam generator can be mixed with other constituents in a normal mixer or ready mixed concrete truck. Second, a synthetic or protein-based foam-producing admixture can be mixed with the other mix constituents in a high shear mixer. In both methods, the foam must be stable during mixing, transporting and placing. The resulting bubbles in the hardened concrete should be discrete and the usual bubble size is between 0.1 and 1 mm. The typical mixtures are as given in Table 2, which gives the range of wet density of foamed is between 500 kg/m 3 to 1200 kg/m 3 . Foamed with 1200 kg/m 3 could reach up to 7.5 MPa compressive strength for 28 days and 10 MPa for 91 days. It is also shown from the table that higher density foamed concrete contains less percentage of foam volume. This means less air bubbles in the mixture which resulted with higher compressive strength.
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Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel under axial load: an overview

Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel under axial load: an overview

Construction material like bricks, timbers, concretes and steels are increasing in demand due to rapid expansion of construction activities, housing and other buildings. In addition, the world economic and financial upheaval results with the rising cost of construction material production. With these two reasons, there is a need for alternative system to fulfill the construction demand in term of its quality and affordability. Of the many materials used in construction industry, concrete is a very widely used material. This is because the constituents of concrete are easily obtained. For structure which is constructed by using conventional concrete, its self weight represents a very large proportion of the total load on the structure. The strength and other properties of concrete are dependent on how its ingredients are proportioned and mixed. It depends on the usage of a good quality concrete, which can be defined as having a workable fresh concrete and unlikely to segregate. When the concrete hardens, it must achieve the required strength. Therefore, a good mixture design is one of the crucial parts in construction [1].
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Structural Behavior of Precast Prestressed Concrete Sandwich Panels Reinforced with CFRP Grid

Structural Behavior of Precast Prestressed Concrete Sandwich Panels Reinforced with CFRP Grid

applied axial compressive load. This behavior reflects that the inner wythe resisted more axial load than the outer wythe. The slope of the strain profile across each wythe were similar throughout the entire loading regimen. Slope of the strain profile in each wythe increased with an increase the number of cycles. The strain profile indicates that there was two independent neutral axes for each wythe throughout testing. This behavior suggests that the two wythes share the applied lateral load independently. Shift of the neutral axis of the inner wythe suggest that the panel experienced degradation of the partial composite action during the fatigue regimen. Observation of the strain profiles shows that a majority of the axial load was resisted by the inner wythe while the bending moment was resisted by each wythe individually with respect to their individual stiffness, similar to the behavior at mid- height.
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Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with shear truss connectors

Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with shear truss connectors

This study is aimed to provide information about the structural behaviour of PLFP with shear connectors. It is able to get a clear and deeper insight on the structural behaviour and failure mechanisms of the PLFP with single and double shear truss connectors under axial and push off loading. The results from this study are very important to assist the design of the PLFP to be used as a precast wall system especially the ultimate load carrying capacity and failure mechanism. An empirical equation is proposed in this study which is able to predict the ultimate load carrying capacity of PLFP under axial loading. The equation can be used to predict the maximum load of sandwich in non-linear behaviour after the service load.
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CFRP Grid/Rigid Foam Shear Transfer Mechanism for Precast, Prestressed Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels.

CFRP Grid/Rigid Foam Shear Transfer Mechanism for Precast, Prestressed Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels.

Composite action is achieved when the shear forces that are developed at the face of one wythe can be transferred to the other wythe through the shear connectors. This allows both wythes to work together to resist the applied forces as a single section. The most effective design can be achieved when the predicted behavior matches the actual structural behavior.(PCI Committee on Precast Sandwich Wall Panels, 2011) The predicted behavior, however, is highly dependent on the degree of composite action attained by the panel. Until recently, the knowledge base on the performance and behavior of sandwich panels was centered primarily on the observations of panels in service and limited testing up to failure. There have been several studies recently on sandwich wall panels examining several different parameters believed to affect their behavior. This experimental work has been carried out in an effort to better characterize the composite action of sandwich panels and develop more accurate predictions of their behavior.
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Behavior of Efficient Two Story Precast Concrete Wall Panels.

Behavior of Efficient Two Story Precast Concrete Wall Panels.

16 Lee and Pessiki (2008) conducted a research program on the flexural behavior of precast reinforced concrete panels. This research was done on sandwich panels. The project focused on composite action of the panel but also analyzes the flexural behavior of the panel. Panels were loaded laterally in order to simulate wind loads. No axial load was applied to the panel. The specimens were scaled down to 6 feet 8 inches wide, 35 feet in length, and 8 inches thick. A uniform pressure load was applied to the entire face of the panel and the specimens were restrained at the base and top locations in the lateral directions. Strain gages and LVDT‟s were used in order to measure concrete strains and panel deflection. Some cracks were observed before testing. The authors contribute these cracks to a number of sources including prestressing, shrinkage, and panel handling. The panel was loaded to a maximum load of 15 kips and recorded a deflection of 6.4 inches. Cracking was observed due to flexure and stiffness was lost as cracking propagated. Failure did not occur because the tests were terminated before the panels reached ultimate load. The panel‟s load- deflection behavior is linear until the formation of large flexural cracks. The panels act in a ductile manner as evidenced by the large deflections. ACI design code predictions were compared to experimental results but experimental tests were not loaded to this ultimate predicted value. The panels experienced no flexural cracking at service or design loads. The authors also conducted a finite element analysis in order to predict stresses and thus the locations of cracking within the panel. The model was compared to the experiment and the authors concluded that the model was an effective analysis tool in predicting cracking.
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GFRP Shear Grid for Precast, Prestressed Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels.

GFRP Shear Grid for Precast, Prestressed Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels.

The sandwich panel technology, which has evolved gradually over the past forty years, has enabled the foregoing of these issues because of the ability to be delivered on-site directly and arrive ready for erection. Recently, the sandwich panels design concept has leaped forward by introducing fiber reinforced polymer, or FRP, shear reinforcement grids allowing for benefits that make the use of these panels even more desirable than ever before as they have a relatively low thermal conductivity compared to that of steel. Carbon FRP shear grid connectors have been successfully used by Altus Group to produce precast prestressed concrete sandwich panels that are both structurally and thermally efficient (Gleich, 2007). Glass FRP grid produced in Korea also has the potential for achieving similarly desirable panels at a lower cost, as the thermal conductivity is even lower than that of carbon fibers and the cost of glass FRP tends to be significantly lower. However, optimal design practices for using glass grid shear connectors are still unknown.
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Precast self compacting concrete (PSCC) panel with added coir fiber: an overview

Precast self compacting concrete (PSCC) panel with added coir fiber: an overview

There also previous research that studied about the composite behaviour of insulated concrete sandwich wall panels (ICSWP) subjected to wind pressure and suction [30]. The specimens was castes full-scaled with different type of insulation and number of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) shear grid. The results show that bonds based on insulation surface roughness were effective under both positive and negative loading test. The calculation of ICWSP’s design strength used the composite behaviour based on surface roughness due to those particular reason.
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The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

ated from Scandinavia some thirty years ago. Nowadays, foam concrete technology has been widely used in construction industries. It is considered as an attractive material for its lightweight, better thermal properties and ease of construction. In the United States for instance, foamed concrete are used in an increasing number of applications. Cast-in-place foamed concrete are used for insulating roof-deck systems and for engineered fills for geotechnical applications while precast auto-claved products are widely used as load-bearing blocks, reinforced wall, roof and floor units and as non load-bearing cladding panels over a primary structural frame (Tonyan and Gibson, 1992).
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