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Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with shear truss connectors

Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel (PLFP) with shear truss connectors

This study is aimed to provide information about the structural behaviour of PLFP with shear connectors. It is able to get a clear and deeper insight on the structural behaviour and failure mechanisms of the PLFP with single and double shear truss connectors under axial and push off loading. The results from this study are very important to assist the design of the PLFP to be used as a precast wall system especially the ultimate load carrying capacity and failure mechanism. An empirical equation is proposed in this study which is able to predict the ultimate load carrying capacity of PLFP under axial loading. The equation can be used to predict the maximum load of sandwich in non-linear behaviour after the service load.
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OVERVIEW OF EMPIRICAL EQUATION PREDICTION FOR ULTIMATE AXIAL LOAD OF PRECAST LIGHTWEIGHT FOAMED CONCRETE SANDWICH PANEL (PLFP)

OVERVIEW OF EMPIRICAL EQUATION PREDICTION FOR ULTIMATE AXIAL LOAD OF PRECAST LIGHTWEIGHT FOAMED CONCRETE SANDWICH PANEL (PLFP)

Precast sandwich panel presents a series of possibilities for the solution of housing problems especially in low and medium cost housing sector [1-5], Sandwich panels have all the desirable characteristics of a normal precast concrete wall panel such as durability, economical, fire resistance, large vertical spaces between supports, and can be used as shear walls, bearing walls, and retaining walls. It can be located to accommodate building expansion need. In addition, the insulation property provides superior energy performance compared to other wall systems [1].
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Structural Behaviour of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel under Axial Load: An Overview

Structural Behaviour of Precast Lightweight Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel under Axial Load: An Overview

Frankl et al.[16], investigated six precast concrete sandwich wall panels which were designed and tested to evaluate their flexural response under combined vertical and lateral loads. The study included panels fabricated with two different insulation types: expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulation and extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation. The panels were subjected to monotonic axial and reverse-cyclic lateral loading to simulate gravity and wind pressure loads, respectively. Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that panel’s stiffness and deflections are significantly affected by the type and configuration of the shear transfer mechanism. Percentage of composite action achieved is near 100% can be achieved with CFRP grid shear connections or with solid concrete zones. It is also found that the use of CFRP shear grid provide an effective shear transfer mechanism in precast concrete sandwich wall panels.
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Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel under axial load: an overview

Structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel under axial load: an overview

The development of precast sandwich concrete has gained acceptance worldwide in conjunction with the Industrial Building System (IBS). The advancement and improvement of using wall panel has gone through a lot of achievements through the decade. The usage of precast lightweight sandwich panel has become the alternative to conventional construction using brick wall. The usage of this panel system contributes to a sustainable and environmental friendly construction. This paper presents an overview of the latest development in precast concrete sandwich panel as an IBS. The purpose of this report is to provide comprehensive information on latest research development of sandwich panel for building construction purposes. The information on sandwich panel‟s composition, material, properties, strength, availability, and its usage as structural element are reported. An innovative concept used in the design of these systems and the use of lightweight materials is also discussed.
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CFRP Grid/Rigid Foam Shear Transfer Mechanism for Precast, Prestressed Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels.

CFRP Grid/Rigid Foam Shear Transfer Mechanism for Precast, Prestressed Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels.

Even at the time of Collins’ article in 1954, it was well known that shear ties were needed to connect the outer concrete wythes together. Collins suggested that a wood fiber filler material could possibly be used without shear connectors, though he noted that most designers chose to include minimum shear ties for all tilt-up construction panels. Examples of shear ties at the time are shown in Figure 2-2. Finally, Collins concluded by mentioning that, “The proposed sandwich wall panel – 33 ft. high, 6 ½ in. thick, with two outer shells 1 ¾ in. thick, the filler of lightweight concrete, and prestressed - would meet the reduced weight requirements, provide excellent insulation and offer one of the best opportunities to date to prestress wall panels economically.” The millions of square feet of sandwich panels produced to date demonstrate the validity of Collins’ statement.
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Structural behaviour of precast lightweight concrete sandwich panel under eccentric load: an overview

Structural behaviour of precast lightweight concrete sandwich panel under eccentric load: an overview

Precast lightweight concrete sandwich panel offers a lighter system which is critical for the construction industry. It provides a quick and efficient construction system when construction costs are critical or the job site is subjected to harsh construction environments. Precast lightweight concrete sandwich panel can be cast in a controlled environment ensuring structural quality, and then placed in the field with less labor than an in-situ wall. These panels not only provide structural and thermal benefits but also provide architectural benefits. However, it should be stressed that to achieve an optimum result, through planning and practical design and detailing is required.
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Seismic Performance Of Insulated Sandwich Wall Panel (ISWP) Under In-plane Lateral Cyclic Loading

Seismic Performance Of Insulated Sandwich Wall Panel (ISWP) Under In-plane Lateral Cyclic Loading

The aim of this study is to examine the seismic behaviour of Insulated Sandwich Wall Panel (ISWP) under in-plane lateral cyclic loading. The ISWP composes of two cement fiber board and separated by a layer of polyurethane core form. The main advantages of using this type of sandwich panels are the superior thermal conductivity, energy saving, faster construction, less labour for erection, capable to resist axial load, lateral load and bending [1]. The construction of residential buildings are easier to handle at site and reduce the construction period because it was made up from lightweight materials. Simple prefabrication at construction site will make this wall panel more preferable than cast-in-situ conventional precast RC wall panels. Furthermore, ISWP can improve thermal conductivity, save electricity and kept the room at cool temperature which contributes to green building in Malaysia. The main contribution of green building is to reduce the environmental impact and energy for new buildings.
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GFRP Shear Grid for Precast, Prestressed Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels.

GFRP Shear Grid for Precast, Prestressed Concrete Sandwich Wall Panels.

At this time ideal sandwich core materials were established. These middle layers were to be materials with low density, relatively high compressive strength, high shear strength, good bonding characteristics, high insulative qualities, and low cost. Available materials at the time were divided into four categories—cellular glass materials and plastic foam, compressed and treated wood fibers in cement, foam concrete, and lightweight concrete— where it was concluded that for the precast industry materials such as cellular glass or compressed wood fibers should be used for the precision-made type of sandwich wall panel. Whereas the lightweight concrete mixes were suggested for the cast-in-place large tilt-up sandwich wall panel in order to achieve economic feasibility. Collins also showed tremendous foresight by suggesting that the ideal sandwich wall panel would be 9.9m high, 165mm thick, with two 45mm thick outer wythes, lightweight concrete filler, and prestressed. He stated that it would provide more competitive weight characteristics, excellent insulation, and one of the best opportunities to prestress wall panels economically. Most sandwich wall panels today are of an impressively similar configuration (Collins, 1954).
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The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

xial load to investigate its structural behaviour. The results were studied in term of its load carrying capacity, load-deflection profiles, strain distribution and efficiency of the shear connectors. Various height, thickness and diameters of shear connector were used in the FEM simulations to study the influence of slenderness ratio and to find the optimum shear connector’s size which ensures the stability of the panel in term of its ultimate strength and degree of compositeness achieved. The strain distribution across the panel’s thickness was used to study the efficiency and role of the shear connectors in transferring loads and to evaluate the extent of composite action achieved.
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The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

The structural behaviour of precast lightweight foamed concrete sandwich panel as a load bearing wall

Lee et al. (2006) in their paper described an ongoing project to demonstrate an affordable, safe, and energy-efficient housing technology based on expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam panels with a cementitious coating. In this system, the EPS was acting as the core while the cellulose fiber cement board panel was acting as the facings of the panel. The EPS core layer was embedded with the wire trusses which were connected to the wire mesh that enclosed the EPS layer. The cement board facings were screwed to the surface of the EPS layer. The concepts being described are as shown in Figure 2.6, Figure 2.7 and Figure 2.8. Preliminary tests were conducted to analyze the costs, to simulate seismic forces, to conduct the test against environmental conditions, and to build pilot houses.
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Vol 2, No 12 (2014)

Vol 2, No 12 (2014)

Arrangement of soft core material that requires more energy to deform provides internal damping of structures known as sandwich treatment. Sandwich treatment will reduce the amplitude of oscillation depending upon the location, volume and mechanical properties of core layer in the structure. It is also important to study the effect of sandwich treatment on static response of the structure in order to confirm the safe design. When a sandwich structures with thin soft core is transversely loaded, the two faces tend to act as two independent beams, bending along their centroids, rather than along the neutral axis of the beam as a whole.
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Analysis, Design and Development of U Shaped Precast Panel for Serviceability Improvement of Flexible Pavements

Analysis, Design and Development of U Shaped Precast Panel for Serviceability Improvement of Flexible Pavements

In the geometry of pavement, the four different sketches are added to draw the four parts of the model i.e. precast panel and three layers of pavements. All this sketching is done in the XY plane. To make the sketch in the solid form, extrude is done up to the proposed dimension. The extrude is done separately for these four different sketches. The material properties for the various layers of the pavement are assigned as per recommendations of IRC 37:2001. These properties are shown in fig.5.In this analysis, the type of contact between the layers of pavement is assigned as the frictional contact as shown in fig.6.
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Influence of Cell Size on Equivalent Calculation Accuracy of Satellite Sailboard

Influence of Cell Size on Equivalent Calculation Accuracy of Satellite Sailboard

Abstract. In order to obtain higher equivalent accuracy in the dynamics study of satellite sailboard using sandwich panel theory, the cell size of satellite sailboard is optimized. By comparing the changes of modal frequency equivalent errors of different structures, the equivalent accuracy of satellite sailboard structure is the best when the wall thickness is 0.02 mm and the wall length is 6 mm. The section size parameter with the smallest equivalent error is applied to the honeycomb sandwich plate structure of satellite sailboard. By comparing the modal analysis results of the equivalent theoretical model with the modal test results, the modal frequency equivalent errors are within 11% and the fundamental frequency error is as low as 0.1%. The equivalent theory can be well applied to the simulation of dynamic response of honeycomb sandwich panels of this size, which provides a new verification method for the rational application of equivalent theory in honeycomb structures and a new reference for the subsequent design and research of honeycomb sandwich panel.
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Finite element analysis of a hybrid natural fibre sandwich wall panel loaded with in-plane shear

Finite element analysis of a hybrid natural fibre sandwich wall panel loaded with in-plane shear

Testing of the linear 3D analysis followed the same procedure as the 2D analysis. The development of the models used has been explained in chapter 6. Each model was tested linearly using Strand7's linear static solver with a 1kN load applied. The models tested was the control panel, JFC, MDF, hemp and sisal NFC panels. The testing conditions were the same as the 2D analysis in that a 1kN load was applied and the displacement and shear stresses were recorded. The 3D analysis will analyse the shear stress in each layer of the sandwich panel including core, NFC intermediate layers and skins. The results will be compared to the 2D results as well as Dr. Fajrin's and conclusions will be drawn to determine the viability of NFCs in a hybrid sandwich panel. The results are expected to be similar in the diagonal extension however vastly different in the shear stresses because now the model may analyse the model as a layered structure as opposed to a single integrated panel like the 2D analysis did. Due to the large amount of visuals and data please refer to Appendix D during this section.
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Structural performance of FCS wall subjected to axial load

Structural performance of FCS wall subjected to axial load

The maximum horizontal displacement recorded from the FEM simulation on all FCS-F panels are found to increase with the increase of slenderness ratio. This is as expected for walls sub- jected to compressive axial load where they behave just like col- umn as described previously in Section 4.1. Horizontal displacements of FCS-F1 to FCS-F11 walls at mid height are as shown in Fig. 11(a). As evident in the figure, trends for horizontal displacement increments at the mid-height of wall were similar for all FCS-F walls, where the horizontal displacement increased gradually with the increase of the load during the elastic stage. When the wall entered the plastic stage, the trend of curves becomes non-linear from first cracking until it reached the ulti- mate load. For FCS-F wall with lower slenderness ratio, cracking, yielding and crushing occurred when the panel reached the ulti- mate loading. This phenomenon was reduced when the H/t of walls increased. Buckling and out of plane bending occurred but walls tend to sustain the load longer before it failed. It was observed from the figure that the maximum horizontal deflection of each wall increased with the increased H/t. The maximum horizontal deflection of 18.49 mm was recorded in FCS-F11, which is the most slender wall. General trend of horizontal displacement for FCS-F wall is presented in Fig. 11(b). It shows that the mid height section of wall experienced highest horizontal displacement due to bending. Previous study on effect of H/t towards deflection in a column with different system of reinforcement has also recorded similar finding. Saravanan et al. [47] studied the performance of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) wrapped high strength concrete (HSC) columns with various slenderness ratios under uni-axial compression. It was found that the axial deflection was recorded higher for more slender columns compared to less slender ones. The relationship of H/t with horizontal deflection of FCS-F walls was further illustrated in Fig. 12.
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Experimental Investigation of Vertical Connections in Precast Wall Panel Under Shear Load

Experimental Investigation of Vertical Connections in Precast Wall Panel Under Shear Load

This Project deals with the experimental study and analysis of precast wall panel connections. The integrity of a precast system depends on connections more than the structural members itself. The connections between panels are the key factors which affects both the speed of erection and the overall integrity of the structure. The types connection proposed in this study is loop connection with trapezoid shear keys. The shear keys are used to increase the shear carrying capacity of the connections. The connection between the walls is called loop bars connection. Between the looping bars, one transverse bar is inserted as to ensure connectivity of all the looping bars. This connection produces a gap between the walls, which would then be filled with grouting material. The main objective of these experimental studies is to determine behaviour of loop bars connection under shear loading.
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Study on thermal performance of precast concrete sandwich panel (PCSP) design for sustainable built environment

Study on thermal performance of precast concrete sandwich panel (PCSP) design for sustainable built environment

Gypsum board is an eco-friendly material, which possess a low environment impact and provides good thermal performance. Zhou, Wong, & Lau (2014) [3] had carried out an experimental work which involved a series of heat test on three different design of PCSP. The three specimens include conventional concrete sandwiched layer (C), specimen having a solid gypsum sandwich layer (G) and specimen having a gypsum layer with voids (GV). Table 3.3 shows the temperature of specimens after 12 hours radiation of halogen lamp.

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Development of IOS Application for Design of Precast Hollow Core Slab and Wall Panel

Development of IOS Application for Design of Precast Hollow Core Slab and Wall Panel

importance envisages a speedy development in its technology, which is required in order to keep up its growth pace. Precast technology is progressively seen as an economic and high quality option. The present economic growth demands faster construction without project delay and losing quality aspects. The design of precast Hollow core slab and wall panel is lengthy and time consuming and complex process. The design of hollow core slabs play an important role and require more calculations. In present time use of application is increasing day by day and person to person. In this work, the design and checks for precast Hollow core slab and Wall panel is carried out by developing an IOS application. The design loads and moments are obtained by analysing residential building by using ETABS software.
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Thermal Resistance of Two Layers Precast Concrete Sandwich Panels

Thermal Resistance of Two Layers Precast Concrete Sandwich Panels

PCSP offers better thermal efficiency than other traditional masonry or solid wall building construction methods due to the insulation layer created between the concrete layers. The two concrete layers are separated through the insulation layer and are connected by the shear connector to ensure the two concrete layers act as one panel. Therefore, types of insulation and shear connector materials are important because they significantly affects the PCSP behaviour in terms of strength. Also, connection points between the layers that referred to as thermal bridges are the main contributor to the thermal transfer from one side of the panel to another [5]-[8]. Hence this paper presents the thermal bridge approach by using different thermal path length to study the heat transfer between the two surfaces of PCSP.
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Out of Plane Strength of Hollow Core Concrete Masonry Unit

Out of Plane Strength of Hollow Core Concrete Masonry Unit

ABSTRACT: Precast construction techniques have gained huge popularity in the recent times due to rapid construction, excellent quality control and lesser labor costs and more overall savings. The most advanced typed of precast construction is wall panel construction, which essentially consists of huge concrete panel units cast to the required wall dimensions. However wall panel construction is associated with the requirement of huge machinery for transportation, hoisting and placing operations. The present study proposes a new precast hollow core masonry unit which combines the advantages of precast wall panels, omitting all of its disadvantages. The individual units are smaller in size and are modular based. Hoisting and placing equipments with lower capacity will be sufficient for operation. The proposed system was cast and was experimentally tested by subjecting it to out-of-plane static loads. The results were found to be superior to conventional concrete brick block masonry wall. An FEM model was also developed using NX NASTRAN to study the behavior of the units analytically.
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