The plant is an enriched source of alkaloids (5.8%). Saponins in the plant are responsible for antimicrobial, molluscidal and insecticidal activities and current analysis showed that leaves contain 22.5% saponins. High fiber content indicates the nutritive value of the plants. Younger leaves are palatable, although their intake is low. Achyranthes aspera can also be used as low cost, highly nutritive and digestible For age after processing with molasses or other feeds (Heuze et al., 2011). Ash content roughly represents minerals and 10.8% of ash content adds to the nutritive value of plant as fodder. Pectic substances are complex polysaccharides, present in the plant cell wall and act as binder. Pharmacologically pectins help in heavy metal excretion and act as anti-hypercholestrolemic.
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Preliminary phytochemical analysis extract was prepared by weighing and the dried powdered tuber was subjected to hot successive continuous extraction with different solvents as per the polarity petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and finally with water. The extracts were filtered in each step concentrated and the solvent was removed by vacuum distillation. The extracts were dried over desiccators and the residues were weighed. The presence or absences of the primary and secondary phytoconstituents were detected by using standards methods 17 .
The sample was tested for the following parameters as per the guidelines of WHO. Tested drug description, Color, Odor, Weight variations [4,5] , disintegration time were carried out as per the methods described in pharmacopoeial texts.  preliminary phytochemical analysis for steroid, triterpene, flavonoid, coumarine, alkaloid, phenol, tannin, saponin, glycoside were carried out as per the methods mentioned in standard organic books. The qualitative test for anions/cations was done as per the methods followed by academicians. Sterility test for pouring methods, heavy metal analysis, pesticide analysis. [7,8] , Aflatoxins  were carried out as per the methods mentioned in standard books.
Fresh plant material was procured from the Maharashtra Nature Park, Mahim in Mumbai and was identified and authenticated at the BLATTER HERBARIUM, St. Xavier's College, Mumbai (Voucher specimen accession no. 78393). Leaves were collected and washed under running tap water thrice and later air dried in shade. Dried leaves were powdered and packed in an air tight container. Dried leaf powder was used for physicochemical studies; hot and cold methanolic extract preparation. The methanolic extracts were further used for preliminary phytochemical analysis and HPTLC fingerprint analysis.
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Preliminary phytochemical analysis extract was prepared by weighing and the dried powdered tuber was subjected to hot successive continuous extraction with different solvents as per the polarity petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and finally with water. The extracts were filtered in each step concentrated and the solvent was removed by vacuum distillation. The extracts were dried over desiccators and the residues were weighed. The presence or absences of the primary and secondary phytoconstituents were detected by using standard methods 15 .
taken for detailed microscopic observations and figures were drawn by following Johansen method 4 . Dry powder of the leaf, stem and root was used for chemical analysis. Physico-chemical analysis was carried out as per standard procedure 5 . The fluorescence analysis of the powder drug under Ultra Violet was done according to the methods described by Chase and Pratt 6 . Brinda et al., 7 described methods were used for the preliminary phytochemical analysis.
Preliminary phytochemical analysis extract was prepared by weighing and the dried powdered tuber was subjected to hot successive continuous extraction with different solvents as per the polarity petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and finally with water. The extracts were filtered in each step concentrated and the solvent was removed by vacuum distillation. The extracts were dried over desiccators and the residues were weighed. The presence or absences of the primary and secondary phytoconstituents were detected by using standard methods 12 .
Acacia nilotica L. commonly has been used in folk medicine to treat different diseases. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the presence of nutrients and demonstrate the antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of the correspondence plant leaves extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of ethanol extract of leaves of A. nilotica was carried out by using simple chemical tests. Antimicrobial activity of the extract against diarrheal bacteria was performed by disc diffusion method. The cytotoxicity was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinone, steroid, triterpenes, terpenoid, gum, amino acids and proteins but fixed oils and fat was absent. It exhibited potent activity against all bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the extract was 128µg/ml against both Shigella boydii and Vibrio cholerae. The extract showed significant toxicity to the brine shrimp nauplii giving LC 50 was 395.581 ppm.
Spectroscopic analysis: The FTIR spectra were recorded on a FTIR 460 plus Jasco. The naphthalene pellets prepared as above were scanned at room temperature (26 ±2 0 C) at 4000-400cm -1 spectral range. About 100 interferograms were averaged with a spectral resolution of ±4 cm -1 for each spectrum to improve the signal to noise ratio. The background spectra which were collected under identical conditions were subtracted from sample spectra. Therefore, in the present study it is possible to directly relate the intensities of the absorption bands to the concentration of the corresponding functional groups . Each sample was scanned with six different pellets all under identical conditions. Each
The plant Eulophia ochreta Lindl have some important characteristic features In tubers in order to identifying the plant material. It find application in ayurvedic and other traditional system of medicine. The macroscopic and microscopic and macroscopic charaters reveal the presence of important diagnostic characters and structures which help in identification of plant material. The physicochemical studies are carried out on herbal crude drugs sample in order to establish appropriate data that may be utilized not only for identification but also to establish the purity and standard of plant sample, those supplied in powder form.  The other commonly applied parameter for the identification is estimation of ash value, which establishes the quality and the purity of the drug. Ash value can also detect the nature of the material added to the drug for the purpose of adulteration.  The percentage weight of loss on drying, which is an indication of the moisture content of the material .The phytochemical screening of the drug is very important to identify the different phytoconstituents present in plant material. It is a very important in the process of standardization and quality control because the constituent vary from plant to plant and also in different samples of the same species depending upon various atmospheric factors and storage conditions. TLC detection, has found a variety of analytical uses in the Pharmaceutical industries. TLC method has emerged as an important tool for the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of herbal drugs and formulations. Chromatographic analysis is the first step towards understanding the nature of active principles and their detailed phytochemistry. 
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2.642% respectively. In the present study the preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavanoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides and steroids in the chloroform leaf extract of Centella asiatica.The morphogenetic abnormalities are commonly caused by botanical extracts and the disturbance from the growth regulating hormones. It is therefore suggested that Centella asiatica derivatives are considered for vector control operations besides their use in other fields after exploring field trails.
Extractive values may be studied on wet weight or dry weight basis using maceration or percolation or continuous extraction process (soxhlet extraction) was determined by weighing about 5g of powdered drug of Sophora interrupta was added then which is transferred to 250ml conical flask and 100ml of desired solvent. The above conical flask was set aside for 24 hrs with frequent shaking and continued by filtering. 25ml of filtrate was collected and transferred into porcelain dish and evaporated to dryness on water bath. The residue was dried in an oven and subjected for cooling in desiccator and finally the percentage of extractive value on wet weight or dry weight basis was calculated. Fluorescence analysis of extract was carried out under ultra violet radiation. 
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CONCLUSION: Ayurvedic Bhunimbadi Churna has been standardized by intervention of modern scientific quality control measures in the traditional preparation described in classical texts. Pharmacognostic characters established for the raw materials could be employed as Q.C. standards for evaluating its identity and can be used for routine analysis. Purity and potency of the materials and formulations following the procedure given could be performed in QC/QA laboratory of pharmaceutical house.
The current study was undertaken to exploit the hitherto un-utilized plant sources in the development of AgNPs. The citrus sinensis peel extract was subjected to FTIR analysis and antibacterial activity using the conventional methods to test for the silver nano particle was found to be present. Silver nitrate is used as reducing agent as silver has distinctive properties such as good conductivity, catalytic and chemical stability. The aqueous silver ion when exposed to herbal extracts was reduced in solution, there by leading to the formation of silver hydrosol (Figure: 2).
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This method adopted for the quantitative analysis of the plant samples against fungi. The different concentrations of sample were prepared by dissolving in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DSO). The concentrations ranging from 20- 100µL were prepared and then added each into the well. The fungi inoculum was allowed to spread on dish and well bored to a depth of 8mm. The samples kept for 3-4 hours in inverted position and after that placed them in incubator for 48-72 hours at 37 0 C. The mycotic inhibition was determined by following formula;
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Coffee is a brewed beverage prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant. It is prepared from the roasted beans (seeds) of coffee plant. It is one of the most-consumed beverages in the world.It was believed that coffee consumption was not good for health. But now a days many reseachers have reported various health benefits of coffee consumption.The aim of the present investigation was to carry out the priliminary phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant analysis of selected coffee bean varieties. Two varieties of Arabica type namely ''Special A'' and ''Kumbakonam'' was selected for the present study. Fresh coffee brews were prepared from both the varieties and used for following analysis. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by standard methods.Quantitative analysis like estimation of total phenols and flavonoids were also done on both the varieties.Radical scavenging assays like DPPH Radical Scavenging assay, Nitric oxide Radical scavenging assay,Hydroxy Radical scavenging assay,Superoxide Radical scavenging assay and Total Reducing power assay was also done on both the SpecialA and Kumbakonam varieties.The result showed that Kumbakonam variety has greater phenol and flavonoid content than SpecialA.DPPH, Nitric oxide and Hydroxy radical scavenging assay showed that Special A variety was an excellent scavenger of these radicals especially Nitric oxide radical(P<0.05).Superoxide Radical scavenging assay and Total Reducing power assay results depicts that kumbakonam variety was a good superoxide radical scavenger (P<0.05). Thus,it was concluded that coffee was rich in antioxidants which could help the mankind to combat various ailments which involves oxidative stress in their pathogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Delonix regia Rafin. belonging to family Fabaceae and subfamily Caesalpinioideae is flowering plant native to Madagascar and East Africa. Delonix regia reported to have anti-diarrhoeal, anti- inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and antimicrobial activity. The present study was carried out to establish the pharmacognostical studies, physico-chemical parameters along with preliminary phytochemical screening of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of Delonix regia Rafin. stem bark. The macroscopical and microscopical characteristics of drug powder were studied. The transverse section of stem bark indicated the arrangement of various cells in cork, cortex, phelloderm and pith region. The preliminary phytochemical screening of various extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrate, protein, glycosides, flavonoids, sterols, phenolic and tannin compounds. The physico-chemical parameters such as total ash, acid insoluble ash, water insoluble ash and sulphated ash (8, 2.005, 3 and 1.4 %w/w respectively), loss on drying (45 %w/w) extractive values, foaming index, swelling index and fluorescence analysis of stem bark powder were studied. These studies will be helpful to establish standards for quality, purity and sample identification of Delonix regia Rafin. .
The results suggest that Tagetes Erecta and Zingiber Officinale is a potential source of antioxidant molecules. The flowers and stem of the plant can be used as natural antioxidants and preservatives in food and non-food systems. However, further phytochemical analysis is required for the determination of bioactive molecules from the plant that may show a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities.
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The aim of the study was to formulate and evaluate extracts of different herbals in to aserum for fairnessactivity. The roots of liquorice and stigmas of saffron were successfully extracted withhexane, acetone, chloroform, ethanoland water. The phytochemicals present intheliquoriceand saffronextractswere identified by qualitative phytochemical screening, which reveals thepresence of flavonoids,phenols andcarbohydrates in aqueous extract. Stability studies revealed that there was no significantdifference in the physical and chemical parameters. Thus theformulation was found to be stable for three months.Biological evaluation of serumrevealed that theformulation is non-sensitizing and safe for use. The spreadability was found to be good. No residues were formed and was easy to wash out. The pharmacological evaluation ofserum proved that it produces the fairness action within a week. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. During the last decades, numerous novel compounds have been isolated from marine organisms and many of these substances have been demonstrated to possess interesting biological activities 5-8 viz., antimicrobial 9, 10 , antiviral 11 , antifungal 12 , anti-allergic 13 , anticoagulant 14 and anticancer 15 . In general, these secondary metabolites are an important source with a variety of structural arrangements and properties 16 . Although a number of phytochemical and bioefficacy studies were carried out at global level, only few reports are available on the bio-potential and biochemical studies on the seaweeds from Gulf of Mannar and Peninsular coast of India 17-18 . To fulfill the lacuna, the present study was aimed to explore phytochemical constituents present in Ulva lactuca Linn.
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