Many wetland communities are fire prone or fire dependent, especially those dominated by forbs and grasses. Despite our considerable knowledge about fire effects on wildlife in uplands, there is a relative paucity of information about effects of fire in wetland systems. Long-legged wading birds (herons, egrets, ibises, storks, spoonbills; order Ciconiiformes) may benefit from fire through the exposure of prey after vegetation removal, or through a trophic response of prey to increased availability of nutrients and increased light. We conducted aerial surveys of foraging wading birds in prescribed burns and adjacent un- burned areas in the central Everglades, Florida, USA, to determine if wading birds select for burned habitats. We measured aquatic prey density in burned and unburned sawgrass (Cladium mariscus [L.] Pohl ssp. jamaicense [Crantz] Kük ), and densities of prey injured or killed in the fires. We also observed foraging great egrets (Ardea alba L.) in and adja- cent to prescribed burns to determine whether foraging success (i.e., capture efficiency and capture rate) differed between burned and unburned areas. Great egrets and white ibises (Eudocimus albus L.) selected for burns and areas of deeper water adjacent to burned areas, and avoided dense, tall, unburned vegetation. Measured densities of prey killed by the fire were very low. Live aquatic prey densities did not differ between burned and unburned sawgrass. Great egrets had higher capture rates in sloughs adjacent to burns than in burned areas, but were more efficient at capturing prey in burned areas than in ad- jacent sloughs. Prescribed fires created short-term shallow water habitats (burned areas) with limited submerged and emergent vegetation, making prey in burns more vulnerable despite lower densities (availability) compared to adjacent sloughs. This research sug- gests that prescribed fire in grass-dominated wetlands may attract predators like wading birds primarily because removal of vegetation makes prey easier to capture.
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Managers previously thought that fires interfered with longleaf pine restoration and growth, and that suppression should be practiced (Mattoon 1922). However, the use of fire as a management tool gained wider acceptance in the 1980’s (Saab and Powell 2005) when land managers began to incorporate prescribed burns into management plans. Today, the practice of prescribed burn fire regimes is widely used as a management tool for the restoration of pine savannas. The goal of this practice is to mimic the natural ecological processes of this ecosystem by replicating the timing, intensity, and season of burns (Vickery et al. 1999). Managers are using this tool to restore longleaf pine savannas, in particular the herbaceous layer, and for wildlife management purposes. The effects of fire frequency, season of fire, and intensity of fire have been studied to determine effects on breeding grassland birds. However, optimal frequency of prescribed burns is a continuing debate amongst managers as response to fire varies among different guilds of avifauna.
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udy, was considerable it could be assumed certain significance of the resulting estimations. Therefore, despite that this was a nonreplicated study; the results suggest strong ecological evi- dence that prescribed fire enhance natural regeneration of Pinus michoacana and Pinus oocarpa. Comparing between the rege- neration before and after burning, in the treated plots, it is clear that there was an improvement in the density of the natural re- generation. The mean density was nearly doubled after burning. However, this difference was not statistically significant, which could reflect the high variance within the treated and the control plots. Added to this, it is possible to consider that, according to Keeley (1987), although opportunities for population expansion increase after fire for some species, these opportunities increase in the long absence of fire for others. For example, Acer ru- brum seedlings respond negatively to fire, both in terms of survival and reproduction (Reich & Abrams, 1990). In some species, such as Pinus halepensis, after a fire the regeneration is retarded during the first 2 - 3 years (Moravec, 1990). Therefore, to estimate with more accuracy the fire effects on regeneration, according to Bradstock and Myersough (1981) and Sirois and Payette (1991), in future studies it will be necessary to record other aspects, such as seed bearer density and damage or de- struction of the seed supply [including the soil seed bank].
are subject to moderate frequencies and intensities of disturbance (Connell, 1978). This hypothesis was testing in a tallgrass prairie to determine floral species richness in response to frequency of fire disturbance (Collins et al., 1995). Findings from this study were mixed. Floral species richness was evaluated in plots representing three stages of disturbance: annual burn, intermediate burn (4 yr interval) and long-term unburned sites. Findings showed a significant negative correlation with disturbance frequency. These results are consistent with results from pervious experiments that fire frequency and plant species richness are negatively correlated (Collins, 1987). However, an intermediate number of years since burning does seem to support maximum species richness which directly correspond to the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. This finding, however is not common and as suggested in an opinion piece by Fox (2013), results in most studies do not support the IDH when biodiversity at differnet levels and frequencies of disturbance is evaluated. In additiont to fire, disturbance grazing and mowing has been show to affect tallgrass floral and faunal species composition (Callaham et al., 2002; Collins et al., 1998; Hobbs et al., 1991; Reinking, 2005; Sandercock et al., 2015; Welti & Joern, 2018). Indeed, disturbance is complex and is usually best evaluated through interactive effects or through multiple linear regressions (Collins, 1987; Krause & Culmsee, 2013). While the current study focused on the influence of prescribed burning on grassland soundscapes, how grazing affects grassland acoustic communities remains another deserving investigative frontier.
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The connection between basal duff consumption and oak vigor is less clear. One potential consequence of duff consumption for oak vigor is injury to fine roots due to heating as duff smolders following the passage of a flame front (Swezy and Agee 1991; Varner et al. 2009). Despite a number of trees experiencing considerable propor- tional duff consumption, we found no apparent negative impacts on oak vigor within two years of prescribed burns. Similarly, while Kobziar and others (Kobziar et al. 2006) found that basal charring was a significant pre- dictor of California black oak (Q. kelloggii Newberry) mor- tality following prescribed burns, they concluded that duff consumption did not predict oak mortality eight months after burning. It is possible, however, that negative effects of duff consumption may be revealed over a longer time period than that covered by either our study or Kobziar et al. (2006) (Ryan and Reinhardt 1988; Agee 2003). Injury to fine roots, and the resulting reduction in water absorption and holding capacity, may only be detrimental if trees are Table 3 Summary of multiple linear regression model fits of Q. garryana crown dieback nine months after burns, May 2016 and 2018, at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington, USA. PCVS = percent crown volume scorched, DBHCC = bole char at breast height, BCC = bole char at base, PCVSP = percent crown volume sprouting
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non-profit agencies in the South Puget Sound, Washington, USA. The five sites were Glacial Heritage Preserve (46 ° 53′ 37.32″ N, 123 ° 3′ 8.64″ W), Tenalquot Preserve (46 ° 53′ 50.6394″ N, 122 ° 43″ 53.0394″ W), Mima Mounds Natural Area Preserve (46 ° 52′ 13.7994″ N, 123 ° 2′ 25.44″ W), Scatter Creek Wildlife Area (46 ° 50′ 20.76″ N, 122 ° 59′ 37.32″ W), and West Rocky Wildlife Area (46 ° 53′ 33.36″ N, 122 ° 52′ 11.2794″ W). All five prairies have similar glacial outwash soils (Spanaway, or Nisqually, or both soil types) and similar management goals, but are at dif- ferent stages in the restoration process. All prairies have been actively managed to reduce the cover of invasive species, recover native forbs and bunchgrasses, and act as reintroduc- tion sites for rare species such as the Taylor’s checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha tay- lori [W.H. Edwards 1888]; state endangered, federally endangered) and golden paintbrush (Castilleja levisecta Greenm; state endan- gered, federally threatened). Prescribed burns have occurred annually across different sec- tions of all prairies since 2001, creating slight- ly different fire histories in each unit. The goal for these sites is to eventually achieve a fire re- turn interval of 2 yr to 5 yr for any given patch of prairie. The burns evaluated for this study took place between 15 August and 15 Septem- ber over two years (2011 and 2012) and were characterized as having either predominantly low or moderate severity.
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Unfortunately, prescribed burning effects on fuels vary widely, and prescribed burns do not consistently cause the large reductions in fuels needed to reduce severity, frequency, and extent of future wildfires (e.g., Fonda and Binney 2011, Price et al. 2015). For example, Kauffman and Martin (1989) found fuel re- ductions ranged from 15 % to 92 % at mixed-conifer sites in northern California, USA. In addition to varying among burns, fuel reductions can also vary widely among fuel size classes within burns (e.g., Vaillant et al. 2015). For example, Vaillant et al. (2009) found that 100-hour fuels were reduced 10 % to 50 % while 1-hour fuels were reduced 90 % to 98 % in California stands of firs and pines. Fuel moisture contents are a critical factor in explaining variation in prescribed fire effects on fuels, although factors such as wind speed, slope, and temperature also play a role (Fer- nandes et al. 2008). A potential strategy for increasing fuel consumption involves timing prescribed fires to periods when fuel moisture contents are appropriately low (Varner et al. 2007). In the western US, fuels tend to be covered by snow in winter and dangerously dry and flammable in summer, so prescribed burns typically occur in spring and fall. A few studies have found that fall burns outper- formed spring burns at reducing fuels, pre- sumably because fuels were drier during fall (Knapp et al. 2005, Perrakis and Agee 2006, Fettig et al. 2010). For example, in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.) stands of the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA, Ste- phens et al. (2009) found nearly four times as much 1-hour, 10-hour, and 100-hour fuels re- maining after spring burns than after fall burns. However, Kauffman and Martin (1989) found that late spring burns reduced litter and duff more effectively than late fall burns, illustrating that fuels are not universal- ly drier and more extensively consumed in fall than in spring. Fuel moisture is difficult to measure at the time of burning and even more
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The results of this study show differences in medicine use. More women than men consumed medicines in the 15 days prior to the interview. By age, clear trends are seen in the form of use in both sexes: consumption of pre- scribed medicines increases with increasing age, while the opposite occurred for non-prescribed medicines. These age differences diminish among people who declared poor health and took prescribed medicines. In terms of social class, a higher percentage of men with good health in the more advantaged classes took non- prescribed medicines compared with disadvantaged classes (38.7% vs 31.8%). In contrast, among the group with poor health, people of more advantaged classes took more prescribed medicines compared with disadvan- taged classes (51.4% vs 33.3%). Regarding employment status, a higher proportion of people with good health who were retired, unemployed or students, used pre- scribed medicines. It should also be noted that anxiolyt- ics use was proportionally higher among retired women regardless of perceived health status.
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Introduction or invention of antibiotics, antifungals and topical antimicrobials in the management of burns has played much role in the decrease of mortality and morbidity associated with burns. More so, surgical procedures such as exci- sion and skin grafting have all helped to reduce burn mortality and morbidity and thus increasing survival rate of patients following burn injury.
Fresh skin burns and their subsequent scars comprise of senescent fibroblasts and on-going tissue impairment. Reducing the burns’ impact at the time of the incident minimises long-term medical care, lessens keloid scar risk, tissue pain and photosensitivity. The theoretical benefits of PRP for chronic ulcers suggests this healing benefit could be transferred to burn wound therapy; however, PRP treatments for burns’ patients have not been as successful and still inconclusive. A PRP review as a treatment for burns found that fibrin sealant, a by-product of PRP, was mostly applied to treat split skin grafts, however, due to the lack of sufficient studies no conclusive evidence for its’ use was found . Furthermore, in an in-vivo randomised, double-blind study enlisting 52 burns patients already undertaking skin grafts to trial LR-PRP topical therapy, combined with the graft or without, resulted inconclusively. From seven days to twelve months, a DermoSpectoMeter acquired the measurements of the epithelialisation and graft uptake, which displayed no significant statistical difference for all time intervals and no improved or superior scar formation between the test areas. Several variables presented by the participants, such as vastness in age, the total surface burn areas and wound sepsis, all impact the wound healing capacity.
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Yasmeen Maniyar, et al., (2009) reported study in drug Utilization study in the ophthalmology department of a medical college. The study was about the concern regarding the prescription, irrational production, and the drug usage. The study was conducted to evaluate the pattern of prescription and the use of drugs in the outpatients ophthalmology Department (OPD). In this study about 1322 prescriptions was collected from prescriptions of 660 outpatients were audited by using a specially designed form and analyzed for the following such as average number of drugs per prescription, the treatment duration, the dosage form, administration frequency, the number of encounters with antibiotics and the percentage of drugs prescribed by their generic names. The prescription analysis showed that the average number of drugs per prescription was 2.0%. The study shows minimum in Common prescription writing errors and there was no evidence of polypharmacy. Treatment duration and prescribing by the generic names was low.
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This study included all the patients with burns diagnosed between January 1, 2008 and January 1, 2016, who were treated with cultured skin cells. The study was carried out at the Dr Stanisław Sakiel Centre for Burns Treatment in Siemianowice Śląskie (Poland). The data of burn patients had been collected until the end of their hospitalization period and stored using the Solmed computer software (SPIN Sp. z o.o., Katowice, Poland), as well as in the Labo- ratory of in vitro Cell and Tissue Culturing with Tissue Bank, localized at the Dr Stanisław Sakiel Centre for Burns Treatment in Siemianowice Śląskie, Poland. To create and encode the database, we used Microsoft Excel 2007 (Microsoft, Redmond, USA).
Another option is to prepare an epidermal cell spray directly during surgery. This can be done on site by special kits that are developed for this pur- pose, such as ReCell (Avita Medical Europe Ltd, Mel- bourn, UK,). Usually a thin split thickness skin graft is harvested because this allows better separation of the epidermal layer from the dermal layer, facilitating the isolation of epidermal cells. This can be useful for indications of small burns where no culturing time is required. However, Gravante et al. compared the ReCell procedure with the standard transplantation of autologous skin grafting and concluded that the ReCell procedure took more time and thus costs (op- erating room) without real benefit regarding func- tional and esthetic outcome . Nevertheless, they concluded that this product could reduce the need of donor sites in deep dermal injuries and that the spared donor sites can be used to cover full-thickness wounds. In another recently published study, ReCell was also compared with autologous meshed split thickness skin graft for acute burn injuries and found to be beneficial for the patients because of a de- creased donor site size with comparable outcome. The cell spray method can also be used for the cor- rection of pigment disorders, as melanocytes are also included in the cell suspension that is sprayed onto the wound [17, 18].
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It is interesting and surprising that lightning injuries are the third leading cause of death from burns. How- ever, Colombia is reported as one of the countries with higher density of lightning in the world, probably be- cause of its location relative to the equator in the inter- tropical confluence zone, the topographic variation, and its mountain ranges . This can be explained by the high agricultural activity our country has; a quarter of our population live in remote rural areas, and there is lack of information on risk assessment and prevention. Table 5 Frequency and percentage of burn agent according to the site of death (117 patients with indeterminate or unknown cause)
Aftera severe burn, hepatic protein synthesis shifts from constitutive proteins such as albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, and retinol-binding protein to acute phase proteins within 6 months (7-10).Total proteins and albumin were diminished also due to evaporation of water, hepatic dysfunction due to low perfusion(11). The hypoalbuminaemia, islargely due to exudation of albumin through the burn area but possibly also because of changes in the rates of synthesis and degradation. Levels of transferin also fall following burns (12) and due to the shorter half life of this protein (5 days compared with 20 days for albumin),this effect is seen earlier than with albumin. Recovery of circulating values also is more rapid. Retinol binding protein and thyroxine binding prealbumin, have even shorter half lives of about fifteen hours and 2.5 days respectively, blood levels fall even more rapidly, but tend to rise sooner in the healing phase (13). The finding that the rates * Corresponding author: Dr. UshaSachidanandaAdiga
The pathophysiological changes that occur as a result of burn injury may change the phar- macokinetic parameters of drugs. Enoxaparin in healthy subjects has a volume of distribution (Vd) equivalent to plasma volume and is metabolized to lower potency metabolites which are 40% renal excreted (13). A loss in capillary wall integrity in burns sufferers leads to early fluid (and electro- lyte and protein) shifts into the interstitium, re- sulting in the loss of circulating plasma volume, tissue oedema, and reduced urine output (21). This results in an increased volume of distribution and reduced clearance of LMWH. After the acute phase, burns patients become hyperdynamic with increased cardiac output leading to enhanced he- patic and renal clearance of some drugs. Finally, altered peripheral perfusion and tissue oedema
Based upon age distribution, they were grouped into 4 intervals of infants (≤ 1 year), toddlers (2 to 3 years), preschoolers (4 to 7 years), and school-age youngsters (8 to 14 years) . The months of injury fell into different seasons, spring (March to May), summer (June to August), autumn (September to November), and winter (December to February) . Major causes of burns were summarized into three categories, scalding (hot water, steam & hot oil/soup), flam- ing (fireworks & flame), and others (contacts with chemicals & electricity). According to stan- dards of care for pediatric burns of Chinese Burns Association, extent of pediatric burns was graded as mild (a total body surface area [TBSA] < 5% and no third degree burns), moder- ate (TBSA 6-15% or third degree burn with TBSA < 5%), extensive (TBSA 16-25% or third degree burn with a TBSA range of 6-10%), and critical (TBSA > 25% or third degree burn with TBSA > 10%). Extent of burns and TBSA were estimat- ed by two attending physicians, according to the Rules of Nines & Rules of Palms . Furthermore, differences were analyzed among causes of burn, places of burns, intervals of age, seasons of burns, and length of hospital- ization. Incidence of burns was compared for boys versus girls with regards to different extents of burn, with correlation detected between extent of burns and length of injury times after admission. This study also analyzed differences in the distribution of weeks of hos- pitalization between genders and among causes of burns. Correlation between length of hospital stays and intervals of age was also analyzed.
Results: The highest (47.6%) and the lowest (3.8%) rates of burns were observed among those aged below 16 and above 65, respectively. The majority of the participants were residents of cities (55.4%), married (34.6%), illiterate (56.6%), and housewives (14.8%). Most burns were caused by accidents (98.4%) at home (90.6%). Most patients had suffered first- and second-degree burns (68.4%), with no inhalation damages (99.5%). Hot liquids were the main culprit in most of the burns (58.7%) and the upper extremities were the most frequently affected areas (34.8%). There was .99 rise in mortality for every percent increase in TBSA, and there seemed to be a significant relationship between the age level and the eventual outcome- the higher the age, the more likely for the incident to end in death.LA50 was also determined 43.73 percent for five years. Finally, the study findings showed that female gender, TBSA and age are associated with death from burn. Conclusion: Given the high LA50 index at this center, it is of high priority in our country to enhance the public knowledge and the quality of the care provided for the burn patients. Patients at risk including women, children, elderly and extensive burns should be considered.
The observed median duration of hospitalisation of 8 days among patients that died was indicative of the fact that a good number of these patients with significant burns may have died from inadequate resuscitation and inadequate intensive care [17,13] which is the period when fluid and electrolyte derangement is highest. This has been the common trend in burns death in sub Saharan Africa [32,33,34]. It has been postulated that burn patients “in Africa die of two general causes: early deaths as a result of burn shock or late deaths as a result of sepsis and multiple organ failure” . It was observed that all the patients were resuscitated using Parkland formula. This is similar to findings from other centres around the country [18,19,20,21,22]. The limitations for the use of Parkland formula for resuscitation of major burns especially with the
years, where male:female ratio was 1:4.6. This may also be attributed to there as on that during this age, females start helping their mother in the kitchen, hence more exposed to the hazards of fire. Burns due to the flames were 96.55% which were consistent with the findings reported in other studies from India 5,9,10 . 2.87% of