The problem of multiple face detection and missed detection caused by illumination and complex background is avoided. A multi face detection algorithm based on skin color and Adaboost algorithm is proposed. The first chapter of this article is to apply the CbCrCg space based on the least squares of the skin color clustering model as the pretreatmentprocess of face detection, And then you need to go further and take the area as an input image and you go through the Adaboost cascade classifier for face detection, To further remove non-face areas in the skin area, Finally, a more accurate face orientation is achieved.
Enormous amount of biomass is depositing each day in the environment. The agriculture countries can make use of such resources for various useful purposes. Bioethanol is one of the important commodities which can be produced by using biomass. Bioethanol can be considered as future fuel which has the potential to replace fossil fuels. The selection of raw material, pretreatmentprocess, saccharification and proper selection of yeast and bacteria strains are considered as the key steps in bioethanol production from biomass. Bioethanol is in fact a cheap source of energy and can help in clean environment management. However in few cases consideration are needed to overcome the anomalies of using some specific biomass resources which can affect our food reserves. A brief survey of the various important aspects involved in bioethanol production is done in this review to grasp the basic concept of bioethanol production from biomass.
Abstract— The process of bioethanol production from rice straw consists of two steps: (1) conversion of cellulose into simple sugars which is conducted by using microwave-NaOH pretreatment and straw hydrolysis using mold catalyst T.reesei and A. niger; and (2) fermentation of simple sugars into ethanol. In a microwave-NaOH pretreatmentprocess has been obtained the best value content of cellulose in straw size of 100 mesh and a long exposure of 40 minutes for 72.70+1:10%. Crude cellulase enzyme activity of T.reesei isolation, A.niger and it mixtures were optimum at temperature of 50°C. The addition of crude enzyme from A.niger and T.reesei on a comparison of 1: 2 (v/v) was able to increase the yield of the rice straw cellulose hydrolysis which is produces sugar at 12.89 mg/ml (1.29% w/v) or 0.15% (w/v) when converted into ethanol. The glucose yield from rice straw was 25.47% with 3% ethanol.
The pretreatmentprocess using dilute sulfuric acid was carried out at 121 and 125 for 60 minutes in an autoclave. The selection of the operating temperature was aimed to minimize the formation of degradation products from the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose and compounds that have potency as inhibitors in the fermentation process. Rasmussen et al.  reported that the potency for the formation of degradation products and inhibitor compounds would appear when the pretreatment operating temperature was more than 150. In several studies of dilute sulfuric acid, the operating conditions chosen to maximize monomer sugar production and minimize the formation of inhibitor components were by 1) the use of low sulfuric acid concentrations, below 2% (v/v) at high operating temperatures above 150 with over 60 minutes  or 2) the use of high acid concentrations above 2% (v/v) at operating temperatures below 150 for 60 minutes  . However, the use of low sulfuric acid concentrations
biological pretreatment have been used to speed up the biological processes. In our previous studies, the time taken for the biological process could be shortened to 15 days when fungal pretreatment with I. lacteus was com- bined with alkali pretreatment . Future development of powerful biotechnology and engineering tools will undoubtedly speed up this process further. Nevertheless, biological pretreatment usually requires a longer time than thermochemical pretreatment. For example, the time taken for dilute acid pretreatment is usually shorter than 60 minutes [4,5]; however, special anticorrosion heating equipment with compression resistance and high water consumption are required for this. By contrast, a biological pretreatmentprocess using SSF is carried out at near room temperature (20-30°C), has relatively low energy and water consumption, and does not need spe- cial equipments, which can partly compensate for the production cost involved with the longer pretreatment time. It is noteworthy that the biological process needs no chemicals and is thus less damaging to the environ- ment, which can save the cost of pollution treatment. In addition, it was reported previously that I. lacteus is able to grow and reproduce efficiently under non-sterile con- ditions, indicating that an on-farm biological pretreat- ment process might be developed in future . Having the production process on the farm may offer lower cost, and practical and sustainable processes. Thus, biological pretreatment using SSF should be a competitive process compared with thermochemical processes, both econom- ically and from an environmental protection point of view.
The pretreatment of rice straw with dilute sulfuric acid was performed in an oil bath using a well-sealed tube reactor that was 1.2 cm in diameter and 18 cm in length. Preheating, reaction, and cooling were performed in the oil bath. The temperature of the preheating bath was maintained at 210°C for faster heat transfer whereas the cooling bath was kept at room temperature. The temperature, sulfuric acid concentration, and reaction time were similar to those reported in our previous work: 142°C, 1.21% and 11.6 min, respectively . After the pretreatment, solid – liquid separation was conducted, and the solids (rice straw) were extracted, washed, and dried. Later, the pretreatment with aqueous ammonia was carried out at 26.36 – 93.64°C, ammonia concentrations of 1.54 – 28.45%, and reaction times of 7.63 – 88.36 h. The agitation speed and solid – liquid ratio were 250 rpm and 1:12, respectively. This pretreatment step was performed in a 100-mL capped bottle. The ranges of the aforementioned parame- ters were determined by the fundamental experiments based on other reports [20,24]. After the pretreatment, solids separated by filtration were washed with distilled water to remove the residual ammonia and establish a neutral pH followed by drying at 50°C until the weight became constant [25,26].
When reviewing the expectation effect of ozone oxidation of the wastewater of the paper-mill factory, the process of changing from non-degradable COD substance to biodegradable COD was circulated. Here, if the biotreatment is accompanied after 30 minutes of ozone oxidation due to the increase of the T- N concentration, it is judged that there will be significant result in the organism replacement due to increase of nitrogen compound of biotreatment. Therefore, 10 g-O 3 /hr of ozone input is needed during
desiccator at low pressure and room temperature by phys- ical vapor deposition for 30 min. Afterwards, the master is baked on a hotplate at 150 °C for 30 min to remove any physisorbed molecules. Next, a defined amount of the OrmoStamp® resin is placed on the master, and a thin glass plate is placed carefully on the droplet (Fig. 1a). To improve the adhesion of the OrmoStamp® resin to the glass backing, the latter is coated with an adhesion promoter (OrmoPrime08®) before the replication process. Without applying any pressure, the resin spreads between master and glass to form a thin layer (20–30 μm) and fills up any gaps by capillary forces. When the resin is fully spread, it is exposed to UV light from a mask-aligner (Hg lamp, 350 W, ∼ 7 mW cm −2 at 365 nm [i-line]) for 12s to initiate the curing process (Fig. 1b). Afterwards, the glass plate together with the cured polymer can be care- fully released from the master by lifting the glass with a thin razor blade. The cured replica stamp requires a hard bake for 30 min at 130 °C on a hot plate (Fig. 1c). Finally, the replica is exposed to a mild oxygen plasma and coated with a PFOTS SAM as described above. We checked the efficacy of this SAM treatment by means of a static water contact angle (CA) measurement: the coated surface exhibits a CA of 110°, while an uncoated surface has a CA of ∼80° (Additional file 1: Figure S1).
The influence of variety on cellulosic ethanol produc- tion has been evaluated for different feedstocks such as sugarcane, poplar, and wheat [22,23,36,47,51,54,55]. It has generally been found that different varieties of the same raw material differ in terms of overall ethanol production, suggesting that the selection step should identify varieties requiring minimal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis steps, which would reduce the total cost of the process. For example, use of varieties of sugarcane bagasse with lower lignin content and highly substituted xylan resulted in higher sugar and ethanol yields, with milder pretreatment conditions and reduced enzyme dosage . On the other hand, the results found here concerning the influence of sugarcane variety on the fermentability of the hydrolysates revealed no significant differences in the ethanol yield. As mentioned before, this could have been due to the similar physical-chemical- morphological characteristics of the set of sugarcane var- ieties evaluated here.
delignification and detoxification of BSG, allowing hydro- lysing the quite totality of carbohydrate in fermentable sugars. C. acetobutylicum was applied for conversion of BSG hydrolysate into butanol through ABE fermentation. The fermentation yields were similar to those obtained with synthetic medium and significantly higher than those reported in a previous work from the same bio- mass. The already developed sequential pretreatment hydrolysis protocol resulted to be effective also for BSG, allowing reduction of the amount of wastewater and the cost of the overall process.
According to Morali, Uzal and Yetis (2016), the best results that can be produced by the ozone process are reducing color by 86% and COD by 46%. The decrease in COD occurred because ozone can break down the part of the chemical bonding and decompose the organic compounds in textile wastewater (Pratiwi, Notodarmojo and Helmy 2018). The value of the BOD/COD ratio enhancement in this study was low compared to Bilinska et al. (2016), who reported an increase from 0.2 to around 0.6 after treatment with ozone for 60 minutes (Bilinska, Gmurek and Ledakow- icz 2016). Ammonia needs to be reduced because it can interfere the biological process; therefore ozone also plays a role in biological pre-treatment (Khuntia, Majumder and Ghosh 2012).
The milled corn stover produced from the corn stover growth and harvesting model formed the input for the four pretreat- ment methods chosen to be analyzed. Simulations were run based on a fixed output of 1 kg of fermentable sugar. There- fore, the energy inputs and environmental impacts of the four pretreatment techniques were analyzed for producing 1 kg of fermentable sugar. As can be seen below, there are significant differences between each of the four pretreatment methodol- ogies even though the environmental burden has been includ- ed in this analysis. This presents a Bworst-case^ scenario based on the assumption that the corn was utilized for food consumption but still highlights the large variance between treatments.
The limited solubility of chitosan had limiting its application in any fields. Low molecular weight chitosan (LWCS) potentially produced to improve its solubility and characteristics. Steam explosion process was used to breakdown the intermolecular hydrogen bonding and phosphotungstic acid used as catalyst to attact the glycosidic bond and produce shorter chain. The optimum temperature, pressure and phosphotungstic acid concentration on steam explosion process presented highest water solubility at T=160 o C, P=6 bar and 0.1%, respectively. It didn’t showed any change of functional
Bamboo specimens were treated with 1% (w/v) chemical reagents in a 60°C water bath for 2 h to evaluate the effec- tiveness of green color protection by these reagents. Fur- thermore, to find the most appropriate method and process for treating ma and moso bamboos with alcohol-borne green color protectors, the effects of various treatment con- ditions, e.g., reagent concentrations (0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 4%), treatment temperatures (25°, 40°, and 60°C), treatment durations (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 h), and solvent types (methanol and ethanol), on the green color protection of bamboo culms were investigated. Additionally, it has been suggested that ultrasound can be used to disrupt plant cell walls to facilitate the release of extractable compounds and enhance mass transport of solvent (or chemical reagent) from the continuous phase into plant cells. 10
firstly, it's a short introduction of pretreatment of the video pictures. It reduces the error within the image process once. second the paper focuses on the analysis and also the frame difference. in conclusion this paper selects supported the background subtraction technique to enhance it and present a BSFD algorithm based on the background subtraction and the frame difference method. IMAGE PREPROCESSING Image preprocessing is the main task in moving object detection. The small changes in the pixel lead to false detection. Noise can be added due to various reasons. Due to the noise the pixel values might be changed. So image preprocessing is very essential.
Using conventional and high-throughput growth assays, effects of inhibitory hydrolysate compounds on Z. mobilis growth and fermentation have been inves- tigated (Dong et al. 2013; Franden et al. 2009, 2013; Gu et al. 2015; Yi et al. 2015). The results demonstrated that acetate, furfural, and phenolic aldehydes are three major inhibitors in the dilute acid-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate for Z. mobilis, and the inhibitory activity was strongly correlated to the hydrophobicity of these com- pounds. Furthermore, combinations of HMF, furfural, and acetate resulted in additive rather than synergistic inhibition to Z. mobilis cell growth (Franden et al. 2013). It was also observed that Z. mobilis is capable of convert- ing aldehydes of furfural, HMF, vanillin, 4-hydroxyben- zaldehyde, and syringaldehyde to their corresponding alcohol forms of furfuryl, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanil- lyl, 4-hydroxybenzyl, and syringyl alcohol, respectively (Franden et al. 2013; Yi et al. 2015). These studies sug- gested that the enhanced conversion of toxic aldehydes into the relatively benign alcohol forms with engineered strains could reduce process cost by improving ethanol yields and/or by reducing fermentation time.
a wide variety of biomass types switch grass , corn stover , spruce (softwood) , and poplar (B. Du et al., 2010). In this study dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment method with 1.2% concentration was used. The powder Prosopis juliflora was pretreated inside autoclave and heated at temperature of 135 o C for 30 minutes. Prosopis juliflora powder was fed as batches and every batch contains 300 g of screened Prosopis juliflora powder with a ratio of 10:1(v/w) water to the sample.
reactions at high frequencies . To induce cavitation, the process has to run at a certain frequency (<100 kHz), the ultrasound creates gas bubbles that when collapsing produce hydromechanical forces, which disintegrate the macromolecules [31,108,109]. The extreme conditions that occur during the cavitation process can cause generation of hydroxyl radicals, which can degrade volatile and non- volatile pollutants. Ultrasonication can enhance the WAS digestibility by damaging the physical, chemical and biological properties of the sludge. Ultrasonic lysis accelerates the hydrolysis reactions by disrupting the cells. Within the explosion (cavitational) of transient bubbles, a certain amount of soluble particulate organic matter can be made completely soluble. Ultrasound is considered to be one of the most efficient sludge pre-treatments for sludge floc disintegration [72,108,110–115]. For example, Lizama et al. reported an increase in biogas production after ultrasonic treatment of 560% (Tab. 2).