Because of the emphasis on affected women, the analysis of birth registration data was conducted in terms of maternities, defined as pregnancies leading to one or more registrable live or stillbirth. In order to satisfy disclosure control procedures, tabulations of numbers of maternities by age and mother’s country of birth for mothers born in the FGM practising countries for each year from 2001 to 2004 were held within ONS and not released to us.. The study team provided age-specific FGM prevalences for each of the countries. Estimates of numbers of maternities to women with FGM in each local authority were calculated by ONS by multiplying the number of women delivering in each local authority area in each age-group and in each country where FGM is practised by the age-specific FGM prevalence estimate for that country. These numbers were then summed over all the countries where FGM is practised to estimate the total number of women with FGM overall in England and Wales and for each region.
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We report a current national prevalence estimate for MS in the adult population by using a validated algorithm across 5 large US AHC datasets, which also accounted for the un- insured population and for the limited (3-year period) of observation. Our estimates were based on a case-ﬁnding strategy that identiﬁed MS cases annually combined with the 2010 Census for denominator data. Overall, nearly 45% of the US population was assessed, including 100% of those with publicly funded insurance. In 2010, our higher 10-year prev- alence estimate was 309.2 per 100,000 population, repre- senting 727,344 adults aﬀected by MS. This higher 2010 estimate is based on the adjustment (3-year vs 10-year) seen in a single health insurance payer system covering the entire population. The lower-level estimate is based on a dataset adjustment (3-year vs 10-year) for a government insurance carrier for a segment of the population. Our approach accounted for the demographics of the national population, the sporadic follow-up for a chronic disease with young-adult onset, the diﬀerent insurance providers within the health care system, and the uninsured.
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The pooled prevalence estimate varies significantly between regions. High prevalence of bovine trypanoso- mosis was reported from Benishangul Gumuz regional state. The studies were conducted mainly in endemic areas for bovine trypanosomosis and non-endemic re- gions and remote regions may possibly be under- represented. Even if the disease is known to be endemic to the Gambella Regional State, no study was reported from this region. Thus, the regional differences of data availability may have led to an over-estimation of the estimates for some regions. Due to the heterogeneous distribution of bovine trypanosomosis in Ethiopia, add- itional studies which are based on geostatistical techniques are needed. The studies must take into consideration distribution of tsetse and other biting flies, environmental factors, reservoir hosts, the control efforts made and settlement patterns.
Step 4: Combine MS prevalence estimates into a single estimate of the prevalence of MS for the United States, weighted according to the number of insured persons in each health insurance segment: after obtaining MS prevalence estimates separately for each of the US health insurance segments, they can be combined into a single national prevalence estimate. Information from the Current Population Survey can be used to obtain the necessary weights by determining the number of US residents with each type of insurance coverage, stratiﬁed by sex, age group, race, and geographic region. The total estimated number of MS cases for each age, sex, race, and geographic region–speciﬁc category can then be summed to estimate the total number of MS cases in the United States. For example, MS prevalence for the private insurance segment can be estimated by accessing AHC data for Optum (Eden Prairie, MN) and Truven Health (Ann Arbor, MI) which, in 2010, together comprise approximately 68 million individuals, or 35% of the 2010 privately insured US population. MS prevalence in the government-insured segment of the population can be directly and completely estimated for 100% of people covered by using administrative claims data for Medicaid and Medicare. MS prevalence in the military population, which is pre- dominantly male, can be estimated used the Veterans Health Administration database. A limitation of this method is that no claims data exist for persons without health insurance, estimated at 16.3% in 2010 28 ; however, for this uninsured group, MS prevalence estimates from the Medicaid health care claims data could be applied because the 2 groups have similar sociodemo- graphic characteristics.
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Because of the emphasis on affected women, the analysis of birth registration data was conducted in terms of maternities, defi ned as pregnancies leading to one or more registrable live or stillbirths. In order to satisfy disclosure control procedures, tabulations of numbers of maternities by age and mother’s country of birth for mothers born in the FGM practising countries for each year from 2001 to 2004 were held within ONS and not released to us. The study team provided age-specifi c FGM prevalences for each of the countries. Estimates of numbers of maternities to women with FGM in each local authority were calculated by ONS by multiplying the number of women delivering in each local authority area in each age-group and in each country where FGM is practised by the age-specifi c FGM prevalence estimate for that country. These numbers were then summed over all the countries where FGM is practised to estimate the total number of women with FGM overall in England and Wales and for each region.
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Rome III prevalence estimate for chronic constipation. However, importantly both the sensitivity and PPV of the simple definition, “self-reported constipation in the past 2 weeks”, were low, indicating that this simple definition did not identify the same individuals with constipation as identified by the Rome III criteria. One factor to consider is that self-reported constipation is any constipation expe- rienced during the defined time period whereas unmodi- fied Rome criteria provide an indication of chronic constipation only. A further consideration is that with self-reported constipation, constipation is self-defined and consequently different individuals may have different per- ceptions of constipation [8, 30, 31]. It could be argued that this is the true definition of constipation which should be used in clinical practice but in prevalence studies of any constipation, our results suggest that defining constipation as “self-reported constipation for the last 3 months” might be considered as an alternative to other constipation defi- nitions since it compared more favourably to the gold standards for both chronic and sub-chronic constipation than the other definitions in terms of sensitivity, specifi- city, PPV and NPV.
is no data on the impact of congenital anomaly affected pregnancies or births on health service utilization, for either termination of pregnancy due to detection of a fetal anomaly or for neonatal intensive care services. An- other requirement for data is to derive estimates of the number of children born with disabling conditions. Medical and rehabilitative services for affected children through government health services are currently limited in India, resulting in significant out of pocket expend- iture for families [8, 9]. Data on the magnitude of con- genital anomalies are also needed as some of these conditions can be prevented through primary care inter- ventions targeted towards women in the preconception, intra-conception and antenatal periods . Strategies targeting the prevention of births affected by congenital anomalies also target the shared risk factors for other adverse pregnancy outcomes, effectively aiming at reduc- tion of reproductive wastage, and improving pregnancy outcome . In this study, we systematically reviewed available Indian studies, in order to derive a national estimate of births affected by congenital anomalies in India. We also discuss the implications of this quantita- tive analysis in terms of prevention and care, further re- search needs, and the characteristics of a birth defects surveillance system in India.
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The particular diseases/conditions which occur at a higher prevalence in specific breeds may suggest clues underlying pathophysiological aetiology. For example, this study identifies that West Highland White Terriers appear predisposed to acute moist dermatitis, chronic itching, dermatitis, diabetes mellitus, harvest mite dermatitis, hypersensitivity (allergic) skin disorder, ker- atoconjunctivitis sicca, otitis externa and pyoderma, suggesting possible underlying breed weakness in the immune system . Labrador Retrievers have a higher prevalence of arthritis, degenerative joint disease, elbow dysplasia, hip dysplasia, and osteochondritis disse- cans suggesting that joint conditions remain a priority concern in this breed, despite decades of high participa- tion rates in the British Veterinary Association (BVA)/ Kennel Club (KC) hip dysplasia screening scheme  and evidence of an improving genetic trend in hip score . Flat Coated Retrievers had a higher within breed prevalence of bone tumours (1.34%), lymphoma (0.89%), skin cancer (4.76%) and skin lumps (3.57%), suggesting that neoplasia may be a particular concern for this breed. This finding concurs with results from a Swedish insur- ance study . A higher within breed than overall preva- lence of a number of heart diseases/conditions in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel were reported: enlarged heart, heart failure, heart murmur, irregular heart beat and mitral valve disease. Heart murmurs were particularly prevalent, with a within breed prevalence of 9.65% (com- pared to the overall prevalence of 0.89%). This finding concurs with previous reports showing that Cavalier King Charles Spaniels have a higher prevalence of cardiac con- ditions [16, 18, 52, 53].
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Crude and age-specific prevalence rates were estimated by dividing the number of Parkinsonism cases by the total number of screened individuals. The age-specific prevalence rate was calculated across different age groups with 95% confidence interval (CI). Age-standardized prevalence was calculated by normalizing the data to the standardized USA population in 2000. Extrapolated prevalence for nonrespon- dents was estimated using Ogura’s method, which assumes that persons who screened positive but did not go to the clinic have a similar prevalence as the individuals who did go to the clinic. 10,11 The formula is shown below:
To estimate the pooled estimates of the vitamin B-12 in- sufficiency rate per trimester, we obtained an estimate from each study of the proportion of pregnant women with vitamin B-12 concentrations below the cutoff defined in that study. Subgroup analysis was undertaken for the studies from the second and third trimesters to determine whether the prevalence of vitamin B-12 insufficiency in pregnancy varied according to the geographic areas. Statistical heterogeneity was calculated by using the I 2 statistic (36). A random-effects meta-analysis (37) was un- dertaken by using STATA version 13 software (StataCorp) (38). We assessed publication bias by using a funnel plot and Egger’s and Begg’s tests to find out whether there was a bias toward publication of studies with positive results among the smaller studies (results not shown).
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of malaria is time-dependent and will vary from month to month and year to year. There is no known seasonality in presentation of clinical signs of trachoma in Ethiopia; however, the application of the simplified grading system is subjective. Clinical examiners went through a two-stage training and were required to have greater than 80% concordance with the gold standard before joining the field teams, which minimizes but does not exclude the risk of observer bias. It has been argued that nucleic acid amplification techniques of conjunctival swabs are the best way of determining the prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection, although this is currently advocated by the WHO for programmatic use .
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Diarrheal diseases are one of the major causes of enor- mous morbidity, mortality globally; especially in the de- veloping country like India. This, in turn, requires a de- tailed assessment of the leading and closely related causes of disease. From the previous studies conducted world- wide, it is well known that certain factors such as poor sanitation, education, poverty, health infrastructure and socio-economic conditions play a major role in one or other way to the infectious disease prevalence [16-20]. In the present study we have taken into account some of these major demographic, socioeconomic and health in- frastructure indicators in the states and UTs of India to develop an understanding of the prevalence pattern of the disease in the Indian subcontinent. Variables of many measures collectively could identify prototype of diar- rheal disease and prevalence characteristics. Statistical ana- lysis suggests high correlation of disease morbidity and mortality with both males and females in the data col- lected from yrs 2005-2008 suggesting that diarrhoea equally affects both sexes. The disease prevalence were highly associated with the presence of the health care infrastructure such as SCs, PHCs and CHCs suggesting that presence of the health care system not only affects the treatment of the disease but also controls further dis- ease prevalence. Even though both the numbers of inci- dents and deaths increased along with population growth (Figure 1); the annual growth of prevalence rate has re- duced with the simultaneous increase in the association with the health centers suggesting involvements and par- ticipation of all the three levels of centers. High correla- tions of diarrhoea prevalence with population and health- care services suggest specialized healthcare services can be very efficient in reducing the diarrheal diseases. Stronger association of PHCs in subsequent years may be one of the reasons in reducing the prevalence and dis- tributing the load of the SCs and CHCs. Previous studies in the area also suggests important role of health care infrastructure development in the disease management [21,22].
villages A and B both have one prevalent case, but A’s population is 100 and B’s 1000, the prevalence will be ten times higher in A); (iv) larger communities are usu- ally administrative and economic centres, and attract infected migrants from rural areas; (v) village population size may not reflect the actual denominator at risk: it is likely that only a fraction of the population has a livelihood-dependent exposure to tsetse [21,22], and that this fraction may be smaller in larger, less rural com- munities where many people are engaged in trade or services: in other words, when considering the true population at risk, denominators might be more com- parable across differently sized villages than it appears.
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Several reports suggested a link between epilepsy and GSE [1,28]; it also belongs to a variety of non celiac gluten neuropathies described even in low prevalence . It has a tendency to affect young individuals, and the seizures are mostly resistant to antiepileptic drugs [1,28]. Different clinical forms are described, such as the occipital lobe epilepsy and the generalized tonico-clonic status epilepticus. On neuro-imaging, an association with cerebral calcifications, especially of the temporal and occipital lobes has been reported [1,30]. According to some studies, either gluten sensitive epilepsy or celiac epilepsy improves after a GFD [1,30].
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This is the first attempt to estimate the prevalence of PDN in individuals living in Libya using an appropriately powered study with adequate sample size. The absence of diagnosis based on a full neurological examination is a limiting factor, although we estimated that the use of our validated Arabic version of the S-LANSS pain scale would identify at least 75% of individuals with PDN . We measured fasting plasma glucose concentration rather than haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) which is a more robust indicator of blood sugar control. We did not measure blood pressure, triglycerides and cholesterol levels and such data would have enabled determination of their role as probable risk factors.
reported that the prevalence of overweight in Greek children aged 6–10 years (2001) was 25.3% . In addition, Núñez-Rivas et al. in Costa Rica reported that the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children aged 7–12 years was 34.5% and 26.2% respectively . In a study done by Manzoli et al. in 2005 in Italy, the prevalence of overweight among students aged 6–16 years was 40.6%  while in Spain it was 40.0% . In the USA, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has been reported to be 22% and 11% respectively . However some studies report similar or lower rates than ours. Hajian-Tilaki et al reported prevalence rates of obesity and overweight as 5- 8% and 12.3% respectively among schoolchildren (7-12 years) in Iran . In India, the prevalence of overweight was reported as 10%among 10–15 year-olds,  and in Turkish students aged 12–17 years this figure was 10.6% . In a study by Zini et al. in Malaysian primary-school children aged 9–10 years in 2005, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 16.3% and 6.3% respectively . The differences seen in the results of these studies Table 10. Association between body mass index of primary schoolchildren and their habit of
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We undertook a situational analysis of fistula services in South Sudan. First, we interviewed stakeholders to iden- tify health facilities in South Sudan where fistula surge- ries were undertaken routinely or where campaigns had been carried out. We reviewed records of two of the three teaching hospitals in South Sudan (Juba and Wau Figure 1), and of all the fistula campaigns conducted between 2006 and 2011. We did not visit the third teaching hospital in Malakal for security reasons, but gathered information from Malakal, other hospitals where operations were thought to have been performed and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) through telephone and email communication. We extracted data using a standardised data collection tool to estimate the annual numbers of fistula surgeries conducted in South Sudan and assess patient characteristics, details of fistula and risk factors.
Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study among the general population in urban (Matunga) and rural (Tala) areas of Maharashtra, India to explore SM practices and its associated factors. Face to face interviews were conducted using the validated study questionnaire. Data was analyzed by using descriptive and analytical statistical methods. Results: A total of 1523 inhabitants from 462 households were interviewed between [June/2015] and [August /2015], 778 (51%) of them in rural and 745 (49%) in urban areas. Overall self-medication prevalence was 29.1% (urban; 51.5%, rural; 7.7%, OR 12.7, CI 9.4-17.2) in the study participants. Participants having chronic disease (OR: 3.15, CI: 2.07-4.79) and from urban areas (OR:15.38, CI:8.49-27.85) were more likely to self-medicate. Self-medication practices were characterized by having old prescription (41.6%) as the main reason, fever (39.4%) as top indication and NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Agents) as the most self-medicated category of drugs (40.7%). Conclusions: The present study documented that the prevalence of self-medication is associated with place of residence, and health status of the study participants. Self-medication is still a major issue in western Maharashtra, India and is majorly an urban phenomenon. Status of implementation of existing regulations should be reconsidered. Keywords: Self-medication, Matunga, Tala, Mumbai, Raigad, Maharashtra, India
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This is to certify that the dissertation titled “TO ESTIMATE THE PREVALENCE OF RENAL DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE ” is the bonafide work done by Dr.V.ARUNSHANKAR during his M.D (Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases) course in the academic years 2016-2019, at the Institute of Thoracic Medicine and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital – Madras Medical College, Chennai. This work has not previously formed the basis for the award of any degree.
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families (defined by case-load depending on the region of origin) carried germline mutations in either p16 (38%), p14 (1.5%) or CDK4 (1%). Overall, 57 unique mutations in p16 were attributed to increased CMM risk. In contrast, only two variants in CDK4 have been attributed to CMM risk; p.R24C and p.R24H (Soufir et al., 1998; Zuo et al., 1996). A study into the prevalence of CDKN2A and CDK4 mutations in CMM cases from a Greek hospital-based sample found that 5% of cases (16 of 320) harbored a mutation in one of these genes (Nikolaou et al., 2011). But, to date, there are only two published studies determining the prevalence of high-risk predisposition loci in population-based samples of CMM cases. The Genes Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study genotyped probands from nine different ge- ographical regions in the USA, Canada, Italy, and Australia