Prevention Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC)

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Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: What Do We Know and What Do We Do About It?

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: What Do We Know and What Do We Do About It?

progress, however, the global­ ization of crime, dramatically increased access to the Inter­ net, and ease of travel have brought new challenges to the prevention of CSEC. Global agreements. One way to meet these chal­ lenges is through internation­ al agreements and treaties. The first World Congress Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children—held in Stockholm in 1996—was attended by 122 nations and brought CSEC to light as a worldwide problem. Five years later, the second World Congress attracted three times as many participants. Another tool that promotes international cooperation is the United Nations Conven­ tion Against Transnational Organized Crime, which has an anti-human-trafficking “protocol” focused on women and children. As of the summer of 2007, 134 countries had ratified the pro­ tocol and another 13 had signed but not yet ratified it. Law enforcement agencies in countries that ratify the proto­ col are required to cooperate in the identification of offend­ ers and trafficked persons, share information about traf­ ficking methods, and train
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Internet-Facilitated Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children.

Internet-Facilitated Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children.

Little clarity and agreement exists on how to best define  the term  “CSEC.”  Most of  the  literature  describes  CSEC  as the sexual exploitation of a child that occurs at least in  part for the financial or economic benefit of a particular  party. 6,7   Definitions  of  financial  benefit  are  sometimes  expanded  to  include  both  monetary  and  nonmonetary  gains  (food,  shelter,  drugs). 8   Crimes  that  fit  this  defini‐ tion  include the  production  and  sale  of child  pornogra‐ phy, juvenile prostitution, and the trafficking of children  for  sexual  purposes  (both  domestic  and  international).  Other crimes that are sometimes placed under the rubric  of CSEC include the  mail‐order  bride trade, early forced  marriages, and underage youth working in strip clubs. All  of these crimes involve the sexual exploitation of minors,  but  they  vary considerably in  terms  of their  frequency,  severity,  and  implications  for  prevention  and  interven‐ tion.  Even  within  each  category,  a  wide  range  of  cases  exist,  some  of  which  clearly  represent  a  commercially  driven  crime,  and  in  other  cases,  the  commercial  ele‐ ment is less clear.  
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The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents: Issues for the Caribbean

The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents: Issues for the Caribbean

for child victims of CSE. Another factor contributing to the CSEC is the lack of effective data collection measures in many countries not only in relation to trafficking but also in identifying children at risk of being trafficked (such as children displaced or orphaned as a consequence of natural disasters and wars, and young refugees). For all of these difficulties - the nature of the problem, the lack of effective child protections services, and the failure of systems for detection and prevention - accurately determining the international scale and prevalence of CSEC is not possible and only estimations of the problem can be given. Although there are developments to ensure that determining prevalence is based on more reliable data collection systems, the true scale of CSEC can probably never be determined (ECPAT, 2006). There is, however, overall agreement that CSEC is a growing problem and not simply one in which there is growing awareness, although the lack of empirical evidence undermines proposals for more resources to be targeted at the problem and may explain the observation that the causational factors and effects of CSEC are still, in the main, disregarded by governments (Brown and Barrett, 2002). The psychosocial costs of CSE include lasting harmful psychological effects such as depression, self harm and risk of suicide (Cecil and Matson, 2005); physical harm due to violence, increased risk of drug-abuse and addictions; and the often premature and untimely death of many victims due to these and other causes (UNICEF, 2006). There are also long-term health risks; for example, complications from pregnancy and abortions, and exposure to sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Child protection groups underscore the humanitarian need to stop the sexual exploitation of children primarily to prevent these consequences. However it is also argued that failure to stop the sexual exploitation of children, while clearly detrimental at the level of the individual and the family, also leads to severe social repercussions for any society (UNICEF, 2002).
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Ending the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Ending the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

The following individuals who served on a subcommittee to develop and refine the recom- mendations presented in the report are recognized for their ability to envision what we can do right now to effectively respond to the commercial sexual exploitation of children: Paniz Bagheri, SAGE – Standing Against Global Exploitation; Ellyn Bell, SAGE – Standing Against Global Exploitation; Stacey Bell, and youth representatives, Sacramento City Unified School District; Diana Boyer, County Welfare Directors Association of California; Cailey Bronny, Sacramento City Unified School District; Kimberly Chang, M .D ., Asian Health Services; Angela Chung, CAST - Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking; Kevin Gaines, California Department of Social Services; Hannah Haley, WestCoast Children’s Center; Leslie Heimov, Children’s Law Center of California; Stacey Katz, WestCoast Children’s Center; Jodie Langs, WestCoast Children’s Center; Barbara Loza-Muriera, Alameda County Social Services Agency; Ann Mizoguchi, California Department of Social Services; Casey Powers, California Department of Social Services; Commissioner Catherine Pratt, Superior Court of California, Los Angeles; Fiza Quraishi, National Center for Youth Law; and Wesley Sheffield, Young Minds Advocacy Project.
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Embodiment and abjection: trafficking for sexual exploitation

Embodiment and abjection: trafficking for sexual exploitation

Pollution is an articulation of boundary crossing and the contamination of the inside of the boundary, the creation of the abject. Pain and pollution are often linked in the narratives. Anja writes that when she first found out what she was expected to do ‘I cried at night, I thought it would be painful and dirty.’ Her fears are both physical from the pain she will suffer and social from the expectation it will be dirty, interpreted to mean shameful and polluting. Pollution functions as both a metaphor and a reality in the lives of women who have been trafficked. Many women who are trafficked are forced to take part in unsafe sexual acts and contract a variety of STIs (Stephen-Smith, 2008:21). These illnesses come from outside the body but manifest within it, demonstrating that the body boundary has been penetrated and is not sufficient protection for the body. However, physical pollution is only one way of understanding the effects of trafficking on the body. The lasting effects of trafficking are often felt as a contamination of the self which may have physical symptoms but may not be an illness of the body (Bamber, 2008). The feelings of pollution mark the body boundary as transgressed and create a sense of the abject body, the other that is the ‘boundary to the healthy and normal selves’ (Hansen, 2008:470).
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Prevention of Child Abuse and Exploitation

Prevention of Child Abuse and Exploitation

in conjunction with other types of abuse and violence (Turner, Finkelhor, & Ormrod, 2010) and result in a wide variety of short- and long-term physical and mental health effects for victims (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 1997, 2007). of psychological impacts, including low self- esteem, anxiety, and depression. Individuals who have been sexually victimized are more likely to have multiple sexual partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assaults as adults (Lalor & McElvaney, 2010).

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Gender relations and sexual exploitation in sport

Gender relations and sexual exploitation in sport

Sandra Kirby and Lorraine Greaves in Canada conducted the world’s first prevalence study of sexual abuse and harassment in sport, from 1995-6. This provided statistical support for many of the ideas that I had developed through my own conceptual and qualitative research. Dr Kirby and I worked together on Reference 10, in which we present a potential diagnostic tool for predicting risk of sexual abuse in different sports. Dr Kirby’s own doctoral research on the concept of ‘sport age’ (independent of. chronological age) is here integrated with my ideas on peaking in sport and relative risk of sexual abuse, generating the concept of the ‘stage of imminent achievement’. This is the phase just below the individual’s peak performance level where we hypothesise that vulnerability to the grooming process in sexual abuse (whereby a potential victim is prepared for abuse by the perpetrator) is at its most intense.
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Puppet on a string. The urgent need to cut children free from sexual exploitation.

Puppet on a string. The urgent need to cut children free from sexual exploitation.

Sexual exploitation of children and young people under 18 involves exploitative situations, contexts and relationships where young people (or a third person or persons) receive ‘something’ (e.g. food, accommodation, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, aff ection, gifts, money) as a result of them performing, and/or another or others performing on them, sexual activities. Child sexual exploitation can occur through the use of technology without the child’s immediate recognition; for example being persuaded to post sexual images on the Internet/mobile phones without immediate payment or gain. In all cases, those exploiting the child/young person have power over them by virtue of their age, gender, intellect, physical strength and/or economic or other resources. Violence, coercion and intimidation are common, involvement in exploitative relationships being characterised in the main by the child or young person’s limited availability of choice resulting from their social/economic and/or emotional vulnerability. 1
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Criminalizing Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeepers

Criminalizing Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeepers

processes to ensure they meet minimum standards. It is also unclear what it means to be associated with the listed crimes. One assumption is that the phrase ‘associated with’ is a broader formulation than ‘convicted of.’ In other words, it is assumed that the proviso is meant to apply not only to individuals convicted of the relevant crimes but also to others somehow affiliated with acts of criminality, regardless of whether they were investigated or prosecuted. This would make sense in light of the difficulties associated with criminal investigations and prosecutions but may be difficult to implement. States that have formal selection processes tend to focus on issues such as hierarchy, rotational demands, and the like. Individuals convicted of offenses are often disbarred from the military or police and thus not eligible. Given the few adequate investigations and prosecutions, the list of individuals who have been convicted is short; reprimands and denials of privileges typically follow proven misconduct. In the absence of a conviction or a negative finding, what other form of proof might deny individuals the privilege of serving in a peacekeeping mission? In sum, the new model memorandum is a positive step, but a number of gaps remain. The obligation of troop-contributing countries to provide assurances and to share information is an important lever for accountability. However, the failure of the Conduct and Discipline Unit to publish detailed statistics per country and of the secretary-general to publish more reveal- ing summaries in his annual reports is highly unfortunate. More transparent reporting would provide a better incentive for states to comply with their commitments to investigate and prosecute sexual exploitation and abuse. At present, the statistics provide only a veneer of follow-up. Appropriate follow-up would consist of detailed information on the results of inves- tigations, any charges filed, disciplinary procedures and prosecutions, and broader measures of prevention to guarantee nonrecurrence. Further, the memorandum does not clarify or define the crimes that should be subject to investigation and prosecution. Thus the extent to which conduct will be subject to prosecution entirely depends on the applicable criminal law, and standards will vary from country to country.
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Commercialised Sexual Exploitation of Children, Adolescents and Women: Health and Social Structure in Bangladesh

Commercialised Sexual Exploitation of Children, Adolescents and Women: Health and Social Structure in Bangladesh

“Prostitution” (legally defined as penetrative sexual relations between a man and a woman aged 18 or over, in which money has been paid for this sexual ac- cess) is generally legal in Bangladesh, but statutes specify fines, and periods of imprisonment for sexually using, or trafficking for sexual purposes, those aged less than 18, and for being an intermediate person in sexual transactions involv- ing persons of any age. We have been unable to locate any reports or informa- tion concerning prosecutions in this regard, however. “Operating or working in a brothel” apparently has an ambiguous legal status, which police and local offi- cials exploit, allowing women to continue in sex work only if they pay “fines” (i.e. bribes, to corrupt police and officials) (SWN & SWASA, 2016).
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End Sexual Exploitation by Peacekeepers

End Sexual Exploitation by Peacekeepers

Despite dragging its feet in investigating the allegations of abuse in the CAR, the U.N. has punished Anders Kompass, a U.N. human rights worker, for reporting the rapes to French authorities. He leaked the report to French officials because he lacked faith that the U.N. would act quickly to protect the children. Nine

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Are parents and children aware of child sexual prevention education?

Are parents and children aware of child sexual prevention education?

of parents and 500 number of children were selected from preprimary and primary school. Parents questionnaire proforma and children diagrammatic proforma are prepared on the basis of previous research work and statistical data and various CSA prevention educational programme by ministry of women and child development, UNICEF, NCPCR, simple Hindi language was used for better understanding. Parents proforma contain demographic details regarding education, income, and questionnaire on awareness orientation and execution of CSA prevention education. Proforma was given to parents after small group counselling in parents teachers meeting. Children are explained about diagrammatic(picture) proforma and given to color area of good touch and bad touch. Point based scoring is done. Data was entered in an Excel spread sheet and analyzed. Categorical data were analyzed using the Chi-square test P-value <0.05 was regarded as significant and results were given up to two decimals.
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The Never-Ending Limits of § 230: Extending ISP Immunity to the Sexual Exploitation of Children

The Never-Ending Limits of § 230: Extending ISP Immunity to the Sexual Exploitation of Children

explained that because MySpace "failed to react appropriately" when it knew that sexual predators were using its service to communicate with minors, and thus[r]

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The Sexual Exploitation of Looked After Children in Scotland : a study conducted for the Care Inspectorate

The Sexual Exploitation of Looked After Children in Scotland : a study conducted for the Care Inspectorate

The research brief was indeed a challenging one, particularly in respect of the required timescales and the complexity and quantity of work involved with this project. As researchers we are dependent on the assistance and participation of various partners and stakeholders. We are grateful that we have encountered much goodwill towards the project and repeated endorsements of the need for the study and of the approach we have taken to it. Some of the requests we have made, have required partners to undertake detailed and difficult tasks, requiring significant time commitments. Some potential participants have not been able to comply with the timescales we set. Many remain keen to be part of the study and suggest they will continue to provide responses when it is practical for them to do so. This may mean that data continue to be received for a number of weeks following the submission of this report. We remain committed to analysing and reporting all of the information we gather, as we believe these findings will inform the decision makers and practitioners who are best placed to improve the lives of looked after children in Scotland.
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Corporate Social Responsibility: Sexual Exploitation of Children in the Costa Rican Hotel Tourist Industry

Corporate Social Responsibility: Sexual Exploitation of Children in the Costa Rican Hotel Tourist Industry

At a World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) meeting on March 14, 2014, Professor Mike Jempson stated that many travel websites attract tourists based on sexual tourism in countries, including Amsterdam, Thailand, Costa Rica, Kenya, and Japan. Because of such uncensored advertising, children are at greater risk in these countries; nevertheless, many hotels are afraid of signing codes because they do not want to be associated with the topic at all. Cable News Network (CNN) reported that many hotel executives do not want consumers to associate their brand with sexual trafficking or exploitation (Retter, 2012). The UNWTO also discussed that the tourist industry often feels threatened by journalist who report the truth about child sexual tourism. Thus, managers in the tourist industry often fail to collaborate with journalist, governmental officials, NGOs, and security human trafficker controllers in resolving the child sex slavery issues (Tepelus, 2007). It becomes increasingly apparent that more research is needed concerning the hotel industry’s CSR role with regard to the children work in the as sex slaves in the tourist industry in developing countries like Costa Rica.
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Trafficking of women for the purpose of sexual exploitation in Europe

Trafficking of women for the purpose of sexual exploitation in Europe

Traffickers easily adapt to the local conditions. New social media appear to become increasingly important in recruiting girls (30). While traffickers often wait until the victim reaches the age of 18 for the actual sexual exploitation, the recruitment phase often starts when the girls are much younger (30). This way – in an attempt to remain unnoticed by authorities – traffickers seemingly comply with legislation in destination countries such as the Netherlands and Germany, where prostitution is legalized and regulated (prostitutes need to be older than 18). Kelly (20) has listed more methods of recruitment, including deception, either through marriage offers, employment offers without notion of sex work, employment offers in the entertainment and dancing industry, and being sold by family members or a boyfriend. Especially the latter seems to be an important way for recruiters to deceive their victims.
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SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN – A GLOBAL CONCERN

SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN – A GLOBAL CONCERN

Sexual exploitation and trafficking is an alarming global problem. Trafficking in women and girls primarily for sexual exploitation has acquired draconian proportions as a spill over effect of globalization. The complex dynamics of this multifaceted phenomenon tantamount to the modern form of slavery that violates human dignity & worth. The multifaceted dimensions of trafficking in juxtaposition with sex tourism, labour migration, forced marriages, bonded labour, devdasi system and other similar practices, raises serious concerns about crucial ramifications of social relevance. A study conducted by the United Nations Population Fund says that there are an estimated 4 million women and girls who are trafficked. i As recorded by National Human Rights Commission Committee on Missing children about 200 girls and women enter prostitution daily, of which 20% are below 15 years of age. ii Reflecting the global trend, there is large scale trafficking of children and young women mainly for flesh trade from various countries. Commercial sex is increasing in third world countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, and in Eastern Europe due to rising unemployment, rural poverty, wide economic disparities etc. However, this problem exists in the rich countries of North America, Great Britain and other European Countries as well. iii
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International and internet child sexual abuse and exploitation

International and internet child sexual abuse and exploitation

6.4.2 That said, there were some differences between case types in respect of some of these characteristics. In fact, international child sex abuser cases could, in terms of their nature - or more specifically, the offender’s modus operandi - be divided into three broad groups of case. The first group comprised individuals who worked, either on a paid, religious or voluntary basis, with children in the UK but who had the opportunity to take them abroad, along with holidaymakers, members of Internet-initiated child sex abuser networks, migrants and military workers. What linked these offenders was one, or more, of the following: the abuse they committed abroad was often an extension of their offending in their country of origin; the abuse was more opportunistic than planned - abusers appeared to be more the situational or regressed child sex offender, as opposed to the fixated or preferential child sex abuser (Groth, 1979); and victims tended to be in the offender’s more immediate ‘circle’ i.e. family members, extended family members, ‘friends’ and neighbours. In some respects, these cases could be said to resemble known CSA cases in general. Indeed, the international dimension of the sexual abuse was, for many of these offenders, more incidental than instrumental. 6.4.3 The second group comprised child sex tourists and individuals from the UK who had gone abroad to work, with children, either on a paid, religious or voluntary basis. What most marked out these cases was the fact that it appeared the offenders had a specific purpose in going abroad and that was to sexually abuse children. It is very likely that they felt that being abroad, especially in developing countries, such as those in Africa, Eastern Europe, and South and South East Asia, made it easier to commit abuse, avoid detection and thwart investigations. These offenders, almost without exception, appeared to be fixated or preferential child sex offenders, who abused mostly boys and especially those who were disadvantaged.
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CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE AND EXPLOITATION: ROLE OF JUDICIARY

CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE AND EXPLOITATION: ROLE OF JUDICIARY

Regarding child prostitution in the light of Devadasi and Jogins practices, the Supreme Court asked governments to set up advisory committees to make suggestions for the eradication of child prostitution and to evolve schemes for the rehabilitation of victimized children. 21 The Delhi High Court initiated several proactive steps by summoning NGOs and government officers to ensure effective rescue, rehabilitation and reintegration. Emphasis was laid on accountability of officers, empowerment of the survivors and preventing prospects of their re-trafficking. 22

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Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Rotherham

Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Rotherham

5.30 Child H (2008) was 11 years old when she came to the attention of the Police. She disclosed that she and another child had been sexually assaulted by adult males. When she was 12, she was found drunk in the back of a car with a suspected CSE perpetrator, who had indecent photos of her on his phone. Risky Business became involved and the Locality Team did an initial assessment and closed the case. Her father provided Risky Business with all the information he had been able to obtain about the details of how and where his daughter had been exploited and abused, and who the perpetrators were. This information was passed on to the authorities. Around this time, there were further concerns about her being a victim of sexual exploitation. She was identified as one of a group of nine children associating with a suspected CSE perpetrator. Her case had not been allocated by children’s social care. The Chair of the Strategy meeting expressed concern about her and considered she needed a child protection case conference. This does not appear to have been held. Three months later, the social care manager recorded on the file that Child H had been assessed as at no risk of sexual exploitation, and the case was closed. Less than a month later, she was found in a derelict house with another child, and a number of adult males. She was arrested for being drunk and disorderly (her conviction was later set aside) and none of the males were arrested. Child H was at this point identified as being at high risk of CSE. Risky Business, social care workers and the Police worked to support Child H and her father and she was looked after for a period. She suffered a miscarriage while with foster carers. Her family moved out of the area and Child H returned home. Some of the perpetrators were subsequently convicted.
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