Prevention Strategy

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Polyphenols as Potential Dietary Cancer Prevention Strategy for Ethiopia: An Overview

Polyphenols as Potential Dietary Cancer Prevention Strategy for Ethiopia: An Overview

Because of high cost and limited success of cancer therapy, it has become increasingly recognized that cancer prevention is cost effective. Promotion of healthy diet as the cancer prevention strategy is with a double benefit. Because fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs are not only the food sources of polyhenols but also the good sources of minerals including vitamin which are essential for human health. Besides, Ethiopia is the home of large number of species of fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs which are identified as good sources of polyphenols. In addition, Ethiopia has a high potential of production of tropical, sub-tropical and temperate fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs as she has favorable climate and edaphic conditions [55]. Therefore, dietary cancer prevention strategy is cost effective, easy and recommendable for Ethiopia.

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Role of Anti Angiogenic Therapy in Prevention of Recurrence in Hormonal Positive Breast Cancer: A Secondary Prevention Strategy and Method of Therapy

Role of Anti Angiogenic Therapy in Prevention of Recurrence in Hormonal Positive Breast Cancer: A Secondary Prevention Strategy and Method of Therapy

This is an interesting case of successful response in a patient with no detecta- ble distant metastases, but positive ctDNA. This demonstrates the concept of secondary prevention and reduced angiogenesis and heterogeneity of the tumor in response to MTET protocol, which consists of epigenetic therapies, as all ctDNA disappeared with the protocol. It is worth noting that neither tamoxifen nor mastectomy could positively impact the ctDNA, and in fact there was an in- crease in ctDNA post-mastectomy.

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Pharmaceutical prevention strategy for arteriovenous fistula and arteriovenous graft failure

Pharmaceutical prevention strategy for arteriovenous fistula and arteriovenous graft failure

An observational study enrolled 463 patients undergo- ing HD to examine the risk factors affecting AVF pa- tency during 5 years of follow-up. In this study, patients with early AVF failure were excluded from the analysis (P = 0.002). Episodes of hypotension were defined as sys- tolic pressure of < 110 mmHg and diastolic pressure of < 70 mmHg before the start of HD. In patients with hypertension, a decrease by > 30% of blood pressure was defined as relative hypotension. During ten consecutive HD sessions, 218 patients experienced at least one epi- sode of hypotension. This study demonstrated that the lowest mean diastolic pressure had significantly lower patency rates of AVF ( P = 0.045) than that of the mean diastolic pressure, whereas the lowest mean systolic pressure had no effect (P = 0.624) [89]. Considering that blood pressure fluctuation during HD was associated with VAF, appropriate blood pressure management dur- ing HD could be crucial for prevention of VAF.

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“Apprentis Chercheurs” in Drugs Disorders: A New Concept in Prevention Strategy

“Apprentis Chercheurs” in Drugs Disorders: A New Concept in Prevention Strategy

We report a new strategy based on scientific education for sensitizing teenagers to the addiction- related harms. This strategy is diverted from a program called “Apprentis Chercheurs”. Pairs of young adolescents are welcome in research laboratories working on addiction all along the school year. They are fully integrated in the research team and directly participate to the experiments under the supervision of a senior researcher. At the end of the school year, they orally communi- cate their results to other students of their schools, their teachers, their parents and the research team in a peer-to-peer approach during a scientific conference organized within every participant research center.

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Prioritizing Strategies for Preventing Medication Errors and Adverse Drug Events in Pediatric Inpatients

Prioritizing Strategies for Preventing Medication Errors and Adverse Drug Events in Pediatric Inpatients

Two important caveats must be kept in mind in considering the findings in this study. First, the error detection method that we used is better at detecting prescribing errors than administration errors; many administration errors that were not detected un- doubtedly occurred. If such administration errors were included, then they might have changed the relative effectiveness of each prevention strategy. Second, we were assessing potential preventability, not actual proportion prevented. Some strategies, particularly information technology– based strate- gies, would likely be more consistently effective in preventing errors than others. This study is also lim- ited in that it was performed at only 2 institutions. Finally, the error prevention strategy categorization in this study treated each strategy as if it were mono- lithic; in fact, there is great variation. For example, clinical decision support systems vary widely among different CPOE systems.

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Suicide prevention : policy and strategy

Suicide prevention : policy and strategy

The publication of the Government’s Suicide Prevention Strategy came just as the structure of the NHS in England was undergoing major and quite controversial reform through the Health and Social Care Act 2012. This Act created NHS England as a national commissioning board, and 212 Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs), which were given statutory responsibility for commissioning health services. Since 2013, CCGs have been responsible for commissioning the majority of NHS services, including urgent and emergency care, elective hospital care, and community health services. NHS England is responsible for ensuring that there is an effective and comprehensive system of CCGs, providing commissioning support and guidance, as well as for commissioning some services centrally such as primary care and specialist services.

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Enhancing SKIN health and safety in aged CARE (SKINCARE Trial): a study protocol for an exploratory cluster randomized pragmatic trial

Enhancing SKIN health and safety in aged CARE (SKINCARE Trial): a study protocol for an exploratory cluster randomized pragmatic trial

nurses through the care process starting from assess- ment to the allocation of targeted skin area interven- tions, taking into account available evidence, best practice, and guideline recommendations [15]. Imple- mentation of the newly developed evidence-based skin health-promoting strategy will improve nurses ’ know- ledge, skills, and confidence in a core area of nursing practice. Additionally, it is assumed that the implemen- tation of the skin care and prevention strategy will lead to an improvement of skin conditions, skin health, qual- ity of life (QoL), and safety of elderly nursing home resi- dents. However, the feasibility of implementation of this skin care and prevention strategy and its potential to in- fluence assumed patient and intermediate outcomes have to be demonstrated before its clinical effectiveness can be examined on a larger scale.

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An update on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

An update on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death worldwide. It is a chronic condition which affects the respiratory system and worsens over time. Cigarette smoking and advancing age are the two major risks associated with this disease. It is concerning that the global incidence of this chronic illness is on the rise. Current projections indicate that it will become the third leading cause of death by the year 2020. Inflammatory changes underlie the pathophysiology of COPD. Irreversible damage and progressive narrowing of the air passages follow. COPD is characterised by the progressive loss of lung function. In addition, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease released the latest update on its global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of COPD in 2015. This article provides an overview of the causative risk factors, underlying disease process, pathophysiological changes, and the classification and management of COPD, including the latest perspectives on this highly prevalent condition.

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A Study to formulate a strategy for prevention of ventriculo - peritoneal shunt infections

A Study to formulate a strategy for prevention of ventriculo - peritoneal shunt infections

This is to certify that this dissertation entitled “A STUDY TO FORMULATE A STRATEGY FOR PREVENTION OF VENTRICULO - PERITONEAL SHUNT INFECTIONS ”submitted by Dr. T.P. Jeya Selva Senthil Kumar appearing for M.Ch. Degree examination in August 2010 is a bonafide record of work done by him under my direct guidance and supervision in partial fulfillment of regulations of the Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University, Chennai. I forward this to the Tamil Nadu Dr.M.G.R. Medical University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Strategies for Prevention and Control of Hypertension in Nigeria Rural Communities

Strategies for Prevention and Control of Hypertension in Nigeria Rural Communities

Hypertension control measures should be firmly based at primary level. The three main strategies (community health promotion, health services and system support strategy) for the prevention and control of high blood pressure no doubt would have a strong impact on the health, quality of life and mortality rate among rural communities in Nigeria. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates a multifactorial cause for this condition with major risk factors including obesity, diet (specifically high sodium, low potassium and excess energy intake), stress and physical inactivity. The Bandura's social learning theory also known as the social cognitive theory in junction with the health belief model see a person as performing a behavior (e.g quitting smoking) for prevention and control of hypertension with the belief that the behavior will benefit his health based on his capability. The application of pragmatism paradigm an empowerment in life, instills wakefulness and relates life to here and now. This is possible through community empowerment including community self reliance and self determination. The trend of this disease if unchecked especially in developing countries portend great danger.

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Cleaner Production in Rectilinear Knitting for Fashion Clothing

Cleaner Production in Rectilinear Knitting for Fashion Clothing

Ribeiro (cited in Senaga [9]), recalls that many corporations have been admitting cleaner production as business strategy, having as their central benefit the environmental suitability with reduced cost, improved environmental performance and also the company's image. He emphasizes the advantage to small and medium-sized companies in relation to the facility to test the processes or modify them. He concludes that cleaner production aims to improve environmental quality in the state of São Paulo.

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Imported malaria among people who travel to visit friends and relatives: is current UK policy effective or does it need a strategic change?

Imported malaria among people who travel to visit friends and relatives: is current UK policy effective or does it need a strategic change?

The epidemiological evidence suggests that the current guidelines for malaria prevention in the UK are not work- ing effectively for a specific group of travellers, namely VFRs. The reasons for this are several and complex but are influenced by the health beliefs of VFRs and the struc- tural, social, environmental, and economic context within which malaria prevention decisions are made. The current guidelines focus on trying to change awareness of risk using behaviour change communication strategies with little attention to the lived experiences of VFRs and the socio-ecological context of their decision-making. The reviews’ findings argues for decreasing the burden of malaria among VFRs, through a different strategy is re- quired. Altering VFR behaviour and reducing the malaria burden requires more than a didactic knowledge transfer approach as is currently advocated and alternative policy should consider a focus on solving practical issues, includ- ing self-management of malaria, early diagnosis and rapid treatment through primary and urgent care centres and easy access to effective malaria treatments. If new guide- lines are introduced, research will be critical to ensure changes are carefully evaluated and their impact measured to confirm improvement and safety.

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Understanding determinants of nutrition, physical activity and quality of life among older adults: the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study

Understanding determinants of nutrition, physical activity and quality of life among older adults: the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study

There are a number of specific issues relevant to nutri- tion and physical activity behaviours of older adults. Nu- tritional needs change during older age with the required intakes of many nutrients increasing alongside a decreased energy requirement [6]. Therefore, the qual- ity of diet with food choices based on nutrient-dense foods becomes increasingly important, particularly for the avoidance of weight gain. In addition, there is an in- creasing use of medications with potential for interac- tions with dietary intake and nutritional status [6]. Of particular significance with respect to physical activity, age-associated loss of muscle mass can result in reduced muscle strength in older persons [7] and is a major cause of their increased disability prevalence [8]. Increased physical activity is a potentially important strategy among older adults for maintaining functional status and independence [9]. Later adulthood is a critical period for promotion of nutrition and physical activity, as chronic disease will typically present during this life- stage, there are immediate benefits to improving chronic disease risk profiles and there is an ability to maximize health by avoiding or delaying preventable disability [3].

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Smallpox Vaccine

Smallpox Vaccine

RECOMMENDED STRATEGY: RING VACCINATION (SURVEILLANCE AND CONTAINMENT) The AAP supports the current CDC recommenda- tion of the strategy known as ring vaccination, also referred to as surveillance and containment. Using this approach, if smallpox were introduced in an act of terrorism, infected patients would be isolated. Contacts of infected individuals as well as their con- tacts would then be identified and immunized by specially trained teams of health care professionals. This strategy can control a localized outbreak with minimal exposure of vulnerable populations to the complications of immunization. The ring strategy is based on the knowledge that vaccination can prevent or ameliorate disease severity if given within 3 to 4 days of initial exposure and can decrease symptoms if given within the first week of exposure.

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Continuing medical education challenges in chronic fatigue syndrome

Continuing medical education challenges in chronic fatigue syndrome

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through collaboration with the CFIDS Association of America developed a comprehensive strategy to educate primary and allied health care providers concerning eval- uation, diagnosis, and management of patients with CFS. The Provider Education Project targeted primary care pro- viders and allied health professionals through multiple interventions, some of which have been previously pub- lished [17]. One objective of the project promoted CFS continuing education to health care providers through professional outlets such as conferences, peer-reviewed journals, and health care resources on the Internet. While CME is mandated for many healthcare profession- als and much research has been conducted on the course format or learning methods, little is known about the out- come of dissemination of education at these conferences. To the authors' best knowledge and review of the litera- ture, there are no data to suggest what types of conferences best result in increased dissemination. For example, does conference size impact distribution of materials? Does the type of conference facilitate more interaction? This paper reports the evaluation of 1) dissemination of CFS educa- tional materials at provider conferences, and 2) the types of CME formats resulting in the greatest number of certifi- cations.

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An update on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

An update on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death worldwide. It is a chronic condition which affects the respiratory system and worsens over time. Cigarette smoking and advancing age are the two major risks associated with this disease. It is concerning that the global incidence of this chronic illness is on the rise. Current projections indicate that it will become the third leading cause of death by the year 2020. Inflammatory changes underlie the pathophysiology of COPD. Irreversible damage and progressive narrowing of the air passages follow. COPD is characterised by the progressive loss of lung function. In addition, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease released the latest update on its global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of COPD in 2015. This article provides an overview of the causative risk factors, underlying disease process, pathophysiological changes, and the classification and management of COPD, including the latest perspectives on this highly prevalent condition.

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Development of the Champlain primary care cardiovascular disease prevention and management guideline

Development of the Champlain primary care cardiovascular disease prevention and management guideline

Ms Montoya currently works in health promotion with the Heart Health Education Centre at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute (UOHI) in Ontario. Dr Liddy is Assistant Professor in the departments of family medicine and epidemiology and community medicine at the University of Ottawa, and is Clinical Investigator at the C.T. Lamont Primary Health Care Research Centre in Ottawa. Dr Hogg is Professor in the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Ottawa and Director of Research at the C.T. Lamont Primary Health Care Research Centre. Ms Papadakis is Program Leader of the Champlain Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Network and Research Associate at the Minto Prevention and Rehabilitation Centre at the UOHI. Ms Dojeiji is Coordinator of the Champlain Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Network. Dr Russell is Adjunct Professor in the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Ottawa and Professor of General Research Practice in the Department of General Practice at the School of Primary Health Care at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia. Dr Akbari is Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of Ottawa and a physician at the Ottawa Hospital. Dr Pipe is Professor in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Ottawa and Chief of the Division of Prevention and Rehabilitation at the UOHI. Dr Higginson is Clinical Professor of Medicine at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, and Medical Director of Heart Health for the Vancouver Island Health Authority at Royal Jubilee Hospital.

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Preventing and combating hate crimes: Modern approach

Preventing and combating hate crimes: Modern approach

Defining measures of effective prevention of hate crime M. Shaw [11] outlines: (1) the need for good data collection when information about long-term experience and victimization needs to be collected as well as single events or incidents; (2) existence of specific legislation acts; (3) training in the criminal justice field; (4) development of social, economic, educational and cultural programmes and strategies for targeting of both, a wider population and specific groups; (5) employment as a crucial factor for reinforcing social and economic cohesion, and fighting the conditions which favour hate and bias; (6) bringing together people of different races/sexual orientation/religion/national origin to help to demystify ignorance and suspicion.

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To what extent is Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder considered in policy-related documents in South Africa? A document review

To what extent is Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder considered in policy-related documents in South Africa? A document review

We searched PubMed and Google search engines and the websites of South African national and provincial depart- ments, specifically the departments of Education, Health, Social Development, and Trade and Industry, from Janu- ary to April 2018. We applied the following standard Boolean phrase during the searches: [‘foetal alcohol spectrum disorder’ OR ‘alcohol-related neurodevelopmen- tal disorder’ OR ‘foetal alcohol syndrome’ AND ‘policy’ OR ‘guideline’ OR ‘gazette’ OR ‘action plan’ OR ‘white paper’ OR ‘ green paper’ AND ‘South Africa’]. Of note, the use of foetal during the search also captured documents using ‘fetal’. In addition to the online searches, we con- tacted the departmental designated contact persons in the Departments of Education, Health, Social Development, and Trade and Industry by email to request other policy documents, which may not be available online. These de- partments were selected because they have policy documents with clauses that could be attributed to the prevention and management of FASD or regulations of al- cohol. We also searched references of the selected relevant policy documents for additional related information.

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The Prevention of Victim Precipitation in the Criminal Acts of Fornication and Coition Against Children

The Prevention of Victim Precipitation in the Criminal Acts of Fornication and Coition Against Children

The prevention of VP also needs to be done by building a comprehensive legal culture, starting from the family, school and community environment. Legal culture in the family becomes a strategic tool in shaping and controlling the character of children at the same time. However, in fact, parents educate their children only oriented to academic education, not mental education and social problems faced by their children. It is noted that 60% of parents in Indonesia only ask questions about academic education, such as grades, grades in class, and only 30% percent ask about their social problems, hobbies, problems with friends, social media status, even reproductive problems [10]. Even though children in adolescence already have physical resilience and more mature logic, the search for self- identity, lifestyle, ability and freedom to access cyberspace and social media, actually increases the vulnerability of victim precipitation.

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