Surveys in India resulted in the prioritisation of a scale insect (A. indicus), two leaf-webbers (Phycita sp. A and Phycita sp. B), a leaf weevil (D. denticollis), a leaf beetle (Pachnephorus sp.), a gall-rust (R. acacia-arabicae) and a leaf-rust (R. evansii), as prospective biological control agents for prickly acacia in Australia. Four of the prioritised insects (A. indicus, Phycita sp. A., Phycita sp. B and D. denticollis) were exported to Australia for detailed host specificity tests. The gall-rust and the leaf-rust were exported to CABI (UK). In view of the potential risk posed by the rust species to V. sutherlandii, an Australian native, in host range tests conducted at CABI-UK, no further work on the two rusts has been pursued. Host- specificity testing of Phycita sp. A under quarantine in Australia commenced in June 2011. In no-choice larval development trials the leaf-webber completed development on 13 of 27 non-target plant species tested, yet in the field the insect was observed only on prickly acacia. Testing of the brown leaf-webber was terminated in December 2012 due to unacceptable non-target feeding. Host-specificity testing of the scale insect A. indicus commenced in July 2011. The scale insect completed development on 13 of the 57 non-target plant species tested during no-choice trials. Development on Acacia falcata, V. sutherlandii, Neptunia major and N. monosperma was comparable to the scale’s development on prickly acacia. However, when provided with a choice, prickly acacia was the preferred host. In view of the field host specificity of the scale insect in India, a choice trial under field conditions in India, involving the four above-mentioned non-target test plants will be undertaken. Further work on the scale insect will depend on the results from the field choice tests under field conditions in India. A colony of the leaf-weevil Dereodus denticollis could not be established in the quarantine due to difficulties with its oviposition. Further work will be conducted using freshly field collected adults from India. A colony of the green leaf- webber Phycita sp. B was established in quarantine in late 2013. Host specificity testing has recently commenced. Additional importations of the leaf-weevil (D. denticollis) and the leaf- beetle (Pachnephorus sp.) are planned for later in the year, when conditions are more conducive for field collections.
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In Australia, host-specificity testing commenced in June 2011 and was completed in December 2012. All tests were conducted in a temperature (22–27°C)-, light (14 h light: 10 h dark)- and humidity (60–70% RH)-controlled quarantine insectary at the ESP in Brisbane, Queensland. The potential host range of Phycita sp. was evaluated initially using no-choice tests. Batches of test plants, predominantly seedlings or juveniles, were screened as they became available, and in each batch potted, prickly acacia plants were included as positive controls. Ten newly emerged lar- vae were placed on each potted test plant, as well as a prickly acacia control plant. Plants with larvae were placed in groups in insect-proof cages and were checked 2 – 3 times per week for evidence of larval feeding and webbing. Fresh test plants were added as required to feed developing larvae. When there was larval feeding, the duration of larval survival, propor- tion of larvae developing into pupae, pupal duration and proportion of pupae emerging as adults were recorded. A minimum of five replicates of each test plant was used.
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Vachellia nilotica subsp, indica (Benth.) Kyal. & Boatwr. (Previously known as Acacia nilotica subsp. in- dica) (Mimosaceae), commonly known as prickly acacia in Australia, is a multi-purpose tree that occurs naturally and cultivated throughout the country. It is widely used in agroforestry, social forestry, reclamation of wastelands and rehabilitation of degraded forests in India. Prickly acacia is a woody, leguminous tree which was introduced to Austral- ia in the 1890s (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). In Aus- tralia, it was planted extensively in western Queensland for shade and fodder, but spread widely after wet years during the 1950s and 1970s, to form dense impenetrable thickets (Mackey, 1997). Prickly acacia was recognised as one of the most serious weeds in Australia because of its invasive- ness, potential for spread, and economic and environmental
The majority of the species in the test list belong to Acacia sensu lato (s.l.). Morphological and molecular studies have demonstrated that Acacia s.l. is polyphyletic and the genus has been split into five genera (Acacia, Vachellia, Senegalia, Acaciella and Mariosousa). Acacia sensu stricto (s.s.) has been retypified so that the majority of species within Acacia s.l. (i.e. Acacia subg. Phyllodineae) retain this name (see Maslin et al. 2003; Miller and Seigler 2012). Acacia s.s. contains nearly 1000 species and most of these are Australian. Sections within Acacia s.s. are not considered natural groupings (see Maslin et al. 2003), but are retained here. Species within Acacia subgenus Acacia (including prickly acacia) have been transferred to the genus Vachellia Wight & Arn. Fourteen Vachellia species are found in Australia, of which nine are endemic and five (V. nilotica, V. farnesiana, V. karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso, V. gerrardii (Benth.) P.J.H.Hurter and V. xanthophloea (Benth.) Banfi & Galasso) are exotic (Kodela and Wilson 2006; University of Queensland 2011; AVH 2015). Senegalia is represented in Australia by two rare endemic species and two naturalised species (Maslin 2012), and Acaciella is represented in Australia only by the naturalised species Acaciella angustissima (Mill.) Britton & Rose and Acaciella glauca (L.) L. Rico (University of Queensland 2011). Sourcing specimens of these genera was either difficult (Vachellia) or not possible (Senegalia and Acaciella). Ideally more Vachellia species would have been tested.
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Prickly acacia is a Weed of National Significance and a target for biological control, but with limited success to date. Based on the field host range in India, a scale insect (Anomalococcus indicus), a green leaf-webber (Phycita sp.) and a leaf weevil (Dereodus denticollis) were prioritised for host-specificity tests in quarantine. However, the former appears insufficiently host-specific for release in Australia, while the latter two have proved difficult to rear in quarantine. There no other prospective agents available from India, so the search effort for new biological control agents has been redirected to Ethiopia. The quarantine testing of the scale insect (A. indicus) sourced from India has been completed. A total of 84 test plant species have been subjected to no-choice host testing. Development of A. indicus females to reproductive maturity was supported by 17 of the non-target species tested, including native Vachellia spp., Neptunia ssp. and Acacia spp. In nymphal host-preference trials, prickly acacia was the preferred host, although nymphs also settled on some of the non-target species. This may be an artefact of laboratory conditions, as this insect is known to be host-specific under field conditions in India. Hence, choice trials involving non-target test plants on which the scale completed development in quarantine in Australia are being undertaken in India to ascertain non-target risks under natural field conditions.
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There are many declared weeds for which we know little about their seed ecology and longevity. In this project, seed longevity of priority weeds is being investigated in two different soil types (black clay and river loam), under two grass-cover conditions (grassed and non-grassed) and at four burial depths (0, 2.5, 10 and 20 cm). These weeds include yellow oleander, mesquite, prickly acacia, chinee apple, parthenium, orange- flowering and pink-flowering lantana, Gamba grass, calotrope, leucaena, yellow bells, Captain Cook tree, neem and stevia. During the past 12 months, the findings on the seed longevity of calotrope were published in The Rangeland Journal. A paper on the seed longevity of Chinee apple will also soon be submitted for publication. Like calotrope, chinee apple was found to have a relatively short-lived seed (< 2 years), with persistence greater if seeds are located on the soil surface and not buried. However, calotrope has highly germinable seed and the short persistence is associated with seeds germinating when they receive favourable moisture conditions, particularly if buried, as sufficiently high moisture levels are more prevalent in soil. Chinee apple, on the other hand, will not readily germinate if still contained in a hard surrounding shell (endocarp) which imposes a level of physical dormancy. A lot of seeds tend to decay before they get the opportunity to germinate.
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Michalkiewicz et al., 2008; Hussein et al., 2011; Khalil et al., 2011) and column chromatography (Ferreres et al., 1994; Yao et al., 2003; Kassim et al., 2010), respectively. Similarly, HPLC has been used widely for the separation and characterization of phenolic compounds in the last two decades, where both isocratic and gradient elution have been applied for analyses of phenolic compounds (Stalikas, 2007). Malaysian Tualang and Gelam honeys have been reported to exhibit anticarcinogenic properties against different types of cancer cell lines and in in vivo studies (Fauzi et al., 2011; Abubakar et al., 2012; Wen et al., 2012; Kadir et al., 2013), but limited published data was available for Malaysian Acacia honey. Thus, this work aimed to isolate and identify phenolic compounds with anticarcinogenic potential from the sugar matrix of these three types of Malaysian honeys in order to verify their roles as prospective natural chemopreventive agents.
Much variations were observed in the disintegration and dissolution characteristics of the irbesartan tablets prepared employing various combinations of binder (factor A) and disintegrant (factor B) as per 2 2 factorial design. All the irbesartan tablets formulated disintegrated rapidly within 1 min 25 sec except formulation Fa which disintegrated in 6 min 10 sec. The results of ANOVA of K1 values indicated that the individual effect of binder (Factor A) and combined effects of binder and disintegrant (Factor AB) are highly significant (P < 0.01). Among all, formulation F 1 (tablets prepared employing lactose, acacia and potato
ABSTRACT: Aim of Study: Compare the phyto-pharmacognostical study of Acacia arabica and Prosopis juliflora. Material and Methods: The ethanolic extract of on Acacia arabica and Prosopis juliflora were using physio-chemical parameters and preliminary phytochemical investigation. Results: The present study was aimed at pharma- cognostical study. Plants Acacia arabica and Prosopis juliflora were studies for pharmacognostical characteristic, namely, morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, parameters which can be of utilized in identification and authentication of plants. Methanolic extracts used for the HPTLC analysis. Several medicinal properties have been scientifically established by various workers. Conclusion: In this study, I have done the comparative pharmacognostic study on Acacia arabia and Prosopis juliflora and conclude that the ethanolic extract of Acacia arabica plays a more significant role and has more significant value than the extract of Prosopis juliflora.
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The Standard Proctor compaction test were performed on the untreated as well as soil treated with biopolymer at different proportions of 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 3%. The study of compaction characteristics is essential as it affects the mechanical properties such as shear strength, bearing capacity and settlement. As per the results obtained it is observed that there is slight increase in maximum dry density of soil with the increase in proportion of acacia powder. The maximum dry density of soil has increased from 1.69 g/cc to 1.737 g/cc and optimum moisture content has increased from 19.7% to 22.8% with the inclusion of 3% of acacia powder to soil. The variation in optimum moisture content and maximum dry density is shown in fig. 2
ability to scavenge DPPH radicals. The samples were able to inhibit the activity of DPPH radical. While this antiradical activity depends on the regions, cladodes extract has a very important antioxidant activity. Thus, for the region of ELKELAA, antioxidant activity for cladodes in R1 position is higher than R2 which is higher than R3 (Table.4). The analysis of Table 5 indicates that there is a correlation between polyphenols and antioxidant activity (FRAP), which marks the availability of antioxidant compounds. In addition, a correlation between flavonoids and antioxidant activity (FRAP) was observed, most flavonoids have an antioxidant activity. Similarly, another correlation between polyphenols and flavonoids was observed because the most of polyphenols are flavonoids. The TEAC method is well correlated with FRAP method. It was reported that polyphenols in fruit juice was 642, 28 mg/L, and TEAC 18, 61 mmol/L . However polyphenols in our fruit juice was 171,12 - 396,17mg/l and TEAC 15,37-18,31 mmol Fe2+/L. T ABLE 4 A NTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF CLADODE JUICE OF PRICKLY PEAR
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A study on effects of bush encroachment control techniques on rangeland productivity and tick population dynamics was conducted in Arero district of Borana zone, southern Ethiopia, for three consecutive years. The study targeted two main and dominant encroaching bush species in Borana rangeland, Acacia drepanolobium and Acacia mellifera, and their effects on some vegetation attributes and tick population dynamics. A hectare of rangeland encroached by these two acacia species was replicated/divided into three plots, and each plot was subdivided into five sub-plots to receive five treatments: cutting at 0.5 m above ground and pouring kerosene on stumps (T1), cutting at 0.5 m above ground and debarking the stumps down into the soil surface (T2), cutting at 0.5 m above ground alone (T3), cutting at 0.5 m above ground and dissecting the stumps (T4) and control (T5). Data on basal and litter covers, soil erosion and compaction, dead and re-sprouted encroaching tree/shrub species and nymph- and adult-stage tick populations were collected before and after treatment applications. The applied treatments significantly influenced (p < 0.05) basal cover, nymph- and adult-stage tick population and the two encroaching tree species. The results of this study showed that T3 and T2 were good in controlling A. drepanolobium in that order. T4 and T2 had a significant effect in controlling A. mellifera in their order. Controlling bush encroachment had also a positive effect in eradicating the tick population. The most dominant grass and non-grass species observed after the control actions were Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aucheri, Abutilon hirtum, Pennisetum mezianum, Dyschoriste hildebrandtii, Zaleya pentandra and Eragrostis papposa. Therefore, controlling encroaching tree/shrub species had created a conducive grazing area with palatable herbaceous species for the livestock and unequivocally reduced tick population which play a role in reducing cattle milk production through closing off teats. The management of bush encroachment, if sustained, will contribute in stabilizing rangelands and help minimize the negative effects of feed and food crises in the future.
Almighty God already planned to create the plants before human being in this world. Human has been depending totally on plants till their ends. In India about 17000 plants have good medicinal value. Majority of the world population cannot afford the allopathic drugs and have to depend upon the use of traditional medicines. Plants have variety and huge source of phytochemicals with proven potential of treating communicable infection with lesser side effects compared to the chemotherapeutic agents. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate and determine the sensitivity of crude extracts of two acacia species - Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium against some clinical isolates by agar-well diffusion method. Antibacterial potential of crude extract of leaves was determined by measuring the zone of inhibition. It was concluded from the results that methanolic leaf extracts of both the acacia species were significant antibacterial activity. Therefore, the leaf extracts of these plant has very good sensitivity against clinical isolates and can be selected for further investigation to determine their pharmacological and therapeutic potential.
Since the extracts of Acacia arabicae used in this study have not been tested before as inhibitor of phytopathogenic bacteria, therefore, they are the new addition to this field of study. The presence of various secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, quaternar y alkaloids, coumarins, flavanoids, steroids/ter penoids, phenols etc. have been reported in the various plants extracts 20,21,22 which
An ethno-veterinary survey coupled with a floristic inventory survey was carried out. For the ethno-veterinary survey, information was collected through semi-structured interviews with 80 farmers who were randomly selected from the region. The information collected on the two species of Acacia related to (a) their areas of use for small ruminant rearing, (b) the parts used in feeding and possible treatment of small ruminant diseases, (c) the current availability of the two species, (d) the main reasons for the scarcity of species, and (e) the conservation options for plant species used in small ruminant production.
Natural products and health foods have recently received a lot of attention both by health professionals and the common population for improving overall well-being, as well as in the prevention of diseases. They are notable by the fact that they are locally available but universally erratic and much related information is also limited but they have a health-promoting benefit . The Opuntia genus also known as prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica; Opuntia spp.,Cactaceae) contains around 300 species. It belongs to the Cactaceae or cactus family which contains approximately 130 genera and 1500 species . They are widely distributed on arid and semi-arid regions. The origin of this crop comes from the United States, Mexico, and South America. Its cultivation was spread on other continents . The two species Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia megacantha (Fig.1) are different on their young edible stems called cladodes replacing leaves in their photosynthetic function and which are spineless and spiny respectively . In Morocco, cladodes are generally used as animal feed. We can also have other products like jam or pickles and candied nopales. Prickly pear has also been planted on steep slopes to control erosion .
This work was funded mainly by Intensification of Research in Priority Area (IRPA) grant provided by Ministry of Science, Technology and the Innovative (MOSTI). This work is also partly supported by the scholarship grant from the Acacia project of Trop Bio Research, Universiti Putra Malaysia. We are indepted to Mr Khongsak Pinyopusarerk of CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Australia for providing seeds lots and Mr How Swee the owner of Dunbar Estate, Aur Gading, Kuala Lipis for the establishmant of the field trial. Authors also thank all colleagues for providing support and facilities and those who contributed directly or indirectly to improve this manuscript.
The other minor uses included use of woody species for domestic and com- mercial carvings purpose through the making of a wide range of wooden prod- ucts such as ceremonial stools, domestic equipment such as pans, mortars, pes- tles, and bowls as well as ornamental curios such as African drums, game sculp- tures, and masks for the tourism market. Most elderly Turkana men carry small stools which are known as ekicholong which are also used as simple portable chairs. They can be used instead of sitting on the sand in hot conditions and also double as headrests for keeping one’s head in an elevated position away from the sand to protect ceremonial head decorations from damage. In Turkana, women are also engaged in the basketry and weaving of baskets, mats and brooms using woody species such as Hyphaene compressa and Zizyphus mauritiana . Calotro- pis procera is used in the making of ropes for domestic uses. Woody species es- pecially Grewia tenax and Ficus sycamorous are used in the making of bows and arrows for local security. The species which are commonly used in the fencing of the household compound or manyatta are Acacia nubica , Acacia elatior and Zi- zyphus mauritiana . The woody species which are used in the making of domestic and commercial carvings are likely to be negatively affected by increasing de- mands for especially the area becomes more accessible to the national tourist circuits. Other minor uses of woody species in the area included tobacco flavor- ing using Acacia tortilis and Calotropis procera , traditional tooth brushing using Salvadora persica and milk fermentation.
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In support of the organism’s homeostasis liver plays a great role because in pathological conditions it has the leading place not only in metabolism but in rendering harmless of en- dogen and exogenous toxic substances. Liver plays a role of universal metabolic barrier in the interaction process of a man with environ- ment . Liver diseases for today are one of actual problems of medicine as the liver, car- rying out the functions, plays the important role in ability to live of an organism . The purpose of this work is study of chronic toxic- ity of dry extract on the artichoke prickly basis grown up in Uzbekistan.
In the 1950’s, native tropical savannas on inherently nutrient-poor soils in the Congolese coastal plains in the Republic of the Congo have been afforested using fast growing eucalypt (Makany 1964) with the primary goals of providing both wood for the pulp industry and fuel energy for the rural population (Delwaulle et al. 1978, 1981). Currently these plantations greatly contribute to preserving natural forests, since around 94% of Congolese homes use forest products as fuel in both wood and charcoal (Shure et al. 2010), and mitigate climate change by storing C in both soil and biomass i.e., increased soil C stocks and stand wood biomass (Epron et al. 2013; Koutika et al. 2014). Re- search conducted in the native tropical savannas in the Congolese coastal plains has regional importance. These savannas extend to around 6 million hectares in the countries of Central Africa, e.g., the Demo- cratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon and the Republic of the Congo (Schwartz and Namri 2002). Nutrient supply in these inherently poor soils depends predom- inantly on decomposition of organic residues, since little or no replenishment is made with fertilizers (Laclau et al. 2005). Depletion in nutrient availability occurs rapidly after successive rotations inducing a decline in the productivity of fast-growing plantations (Laclau et al. 2005; Corbeels et al. 2005). As nitrogen- fixing tree species (NFS), acacia has been introduced since the 1990s to restore and improve soil fertility and sustain the productivity of eucalypt plantations in
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