Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC) Manipal Campus, offers Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) program in a twinning mode under the auspices of n the present study, the authors attempted to determine whether faculty members at MMMC perceive adultlearningprinciples as a pathway for professional development. We were also interested in knowing whether any correlation existed between faculty perceptions of adultlearningprinciples and professional development at three levels; individual, interpersonal and A questionnaire comprising items focusing on five adultlearningprinciples (Active threatening Environment, Constructive Feedback, Previous Experiences) was designed. A second questionnaire focusing on professional development at three levels was also designed. Faculty members (n =42) were asked to reflect on the practices Comparison of mean values of five adultlearningprinciples revealed a high mean value for relevant learning followed by constructive feedback, previous experiences, safe environment and active participation. Correlation analysis revealed a strong correlation between active participation and three levels of professional development and also between constructive feedback and three levels he present study intends to provide a framework of professional development which is centered on a few practices based on adultlearningprinciples. This may be helpful for medical schools that lack infrastructure and precise proposals to facilitate faculty development.
The exenatide once-weekly injection device requires users to manipulate a syringe, a vial, and a vial connector. The single-dose kit used in this study contained a syringe pre-filled with diluent, a vial containing the medica- tion placebo (a dry powder), and a vial connector. Administration of a dose involved combining the powder and diluent, mixing the resultant suspen- sion, filling the syringe, and injecting the dose. The PIU were designed with consideration to human factors and adult-learningprinciples such as 1) readability and language, 2) imitation and modeling, and 3) schema con- struction and cognitive load theory (including continuity, coherence, and redundancy effects).
Many research methods courses are amalgamated across a school or faculty. Often it is run by a statistician, usually resulting in a dry presentation of factual statements on types of studies and statistical tests. Additionally, class sizes are large, and contain students from many disciplines, where the non-math specialist can feel isolated and left behind. There may also be a tendency to learn facts in the style of an undergraduate learning the anatomical textbook ad verbatim. This does not promote a level of understanding within the clinician, as in the andragogy process of adultlearning, approaches that are problem-based and collaborative rather than didactic, and that place an emphasis on equality between the teacher and learner are preferred. The educational needs of the health professional in the development of research skills should align to the six principles of adultlearning. Adults are internally motivated and self-directed, bring life experiences and knowledge to learning experiences, are goal oriented, are relevancy oriented, are practical, and like to be respected. Preparing a clinician for the world of research is important to ensure that research based evidence is incorporated into clinical practice. Winn (1995)(5) demonstrated the importance of hands on research practice in an undergraduate setting, in that social science students who typically go on to a career as a
Discussion: Applying principles of curriculum development, adultlearning theory and educational website design may result in improved online educational resources. Key steps in developing and implementing an education website include: 1) Follow established principles of curriculum development; 2) Perform a needs assessment and repeat the needs assessment regularly after curriculum implementation; 3) Include in the needs assessment targeted learners, educators, institutions, and society; 4) Use principles of adultlearning and behavioral theory when developing content and website function; 5) Design the website and curriculum to demonstrate educational effectiveness at an individual and programmatic level; 6) Include a mechanism for sustaining website operations and updating content over a long period of time.
There is a need to include workshops and short courses as informal education and training. These are designed to meet the needs of groups and so are informal to the extent of not having rigorous programs and being followed by exams. They are usually requested by groups and delivered by someone with good technical and facilitation skills. If done correctly, they can complement the formal education component and if learning outcomes are in place, the skills and knowledge learnt in their environment could be used for
Methods: This course was developed and used at The Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and its associated preceptorship sites in the greater Cleveland area. Leaders of a two- year elective continuity experience at the Case Western Reserve School of Medicine used adultlearningprinciples to develop four interactive online modules presenting basics of office practice, difficult patient interviews, common primary care diagnoses, and disease prevention. They can be viewed at http://casemed.case.edu/cpcp/curriculum. Students completed surveys rating the content and technical performance of each module and completed a Generalist OSCE exam at the end of the course.
It is important to revisit Doerr & Murray (2008) who discuss the use of a simulation learning pyramid to guide simulation activities. While this is not technically a framework they do overtly allude to Knowles’s adultlearningprinciples and Kolb’s experiential learning theory as applied to their pyramid of learningprinciples to simulator session design. This is a rare demonstration on how the authors translated that pyramid into curriculum or into programs and scenarios. Zigmont, Kappus and Sudikoff (2011) also make mention of experiential learning and describe the development of a framework based on adultlearning theory, the Kolb Experiential Learning Cycle and the Learning Outcomes Model. Zigmont, Kappus and Sudikoff (2011) called the framework the 3D Model of Debriefing: Defusing, Discovering, and Deepening. In reality it is a two dimensional model however it is designed to assist facilitators of debriefings, providing them with useful phrases, descriptions of reactions to observe for, behavioural analysis strategies and how to incorporate new information (knowledge, skills) into clinical practice. Zigmont, Kappus and Sudikoff (2011) believe it enhances learning both in the simulation or real environment. While it only focuses on one aspect of simulation this is one of the few frameworks used as an educational tool and in keeping with the concept of a conceptual framework.
The past decade has seen numerous efforts to restructure or reform school and licenciatura English programs in Colombia. Some of these efforts have been spurred by dissatisfaction with student performance in learning English (COFE PROJECT, 1992), others by research ﬁndings that have provided edu- cators with additional information about how to create, implement, and assess instructional programs. Still other restructuring plans have evolved through the efforts of teachers who have been encouraged to become directly involved in decision making in the schools and pressed by a society that is demanding more proﬁcient English users at all levels of education.
Adultlearning theory was formalized by Knowles (1978) and was developed into a method and practice of teaching adult learners called andragogy. Knowles’ writing is based on the historical work of Eduard Lindeman (1926) who believed learning was a life-long goal and should be understood at the adult level in order to foster desire to learn on a continual basis throughout all stages of life. He states, “If learning is to be revivified, quickened so as to become once more an adventure, we shall have need of new concepts, new motives, new methods; we shall need to experiment with the qualitative aspects of education” (p. 5). Knowles (1978) picked up his research where Lindeman left off and began to focus on how adults were successful with life-long learning habits and what connections could be made about learning theories. Knowles based his theory of adultlearning on Lindeman’s (1926) main concepts: a) adults are motivated to learn as they experience needs that learning will satisfy; b) learning is self-centered through life situations; c) experience is the richest resource; d) adults have a deep need to be self- directing; and e) adult learners need individualized learning.
The researchers on this project found the idea of the ‘learning journey’ immensely useful in encouraging learners to reflect on and discuss their learning. It is a use we can extend to help us think about patterns of progression in adultlearning. The journey is purposeful, but there may not be a specific destination in mind and the route is not always direct. A broad range of open-access provision within which adults can gather experience of learning forms a vital part of the infrastructure for progression. Adults need learning pathways that are accessible to them and meet their individual needs. Neither their motivations nor the mix of learning oppor tunities they choose may fit in with the concepts of curriculum planners or funding bodies. Boundaries between academic, adult and fur ther education, and qualification- and non-qualification-bearing courses are frequently crossed. Findings based on learners in adult and community learning and FE colleges show that while there is a pattern of movement from non-accredited into qualification courses and some movement up in terms of level, lateral progression is also impor tant and well-qualified learners take ‘lower level’ courses which provide the learning they seek ( Reisenberger and Sanders 1997 ) .
Research has shown that learners possess a large variety of learning styles and preferences. For example, some people learn best from visual material, others from auditory material, and still others learn best through hands-on experience with the material. In addition, learners use many different strategies for communicating, and these vary greatly from one student to another.
Learning objectives cannot always be assessed as competencies – easy to demonstrate and either achieved or not. To attempt to encapsulate learning in a list of competencies is to take a narrow view of it. People on the same programme will engage with the content at different levels. ACL learning objectives are often broad. There may be only four or five which will be used to assess overall achievement at the end. Tutors develop skills in wording them in ways which will allow them to observe whether learning has taken place. For example, where a learning objective is to understand the philosophy of Kant it will be expressed using verbs such as ‘explain, relate, compare, make a case for or against…’ rather than ‘understand’. This encourages active learning and helps learners
Cognition is at the core of educational and all activity among sentient life. Yet, not enough settings, including educational settings, consciously apply cogni- tive principles. The value of including cognition in the education of all beings is clear, developing thinking and knowledge. It is of particular importance to incorporate cognitive theory into the training of teachers to further applica- tion of cognition in the instruction of all students. This research describes the creation of an online course dedicated toward facilitating the development of understanding of cognition and critical thinking in education and furthering its application by teachers in instruction, learning, and assessment.
We casually referred to campus education and distance learning. This seems a clear distinction, one happens on campus or within campus universities, the other does not. Many campus universities now however exploit digital technologies to reach larger distant markets and reach out to students who may study entirely remotely and entirely online. So campus universities can have significant proportions of distance learning students. Online learning, Digital learning most-learning and virtual learning are apparently synonymous and interchangeable and are merely the preferred delivery mechanism form outdistance clearing. They are however never the sole delivery mechanism for either campus universities of distance learning hence the use of the rather vague term, blended learning, to denote that digital learning is combined in some unspecified proportion with one or more other modalities. We shall see the consequences of this confusion when we look at the global picture.
life context, particularly when multiple sources of evidence are used and the boundaries between the phenomena and context are poorly defined. Although the boundaries between the phenomena and the context may be poorly defined as in the kitchen garden, the case must have some boundaries (Merriam 1998; Stake 1995). Three main types of case studies have been defined by Stake according to the case study goal: intrinsic, instrumental and collective (Crowe et al. 2001; Stake 1995. A case study undertaken to learn about a unique phenomenon is labelled an intrinsic case study. Case studies that aim for a broad understanding of a phenomena or problem are labelled instrumental case studies. Where multiple case studies are examined, to gain a broader understanding of the phenomena or problem, they are called “collective” case studies (Crowe et al. 2001; Stake 1995). The advantage of developing more than one case study lies in the ability to make comparisons or to check whether themes or the theory are replicated. The reader is left to judge whether the case study “resonates” with their experience (Stake 1995). A case study approach is an appropriate “holistic” way to frame the research. It is an appropriate method for this research because the natural, real-life contexts of the kitchen and the garden were central to the research. The two embedded cases were bounded; they explored the learning experience of clusters of students at three grade levels within two units of work at one semi-rural primary school, and the role the teachers’ planning, pedagogy and practices shaped the learning outcomes of the two units. Although the units of work were of different durations (the kitchen garden unit was timetabled throughout the year and the Pantry Plunder Unit only went for ten weeks in length), the two cases used broadly comparable multiple data sources for evidence (Figure 3.1). While the prior knowledge of the researcher built up by previous experience teaching the Kitchen Garden Unit, made grounded theory inappropriate, it may be beneficial in case study research and contribute to insights and understanding of the case. Stake created a checklist of criteria to be considered when assessing the quality of a case study report (Appendix C).
Johnson, Johnson and Holubec (2007) present a six step procedure for teaching collaborative skills. The procedure focuses on one skill at a time. First, students need to understand the importance of the collaborative skill and second, what the skill involves, as to verbal (the words used) and non- verbal (gestures, facial expressions, emoticons) elements. Third, students practice the skill apart from class content, that is, they work just on the skill, e.g., via a game or role play, without paying attention to the topic the class is studying. Fourth, students then combine use of the skill with learning of class content. Fifth, students discuss how well they, individually and as a group, are using the skill and how they might improve. Sixth, because time on task is often needed for students to reach the level of natural use of a collaborative skill, students persevere in practicing the skill. Teaching of collaborative skills may be especially important in online environments, such as discussion boards, email and social networks, as these environments present new challenges, requiring variations of the skills appropriate in face to face environments. For example, students can add emoticons, thumbs up symbols and other symbols or send online greetings cards to express such collaborative skills as praising and thanking others.
Under the mega background of world economic globalization, multicultural predominance, linguistic variety, and cross-cultural communication, the teaching principle of foreign language is bound to reflect the feature of internalization and multicultural integration. The principle of intercultural teaching approach is the modern approach adapted to the current situation and the challenge of foreign language teaching. In the course of college English teaching, this principle should be implemented in the establishment of English teaching concept and the practice of English teaching class, and meanwhile, English teachers should take advantage of multimediality and multimodality to promote intercultural communication and mutual understanding. With the popular use of information technology, teachers and students tend to be influenced by the world and domestic affairs and cultural clashes, so intercultural knowledge and communication capabilities become necessarily cultural and linguistic elements to empower the qualities of the college students. Interculturality is the inborn factor of college English teaching, which represents not only the major part of the foreign language teaching objectives and curriculum establishment for English teachers, but also the main section of learning contents and communication patterns for English learners.
Scholarship of Integration (L, E, A): In this sphere, faculty and candidates en- gage in the review and analysis of education policy, integrative models across disciplines, literature review and use all these to develop transdisciplinary educa- tional programs and projects. Further, CSOE faculty is active and present at na- tional and international conferences, serve on the leadership of professional or- ganizations and contribute to journal articles. These are examples of how CSOE demonstrates the scholarship of integration. The guiding principles and candi- date competencies are framed with the understanding that effective learning en- vironments are social and collaborative in nature (Vygotsky, 1978).
Although it is generally taken for granted that dental education now include biosciences, questions still remain about its usefulness and the best methods to teach it to dental students. This paper intends to explore the questions: how does bioscience knowledge in dental education help students become more professional, competent dentists? And if so what are the most effective teaching and learning methods to facilitate student learning outcomes and experiences? In exploring these questions, this paper will discuss and develop a rationale for curriculum design principles for bioscience dentistry subjects aimed to more effectively embed the relevance of bioscience in a dental curriculum. The paper will also provide an example of applying these principles for the redesign of a dental bioscience subject (Dental Science A) at La Trobe University. This is a core subject in first semester of first year as a part of the Bachelor of Health Science in Dentistry/Master of Dentistry course (that covers physiology, biochemistry and anatomy). It is an undergraduate level entry dentistry course, unlike some other universities in Australia that are only post graduate-entry level courses. Undergraduate level entry students build upon the science knowledge they gained from school, and require prerequisites of Victorian Certificate of Education Units 3 & 4 in Biology and Chemistry. Given the competition for places and high grades necessary to gain entry into dentistry, dental students are generally academic high achievers. Nonetheless, the quality of students learning is related to the quality of students approach to learning (Biggs, 1989; Trigwell & Prosser, 1991). The aim is to therefore to develop curriculum design principles for this particular cohort of students to foster a deep approach to learning in bioscience and improve learning outcomes and experiences, to better relate and compliment bioscience with clinical disciplines and ultimately produce more competent dentists in the future.