The authors could collect data on unexpected breakdowns of printingmachines for a long period of time at Alföldi Printing Plant Plc., Hungary’s largest book printing plant. A computer-assisted system could continuously record the basic data of the important processing machines. The historical datasets were set as the starting point for our analysis. The continuous data collection was carried out on the most important processing machines of Alföldi Printing Plant Plc. During the monitoring the machines were replaced from time to time following the technological development. We monitored 65 printingmachines. These represent the previous, current and following generations. Their age varied between 1 and 27 years and 22 completely new machines were purchased during our monitoring. Every machine was operated at a specific site, the centre site of Alföldi Printing Plant.
“Reflecting on the last year since installation, we are most satisfied with our decision to invest in the Göpfert printingmachines,” concludes Mr von Liel. “Hans KOLB Wellpappe is a leading producer of decorative packaging and the investment at our Buxheim facility underlines our commitment to our people and our customers.” ■ The control desk of
Controlling the occurrence of defects is a major challenge for manufacturing organizations that are seeking to enhance their competitive position in today’s global market. T his paper considers the process of screen-printing T -shirts using hydraulic and pneumatic printingmachines. Several defects in the output of this printing process have been observed, especially with multi colors printing as well as maintenance problems. T he six-sigma DMADV approach has been implemented to improve the process performance. Modifications of the current printing machine design using mistake proofing principles that have been proposed to prevent or diminish the occurrence of defects. T he analysis indicates that manipulation of wrong oriented products of T-shirts printingmachines can be considered as the main effective problem results from machines that are driven by hydraulic or pneumatic systems. Consequently, the quality level and productivity are affected. Moreover, some stained products with leakage fluid from the hydraulic systems can appear. Relying on the DMADV process, an effective mechanical mechanism using Geneva cams was used for diminishing these problems. Geneva cams prototype is manufactured to be used in printingmachines instead of the hydraulic or pneumatic systems. A prototype of the cams mechanism is used for testing and validating the presented idea.
All digital printingmachines need to refresh the image before each page is printed. This means that every page in a continuous printing run can be different. This is a perfect printing technology for people who want to place personalized information in each document that they print and mail in bulk. This technology also allows an entire book to be printed one copy at a time. Your local library might soon have an Espresso Book Machine to print books on demand. Type “Espresso Book Machine” into your favorite search engine to fi nd out more.
In the actual digital printing process, the designer's original document, which provides the color (source color), needs to be identified by the color conversion system. Then it needs to be converted to the output device (as the destination color), and printed on the fabric. In this process, ensuring that the color remains accurate during conversion to the digital printing process is a critical issue. Therefore, color management in digital printing is essential. According to Kan and Yuen (2012), in an ideal color management system, CAD color management software (such as RIP) should be able to cooperate with the printer and convey information accurately. The color system mobilizes the color information within the database and integrates it with the fabric information to ensure that the color distribution system operates correctly and efficiently. Of course, prior to printing, color calibration appropriate for the specific printing environment is essential to ensure that a combination of specific dyes and digital printingmachines can produce rich, accurate, high quality products.
regardless of the type of printing process, its objective (conventional or functional) and the substrate, determination of the optimum process parameters is imperative to achieve the desired print quality. In all screen printing processes, a hydrodynamic pressure is developed in the wedge of print paste that lies between the squeegee and the screen (Dubey, 1975). The quantity of paste that is forced out of the screen depends on this hydrodynamic pressure which in turn depends on the squeegee angle, base length of the pressure zone, speed of movement of squeegee, paste viscosity and screen pore radius (Yen et al., 2011) (Lin et al., 2008) (Thompson, 1995). In addition, other factors that influence ink transfer in screen printing include the ingredients of the ink system and the screen specifications (Piao et al., 2008) (Hawkyard and Miah, 1987). Detailed accounts on the effects of printing parameters on print paste consumption have been reported for flat screen printing (Dowds, 1970) as well as for rotary screen printingmachines (Lomas and Short, 1999). Due to the aforementioned factors, the ink film thickness can be varied considerably in screen printing (Huebler et al., 2002). This is particularly beneficial in case of functional printing due to the following reasons. In case of printing of electrically conductive inks or of inks possessing any other type of functionality, it is imperative to achieve the desired print quality in terms of appearance of the print as well as in terms of functionality of the print. In such cases, besides the total amount of ink transferred onto the substrate, the integrity of the deposited ink layer is also of prime importance. For instance, if a given amount of ink is smeared over a larger area of the substrate then the resulting ink film thickness will be less compared to the same amount of ink printed over a smaller area of the same substrate. It is to be noted that the thickness of ink layer is often regarded as the prime characteristic to control in case of functional printing (Pudas et al., 2004).
If the practising company is unable to document their electricity consumption on the basis of direct settlement with an electricity supplier (e.g. an in-house printing shop), the practising company shall install electricity metres and read off the annual consumption. If the electricity supply is not central, the practising company must as a minimum install electricity metres on all printingmachines or alternatively, calcu- late electricity consumption (Watt hours) for printingmachines by means of power (Watt) which is given in product safety data sheets of machines and real operating time (hours). The total quantity of electricity used (electricity consumption meas- ured for the printingmachines and other electricity consumption (excluding electric- ity consumption for heating) is calculated by multiplying measured electricity con- sumption from the printingmachines by a factor of 2.86. If the practising company is unable to document their heating/cooling use on the basis of direct settlement with a supplier (e.g. an in-house printing plant), and the printing company does not use electricity for heating, the practising company must calculate their total energy con- sumption by calculating heat consumption on the basis of the heat consumption of the building and adding this to electricity consumption. The printing plant’s share of the total heat consumption of the building is calculated on the basis of floor space of the printing plant relative to the heated area in the building as a whole. Any floor space that is to be excluded from this calculation must be approved in advance by Nordic Ecolabelling.
pumps other than air conditioning machines -183.05 -264.29 44.38 66 90 91 8450 Household or laundry-type washing machines, including machines which both wash and dry -67.56 -97.87 44.87 65 91 92 8501 Electric motors and generators (excluding generating sets) -3,486.39 -5,099.18 46.26 64 92 93 8509 Electro-mechanical domestic appliances, with self-contained electric motor -1,204.19 -1,772.22 47.17 63 93
Two other supply-side controls included in the analysis are the city’s distance to Wittenberg and its distance to Zürich. 24 The former is shown by Becker and Wößmann (2008, 2009, 2010) to be correlated with the spread of Protestantism in Prussia, and the latter is included to account for the fact that Huldrych Zwingli based his Protestant revolt out of Zürich, and many of the Swiss and southern German cities that converted did so as a result of Zwingli’s efforts. 25 It can clearly be seen in Figure 1 that there is a strong geographical component to the spread of the Reformation around both Wittenberg and Zürich. Moreover, Dittmar (2011) shows that the spread of printing is related to distance from Mainz – hence not controlling for distance to Wittenberg and Zürich may falsely indicate that printing (and not proximity to Wittenberg or Zürich) had an effect on acceptance of Protestantism. A city’s distance to Wittenberg and Zürich, in combination with nation (as of 1500) and Imperial Circle (in the Holy Roman Empire) 26 fixed effects, serves to control for the spatial component of the Reformation. Summary statistics of all variables for all European cities in the sample are listed in Table 5. 27
In India, there is a set of printing industry players which are growing systematically and regularly. These players do not belong to any specific region of India but are scattered all over the country. Nevertheless, India, like many other countries, has industrial development zones and printers are attracted to these areas because they find concentrations of suppliers and customers in them. This has resulted in clusters of printing companies which are located in: (1) North India (Amritsar, Delhi, Faridabad), (2) West India (Ahmedabad, Bombay), and (3) South India (Bangalore, Coimbatore, Madras)
Various researchers have acknowledged the potential of EP for functional applications , and attempts to achieve multilayer printing electrostatically as early as the 1950’s  have implemented a conventional transfer method revealing its inherent shortcomings [244, 261, 262]. Defects develop when toner layers are stacked successively exceeding heights from 0.04 to ~3mm, however researchers have rarely illustrated the defects, and instead show proposed alternate transfer solutions . Due to the lack of published examples, as part of this research, both the field dependent success of this transfer method (up to 15 layers thick, see §126.96.36.199) and its shortcomings as enumerated in the literature were demonstrated (see Table 7.34) in a preliminary study, which may be a useful frame of reference for comparison with the following approaches.
No construction is possible without bricks. Since many centuries brick making has been practiced by human beings. Presently, bricks are easily made by using machines using new technologies. Generally two types of bricks are manufactured by using machines that are concrete block machines and clay brick machines. Different types of automatic machines use different techniques to make bricks. The raw materials used by the machines for making interlocking bricks are fly ash, sand lime, iron oxide, lime sludge, quarry wastes etc.
Die-cutting Cutting a paper product with a die. This usually refers to steel-rule die- cutting, where shaped cuts are made to printed products on a letterpress machine. Common uses include cutting slits for a business card to be inserted on a booklet, or cutting the ﬂaps on pocket-folders. Flexographic printing uses rotary die-cutting, which is done on the printing press. Rotary dies are capable of intricate detail and extraordinary precision. Embossing Producing a raised image in paper by means of a die striking from the back of the paper into a counter-die at the front. Embossing can be simple, called blind- embossing, where the paper is squeezed in the die-counter-die pair, causing an image or shape to be raised. Embossing can also be more complex, involving colored or metallic foils, or textures and heat, each of which im- parts an image with both relief and color.
Thin-film PV technologies have huge potential to spread into a wide range of off-grid end-use areas where autonomous energy harvesting is needed . In the case of organic photovoltaics (OPV), flexible, lightweight and ultra-thin device stack can be obtained using well- established and widely used roll-to-roll (R2R) mass- production methods under ambient atmosphere . OPV modules have been fabricated using various R2R compat- ible printing [3–9] and coating techniques [10–13]; how- ever, the use of coating methods limits the ability to directly pattern arbitrary, custom-shaped two-dimensional features [14, 15] which is considered to be a key factor for the successful commercialization of OPVs as recently recognized by many commercial players although technical data concerning the functionality is not available. In effect, customization of OPV is the key advantage of using printing over coating thus unlimited designs to any two-dimensional shape is possible, giving true design free- dom for OPVs and electrical connections in the modules. Design of freedom is especially important in building inte- grated and interior energy harvesting applications . Currently, there are only few papers dealing with truly two-dimensional-patterned OPV modules. Eggenhuisen et al. fabricated ink-jet printed single solar cells in the
Table 26. World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Other Grinding Machines by Geographic Region - The United States, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East & Africa and Latin America Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales in US$ Million for Years 2013 through 2020 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-6
Birjandi, P., Norouzi, M. and Mahmoodi, G. (1376/1997). English book (1). Tehran: Iranian Educational Textbooks Printing and Publishing Company. Birjandi, P., Norouzi, M. and Mahmoodi, G. (1373/1994). English book (2). Tehran: Iranian Educational Textbooks Printing and Publishing Company. Birjandi, P., Norouzi, M. and Mahmoodi, G. (1376/1997). English book (3). Tehran: Iranian Educational Textbooks Printing and Publishing Company. Allen, W. (1985). Toward cultural proficiency. in A.C, Omaggio (ed.). Proficiency, curriculum, articulation: The ties that bind (pp.137-166). Middlebury, VT: Northeast Conference.
However, the right materials and techniques used are still not being established yet especially on textile materials. Most of them are still under development stages. Furthermore, to enhance the conductivity of the ink track as a part of printing process, a proper control of curing process is essential to prevent under-cure and over- cure phenomenon which reducing the conductivity of the tracks. Therefore, this study is to investigate the feasibility of printing conductive ink using silkscreen printing method on textile material which it will focus on finding the right materials (inks) and technique to be used for printing and curing a pre-defined electronics structure on textile materials. The performance of the electronics structure printed is evaluated and the relationship between the variations of curing parameters used to the conductivity obtained are also determined.
Landa Nanography. Landa Nanography is an offset inkjet printing technology which is capable of printing ultrathin, sharp edged dots on a wide variety of substrates. In flexible packaging, the Landa W10 press is Landa’s candidate for this market. However, the speed of Landa W10 is 100 meters per minute, which doesn’t adequately meet the requirement for high output in flexible packaging. As a result, the Landa W10 was excluded from the researcher’s analysis of the flexible packaging market segment. On the other hand, Landa technology is being offered for the folding carton market in the form of the Landa S10 sheetfed press. This press is currently operating at a limited number of beta sites and is fully capable of meeting the functional requirements of the folding carton market. Thus, the Landa S10 was selected as the primary next