In the recent situation of Networking system, cloud Computing is very important concept for both the developers and users. But security is the major challenging issue in cloud computing. Without appropriate security and privacy measures designed for clouds, this potentially revolutionizing computing paradigm could become a huge failure. Data security has become the vital issue of cloud computing security. Interoperability means easily moving the workloads from one cloud to another. The interoperability used case has the basic and first important requirement of secure and safer user authentication and authorization. The main idea behind this study was to take a first step towards cloud security. The preliminary or the most basic attack possibility of user access is checked upon by using different algorithms. Each algorithm uses different protocols in view of providing best possible check to user authentication and authorization.
Current solutions for protecting Internet users from frauds are either blocking – forcing the users to decide upon one out of a set of given actions  – or non-blocking. The latter leave it to the user to check warnings or not . SSL-certificate visualizations of current browsers fall into this category. The third and final approach is using teaching mechanism to train the users to behave more securely and how to identify threats [80, 119]. Reasons why such mechanisms fail are manifold. Habituation effects are an often cited problem that describe a situation in which users mix up important warnings with unimportant warnings they are often confronted with . Overlooking warnings , plain lack of interest in security , lack of required knowledge  and wrong mental models  are another few that have to be mentioned. With ambient security visualization, we are currently conducting work on a fourth approach which can be seen as a non-blocking system. As opposed to them, by using ambient information rather than graphical user interfaces, such a system does not occupy any screen real estate. At the same time, very strong (or intense) notifications can be used that are less likely to be overseen by a user. We are not aware of any related work that employs ambient information to transport privacy and security relevant information or warnings to a user. Therefore, this can be considered a new subfield of Internet security research. First results indicate that ambient visualization has various advantages compared to GUI-based security warnings.
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Contribution. The outlined issues clearly show the immediate need for standardized privacy-aware authentication mechanisms in the IoT, as otherwise tracking of specific tags becomes trivial. Even though privacy-aware authentication protocols already exist, these ex- isting protocols do not allow standard-conform implementations. Therefore, we first evaluate existing Internet security protocols regarding their suitability for privacy-aware authentica- tion protocols, and find that only IPsec provides a way to integrate privacy-aware protocols. Hence, we pick up the ideas of an Internet of Things based on IPsec technology and advance the field of security and privacy by designing a privacy-aware mutual authentication mecha- nism which is IPsec conform. Thereby, we get rid of proprietary solutions and protocols which represent a significant drawback in the context of the Internet of Things. Furthermore, since existing privacy models either deal with proprietary protocols, consider tag-only authenti- cation, or have been shown to be flawed, we adapt the privacy model of Hermans et al.  (HPVP) to formally prove the privacy and security properties of the presented mutual au- thentication protocol. Our privacy-aware authentication protocol is wide-strong private and is conform with the IPsec standard. A performance estimation and a comparison of our protocol against existing (proprietary) protocols complete our contribution.
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WBAN should establish a secure communication with another WBAN to protect patient’s privacy and prevent hacking into the network and periodically updates the user’s medical record. When dealing with medical applications, it is imperative that a system should provide great security and authenticity - between users or personal devices in WBAN to make an effective system. A unique challenge for secure communication in WBAN is the communication between nodes, which should not share any sensitive information, especially access to patient data must be strictly limited only to authorized users. In order to accomplish the system security and to facilitate the authentication process, the cryptographic based approach is utilized, which is an Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) algorithm - is enabled in this paper.
The prime concern is the security and privacy during the transmissions of the resources in Cloud. The study shows that many companies like facebook, Amazon, Google are bit concerned about the data which should be kept confidential to share with other companies with high bandwidth rate with having less delay. Choice of Database is a crucial component in the software stack of many cloud hosted applications . The various existential issues associated with the cloud server are:
In attempt to identify the interactions that result in privacy violation from law perspective, four types of violation categories are presented above. Each of which can represent various circumstances that individuals or machines confront in open environments. For instance, the first category asserts on respecting people’s solitude and private avocations. This implies that the actions performed by an entity in its private life are being monitored by another entity apart from their awareness. This is equivalent to the privacy concerns related to “information collection” and “information processing”. Currently, digital life is an inseparable part of individuals’ activities . However, mainly, all the individual’s online private affairs and activities are usually monitored and recorded by service providers. Software and machines are installed in many locations to observe and analyze human interactions. The motivations supporting these systems are tailored to improving business, security, better consumer support, safety, efficiency and many human perspectives. Yet, such motivations has brought about and created a tremendous challenge related to privacy in Cyberspace. Nonetheless, legal efforts are directed to finding solutions that can mitigate the issue by eliminating unnecessary monitoring and controlling tasks. The second Category implies the concern of public exposure of information, which might cause humiliation and embarrassments for individuals . This is due to the sharing an individual’s information to others without having the necessary consent. This form of privacy concerns is referred as secondary use whenever a third party is involved. With the explosion of Internet Media and personal pages in various web sites, individuals experience levels of disconcertion when their information is used in other contexts. Personal information is excessively spreading among Internet services and in noticeable amount of cases; it has been disseminated to other providers or publicly exposed.
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be improved. It can be concluded that due to the dynamically changing topology and ad-hoc environment which is not centralized, and no security and power awareness is hard to achieve in mobile ad hoc networks. The security and power awareness mechanisms should be built-in features for all class of applications based on ad hoc network. The focus of the study is on these issues in our future research work and effort will be made to propose a solution for routing in Ad Hoc networks by tackling these core issues of secure and power aware/energy efficient routing. The evaluation and impact of different mobility models on the performance of MANET routing protocols [16, 17, 18, 19, 20]. They have proposed various protocol independent metrics to capture interesting mobility characteristics, including spatial and temporal dependence and geographic restrictions. In addition, a rich set of parameterized mobility models is introduced including Random Waypoint, Group Mobility, Freeway and Manhattan models. Based on these models several ’test-suite’ scenarios are chosen carefully to span the metric space. They demonstrated the utility of test suite by evaluating various MANET routing protocols, including DSR, AODV and DSDV. Results show that the protocol performance may vary drastically across mobility models and performance rankings of protocols may vary with the mobility models used. This effect can be explained by the interaction of the mobility characteristics with the connectivity graph properties.
Research has shown that online merchants can have a substantial effect on influencing institution based trust by implementing security measures that ensure transactional security (Benassi 1999; Bhimani 1996). The perception of risks associated with system dependent uncertainty, that is, concerns about the functional and security aspects that could arise from use of an EPI for payment purposes, can be strongly influenced by a merchant’s behavioural actions that aim to reduce infrastructure-related concerns and increase trust in the instrument. Chellappa (2002) argued that trust would be favourably influenced by an increase in perceptions of security and privacy in electronic transactions. In a Web survey of 502 cases of Internet banking users Suh and Han (2003) found that customer perceived strength of non- repudiation, privacy protection, and data integrity were important determinants of e- commerce acceptance. It is therefore proposed that consumer perceptions of security are likely to be engendered through visible mechanisms such as privacy statements, authentication, integrity, non-repudiation, payment review and confirmation.
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Now a days, Internet is an essential part of the day to day life of many people. Most of the person’s choice is to search information, conduct business and enjoy entertainment on the Internet. At the same time internet has become the primary platform used by miscreants to attack users. Attackers that use malicious websites to install malware programs by exploiting browser vulnerabilities. Malicious web content has become one of the most effective mechanisms for cyber criminals to distribute malicious code. Attackers frequently use drive-by-download exploits to compromise a large number of users. In a drive-by-download attack, the attacker first crafts malicious client-side scripting code that targets vulnerability in a web browser or in one of the browser plugins.
The token based systems are based on the use of a physical device such as electronic-key or smartcards for authentication purpose. Here initially a token is provided to the user. The token contains a piece of data generated by the server. Server uses this information to identify a particular user and the validity of the token. After validation of the token by the server, user is authorized to access the desired service. E-passports, Smart cards, and Bank cards are examples of the tokens for authentication. For authentication users have to carry the tokens . Tokens are susceptible to loss due to deformation, destruction and theft etc. Tokens are also used in conjunction with the traditional password based system. These systems are vulnerable to man-in-the middle attacks where an intruder intercepts the user’s session and records the credentials by acting as a proxy between the user and the authentication device without the knowledge of the user.
access to their participants through hiding their IP address. In anonymizing network users share their data with another network services, for accessing one user to other user data communication process . User performance is main task in current days. For observe this of task efficiently, nymble a misbehaving user sensing mechanism can be developed. Mobile crowd sensing (MCS) is one of the concept which plays important roles in different areas such as monitoring traffic and health monitoring by taking data shared by users by analysis. Major concern in mobile crowd sensing is data transitions may lead to leakage of private data such as IP address and identities, when they share data to any third entity. In this paper we give how we provide anonymous authentication scheme to the user who share their important data to any third party.
The cloud storage is now fast status because it offers a supple on-demand data outsourcing service with attractive benefits: that relief of the storage management, worldwide data access with location independence, and evading of capital expenditures on hardware and software maintenance etc., . however, this new pattern of data hosting service also bring new security threats toward users data, this making persons or enterprisers still feel hesitant. Provider may act dishonestly; attempt to hide data loss or corruption and claiming that the files are still properly stored in the cloud for repute or fiscal reasons. Thus it makes great sense for users to apply an efficient protocol to perform journal verifications of their outsourced data tonsure that the cloud indeed maintains their data properly. Many mechanisms dealing with integrity of outsourced data without a local copy have been future under different system and safety model up to nowhere is no need for Alice to get hold of Bob's public key corticated. When Bob receives the encrypted mail associates a third revelry, which we call the Private Key Generator (PKG). Bob authenticates himself to the PKG in the same way would authenticate himself to a CA and obtain his personal key from the PKG. though, both of them are intended for private audit, only the data owner is permitted to verify the honesty and repair the faulty servers. Bearing in mind the big size of the outsource data and the user’s unnatural resource capacity, the tasks of auditing and reparation in clouds can be formidable and luxurious for the
Message authentication is important for many applications in sensor networks. Within the building sensor network, authentication is necessary for many administrative tasks (e.g. network reprogramming or controlling sensor node duty cycle). At the same time, an Adversary can easily inject messages, so the receiver needs to make sure that the data used in any decision-making process originates from the correct source. Informally, data authentication allows a receiver to verify that the data really was sent by the claimed sender.
Immediately the MS sends an authorization request message to BS. It consists of authorization Key and secret security association ID. After having proved the identity of MS, the BS sends authentication reply to mobile station. It activates AK. AK encrypted with RSA based algorithm with SS’s public key. Authentication Key has sequence number which is used to distinguished between successive generation of AK
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Abstract. Multi-operator wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have attracted increasingly attentions as a low-cost accessing approach for future large-scale mobile network. Security and privacy are two important objectives during the deployment of multi-operator WMNs. Despite the necessity, limited literature research takes both privacy and user experience into account. This motivates us to develop PPS, a novel privacy-preserving security scheme, for multi-operator WMNs. On one hand, most of the privacy needs are satisfied with the hybrid utilization of a tri-lateral pseudonym and a ticket based on proxy blind signature. On the other hand, the sophisticated unlinkability is implemented where mobile user is able to keep his pseudonym unchanged within the same operator in order to gain better user experience. PPS is presented as a suite of authentication and key agreement protocols built upon the proposed three-tire hierarchical network architecture. Our analysis demonstrates that PPS is secure and outperforms other proposal in terms of communication and computation overhead.
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Cloud computing offers its flexibility and dynamic nature as far as its entrance to assets whenever and anyplace. All information and different assets in cloud stockpiling are overseen and controlled by the Cloud Service Provider. They give security and guarantee that the information is shielded and free from any powerlessness. Be that as it may, giving privacy through authentication component is a major test. The greater part of the present authentication plans depend on trusted third party to distinguish and confirm user's qualification which can prompt straightforwardness issue. Keeping in mind the end goal to guarantee for a secured exchange, they need to protect user's privacy from being uncovered. The uncover data of user's qualification will make it less demanding for aggressor to pick up the data for getting to ordered information. They can block and control user's identity to access touchy information of user in the cloud stockpiling. This issue can be comprehended by presenting anonymity includes in the authentication conspire by concealing the user's data and to shield the user's identity from getting manhandled. Anonymity will secure user's identity by concealing the genuine users' identity amid the authentication procedure particularly when users host to manage third gathering in their correspondence. The risk does originate from outside aggressor as well as originates from interior party who has full specialist access to the server. This paper proposed an unknown authentication conspire which is a blend of password-based authentication and anonymity include so as to safeguard user's privacy without including the trusted third party amid the authentication procedure. Subsequently, it can ensure a secured exchange with anonymity highlights to secure user's privacy. This paper additionally displays the depiction of information privacy and security which can impact user's trust in utilizing cloud services. Security investigation depictions of conceivable attacks to the proposed conspire are additionally introduced in this paper. The Secure Remote Password (SRP) convention is utilized for this venture with some improvement to calculation. Later on, the proposed plan will be tried with a portion of the conceivable assault dangers to demonstrate that it is secured against the assault. The noteworthy of this exploration is to protect user's privacy with unknown password-based authentication in the cloud condition with no necessity to trusted third party which can oppose from powerlessness to attacks.
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Although LBS has the benefit of providing location specific information to a user, it comes at the cost of privacy. As the user accesses the LBS applications, she will reveal location details and sensitive personal information such as where she lives, her lifestyle (for example, visiting a hospital, restaurant, or cinema), etc. When the user position is revealed, there is possibility that the user’s location may get attacked or could be misused for mugging or stalking by allowing an adversary to infer delicate information of user movements. The usage of these services may raise severe location privacy concerns as discussed in , . Privacy issues in mobile networks have been well studied in the literature , . There are a number of surveys that talk about the state of the art techniques , .
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ABSTRACT: Cloud computing is one of the popular technologies that aims to provide delivery and storage capabilities as a service to users. In general terms we can define cloud computing as the one that delivers services that are hosted over the web. Cloud services provide on-demand applications while ignoring the limitations of the native infrastructures. During the information accessing, different users can be in a mutual relationship which stresses on the importance of knowledge sharing in order to attain better performance. The existing security solutions generally focus on authentication procedures where a user’s private knowledge cannot be accessed without proper authorization, however neglecting the privacy issue. This could reveal user’s private information regardless of the information access permissions being granted or not. Therefore, we can use SAPA protocol in which shared access authority is achieved by anonymous access request matching mechanism to handle the privacy issue in cloud.
Authentication in cloud computing ensures that the proper entity or person is getting access to the provided data from the cloud technology provider. When authentication is ensured in the cloud computing, it means that the user’s identity is proved to the cloud service provider when accessing the stored information in the cloud. Public and private types of cloud are using various designs for authentication with RSA. RSA cryptosystem accepted different models for authentication like two factor authentication, knowledge-based authentication, and adaptive authentication. AWS (Amazon Web Services) is concentrated on the confidential information transfer between the web server and the browser including virtual private cloud . In this context different authentication schemes are implemented, such as multifactor authentication, access management, AWS identity. Figure 1 presents the multifactor authentication procedure from AWS. There is also a technique for authentication that is allowing users to use just one password in order to authenticate themselves to multiple services . With this technique the users are prone to honeypot and dictionary attacks. The most famous IT companies are using this technique like Google, Microsoft, and Facebook. In order to enable authentication of the required IP addresses to some external site when cloud computing is used, Proxy setting could be used. Proxy URL enables only trusted sites to be accessed.
THE PROPOSED AUTHENTICATION SCHEME In cloud computing, there are a few parties involved directly or indirectly to the system such as cloud user, data owner, cloud service provider and auditor. Each of these parties has their own role in the system. Communication in a dynamic, sharing and multi-party environment will expose user’s identity information especially when they are communicating over insecure channel. Based on this reason, anonymity feature is one of the best solutions that can be applied in authentication process to secure and preserve user’s privacy. Anonymous authentication recently becomes a hot topic for its use in hiding user’s credential when user login into a system over a network. This mechanism can preserve user’s privacy by applying anonymity feature into authentication process. Moreover, anonymization of identity information provides protection against identity theft and different types of linking attacks. In  has mentioned that in order to achieve a strong, reliable and secure system architecture, the system must be resilient to such attacks and have the capability to hide identities of communication participants from third parties.