Private Communication

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Analogue private communication based on hybrid chaotic systems with delays

Analogue private communication based on hybrid chaotic systems with delays

Abstract: Since most of private communication schemes based on chaotic synchronization are not robust again plain-texts attacks, the introduction of delays in the schemes can be regarded as an efficient method to improve the security degree with respect to such attack. As an extension of our recent work, this paper proposes a new analogue private communication scheme based on hybrid chaotic systems with delays. The proposed scheme is based on the notation of weakly left invertibility of switched systems, and an illustrative example is given for the purpose of highlighting the feasibility of the proposed method.
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The right to private communication using telecommunication means: National and international legal aspects of protection

The right to private communication using telecommunication means: National and international legal aspects of protection

Abstract. Today’s challenges dictate the need to strengthen the national and international legal mechanisms for the protection of personal data and the right to private communication. However, considered rights are not absolute. Legitimate restriction of guaranteed rights is possible, since these means of communication are a powerful tool in the investigation and disclosure of hard/very hard crimes, including transnational ones, especially considering the terrorist threats to Ukraine and other European countries. The possibility of restricting human rights, arising from the guarantees enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights and consistently enshrined in the ECHR, demands from the state the least compulsory guarantee while interfering with the rights of individuals – to act “in accordance with the law”. Law protection of personal data and right to privacy are researched in the context of peculiarities of conducting investigative (search), secret investigative (search) and other procedural actions in criminal proceedings, which concern access to some telecommunication means (e.g., smartphones). Taking into account different functional purposes of technical means of telecommunication, access and collecting of evidence contained therein, should be carried out on a case- to-case basis, in a different procedural form, considering specifics of telecommunication technologies in each particular case.
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Converse bounds for quantum and private communication over Holevo-Werner channels

Converse bounds for quantum and private communication over Holevo-Werner channels

In all cases, we have also pointed out the subadditivity behaviour of the REE and RPPT bounds, so that their two-copy and regularised versions perform strictly better than their simpler one-copy expressions, under suitable conditions of the parameters. From this point of view, our paper clearly shows how the subadditivity properties of the Werner states can be fully mapped to the cor- responding Holevo-Werner channels in configurations of adaptive quantum and private communication.

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Converse Bounds for Private Communication Over Quantum Channels

Converse Bounds for Private Communication Over Quantum Channels

6 Second-order expansions for private communication A recent goal of research in quantum information theory has been to determine second-order charac- terizations of various quantum communication tasks [TH13, Li14, TT15, DTW14, BDL16, TBR16]. In this program, the goal is to determine the highest rate of communication achievable for a given task when constrained to meet a fixed (constant) error probability and with a sufficiently large number of channel uses available. What one finds here is called the “Gaussian approximation,” which often serves as a good guideline for rates that are achievable at a fixed error and finite blocklength. Thus, this research goal is especially important nowadays given that experimentalists have limited control over quantum systems, only being able to manipulate small numbers of qubits coherently.
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Private Communication Among Competitors And Public Disclosure

Private Communication Among Competitors And Public Disclosure

To sharpen empirical identification and provide more direct evidence that the reduction in public disclosure is due to a reduction in the coordination benefits of disclosure, I conduct three sets of cross-sectional tests. In the first set of tests, I examine whether the reduction in disclosure varies predictably with several proxies for the amount of private communication among alliance partners: (i) whether the alliance is formed among direct competitors, which are more likely to involve the exchange of information that is beneficial for coordination (Teece, 1992; PwC, 2016); (ii) the number of partners, which provide alliance partners with a broader range of information about more firms; (iii) whether the alliance is an equity-based joint venture, which entails stronger contractual ties and the exchange of more detailed financial information (e.g., Kogut, 1988; Gulati and Singh, 1998; Anderson, Christ, Dekker, and Sedatole, 2014); and (iv) whether the alliance involves research and development (R&D) or manufacturing activities, which require more frequent and detailed private communication relative to other types of alliances (e.g., Anand and Khanna, 2000; Robinson and Stuart, 2007). Using each of these measures of the degree of private communication, I find evidence of a greater reduction in public disclosure when there is more extensive private communication among alliance partners.
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Can you Talk or only Touch-Talk? A VoIP-based phone feature for quick, quiet, and private communication

Can you Talk or only Touch-Talk? A VoIP-based phone feature for quick, quiet, and private communication

As a mode of interactive information exchange, the phone is still unparalleled. Empirical laboratory and field surveys suggest that the phone may hit a sweet spot between computer-mediated and face-to-face communication [5]. As a way to initiate contact, however, it leaves much room for improvement. Research on mobile use in the workplace finds that approximately 60% of phone calls fail to reach intended recipients, and only 40% lead to an immediate conversation [21]. As a result, people develop compensatory tactics to circumvent the limitations of phone calling. A current trend that can be observed in business settings is the use of asynchronous and text-based communication rather than traditional phones. People use IM to negotiate availability for phone conversations [3] and write emails about urgent issues. As such, asynchronous communication is becoming increasingly synchronous.
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Can You Hear Me Now?: Private Communication, National Security, and the Human Rights Disconnect

Can You Hear Me Now?: Private Communication, National Security, and the Human Rights Disconnect

With respect to U.S. eavesdropping and data collection from various forms of communication, the critical question under the ICCPR becomes whether a human rights clai[r]

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Corporate communication system, process and practices of public and private undertakings in karnataka state: An empirical study

Corporate communication system, process and practices of public and private undertakings in karnataka state: An empirical study

The crucial importance of corporate communication becomes highly relevant in the present times since the world moves towards globalization of communication and economy. In developing countries and leading public and private undertakings, corporate communication has become a thrust area from research and development point of view. It is necessary to examine the system, process and practices of corporate communication in public and private undertakings in Karnataka State. A synthesis of the available literature suggest that corporate communication scenario of Karnataka State suffers from certain limitations. A perusal of relevant literature also reveals that the past researchers have not investigated the system, process and practices of corporate communication in public and private undertakings of Karnataka State, which is marching towards progress. Therefore, the primary tasks of the present study are concerned with identifying reasonably representative sample of internal and external publics of these organizations so as to assess their views on the current status of corporate communication with special reference to public and private undertakings of Karnataka State.
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More public rescues for more private finance failures - a critique of the EC Communication on PPPs

More public rescues for more private finance failures - a critique of the EC Communication on PPPs

• The Commission has been proposing new legislation on concessions for many years now. Any new legislation should avoid creating a discriminatory advantage for private concessions that somehow makes them ‘easier’ than other public contracts. It is necessary to bring concessions fully under the rules of the procurement directives, so that there can no longer be the possibility of awarding such economic privileges without transparent public tendering. This would also confirm the direction in which ECJ rulings have been moving, using the basic provisions of the treaty to infer a duty to tender. Public authorities must of course retain the fundamental right to prefer inhouse operation and not tender at all.
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INFLUENCE OF STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION ON GROWTH OF STUDENTS’ POPULATION IN SELECTED PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA

INFLUENCE OF STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION ON GROWTH OF STUDENTS’ POPULATION IN SELECTED PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA

The findings of the study indicated that 39.8 percent of the respondents strongly agreed that decision made by the institution is communicated. 45.9 percent of the respondents strongly agree that public awareness on government sponsorship in private universities is effectively done. 41.8 percent of the respondents very strongly agree that information regarding the institution can be easily accessed. It was also revealed that 48.0 of the respondents agree that information on the university website is regularly updated which may help them inform the potential students of the latest developments in the university such as available intakes and additional programme for choice. The results also indicated that 39.8 percent of the respondents disagree that professional bloggers are used to publicize the institution. However, the findings found out that 58.2 percent of the respondents strongly agree that professional bloggers plays important role in facilitating communication between university and other stakeholders. The findings indicated that 43.9 percent of the respondents agree that the institution have fully utilized the readily available medium of communication to sensitize the public on available programs. Furthermore, the finding shows that 49.0 percent of the respondents agree adoption of ICT have aided communication between students and the university. Finally, the findings show that 43.9 strongly agree that strategic communication influence growth of students’ population. The findings support the argument by Kotler (2003) that educational institutions need effective communications with their markets and publics. Educators usually use catalogues and bulletins describing their institution and its programs. Private universities communicate about themselves by their very existence, whether or not they have a formal communications program. Private universities use controllable marketing tools that an institution uses to produce the response it wants from its various target markets. It consists of everything that the university can do to influence the demand for the services that it offers. The implication of the findings is that private universities need to device best method of reaching the intended audiences with the right message. Some of the available media to utilize by most private universities includes television, radio, websites and social media.
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Childhood Vaccine Risk/Benefit Communication in Private Practice Office Settings: A National Survey

Childhood Vaccine Risk/Benefit Communication in Private Practice Office Settings: A National Survey

In general, our findings suggest that there may be a mismatch between legal mandates for risk/benefit communication, providers’ perception of what par- ents needed to know, and actual provider vaccine risk/benefit communication practices. Although the current law states that the VIS must be given before every dose of vaccine and almost all (97%) providers believed that parents needed information on immu- nizations, 1 in 3 indicated that such distribution was not the practice in their offices. Time was listed as the greatest barrier to vaccine risk/benefit communica- tion especially by family physicians. Physicians did not perceive any inadequacies in their knowledge or skills as barriers to vaccine risk/benefit communica- tion and indicated only moderate interest in training to improve their skills. Nurses reported more train- ing and indicated higher interest in continued train- ing in vaccine risk/benefit communication. The doc- tor and nurse function as an immunization team but seem to lack coordination for risk/benefit communi- cation.
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COMMUNICATION OF KOSOVO LEADERSHIP IN CHALLENGING ENVIRONMENT: A CASE STUDY OF PRIVATE COMPANIES IN KOSOVO

COMMUNICATION OF KOSOVO LEADERSHIP IN CHALLENGING ENVIRONMENT: A CASE STUDY OF PRIVATE COMPANIES IN KOSOVO

Effective communication is located in the center of almost every aspect of business activity because it connects the company with all “stakeholders” with which business interacts: employees, clients, suppliers, community etc. Its efficiency, quality or innovation need to be improved, for this great communication skills are needed. Since the period after war in Kosova, important changes in the image of the society were observed, the way of behaving, concept of problems as well as in the form of ethics of communication. But there is a lack of communication which obstruct the process of effective economic development in Kosova enterprises and which should improve based to some recommended methods. Fierce competition, politic law / politic stability problems of environment, entry barriers, limited market, lack of investment guarantee, lack of promoting support of investments, high taxes, all these are involved in challenging environment in which Kosova leadership in private companies operates. These represent all the barriers that influence economic development of the country and reflect in uncertainty of work problems as well as in ineffective communication. Purpose of this paper is presenting some methods or practices that leadership should use for avoiding economic problems in challenging environment which would help the company in increasing of efficiency and effectiveness of the communication.
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Public-private partnerships in information and communication technology for education [ADB Briefs, 49]

Public-private partnerships in information and communication technology for education [ADB Briefs, 49]

The GILAS initiative has been a response to the limited access to ICT among public high schools in the Philippines. Only about 50% of the schools have computers, and only 6% have internet access. The private partner is a multistakeholder consortium of companies that put philanthropic or corporate social responsibility (CSR) funds into ICT projects in schools. This consortium’s goal is to bring computer laboratories with internet access to all public high schools in the Philippines. In addition to hardware and software, other ICT services provided included free internet access for 1 year, training for teachers on how to do research and teach using the internet, and training for teachers on basic ICT maintenance and troubleshooting.
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Private Observation, Tacit Collusion and Collusion with Communication

Private Observation, Tacit Collusion and Collusion with Communication

The focus of the present paper is on the role of communication in fa- cilitating collusion. Following the approach of Green and Porter (1984), I develop a model where firms’ individual outputs constitute private informa- tion. Firms receive an imperfect signal about each other’s behavior through the realization of the stochastic market price which is publicly observable. The main obstacle for collusion comes from the fact that a low price may signal either deviations from collusive output levels or a ’downward’ demand shock. I modify the Green and Porter approach by allowing firms to hold meetings and exchange private information about each firm’ past behavior before they produce their outputs. Communication thus helps resolve con- fusion about the past play. Despite the benefits of communication, yet it is not completely innocuous: cartel participants are under the constant threat of legal prosecution because their meetings can be detected by competition authorities, in which case they are sued and pay a fine.
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A FUTURISTIC APPROACH TOWARDS SECURED OPTICAL COMMUNICATION OPTICAL PRIVATE KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY(OPKC) TECHNIQUE

A FUTURISTIC APPROACH TOWARDS SECURED OPTICAL COMMUNICATION OPTICAL PRIVATE KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY(OPKC) TECHNIQUE

The paper presents an Optical Private Key Cryptography (OPKC) technique to provide security to the user data in high speed optical networks. The circuit involves the Cross Phase Modulation (XPM), a non-linear property, of Semi-conductor Optical Amplifier (SOA). The process involves encryption of the signal with a cipher signal using optical xor and transmission through an optical channel followed by the decryption process. The result shows that security is achieved with BER of ~21.4 dB.

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Perceived Role of Marketing Communication Strategies on Students’ Enrollment in Private Secondary Schools in Mbale Municipality, Mbale District

Perceived Role of Marketing Communication Strategies on Students’ Enrollment in Private Secondary Schools in Mbale Municipality, Mbale District

Students are believed to develop a need to join the school, develop thoughts about which school to join basing on the available information and then apply to the selected school. This implies that schools that try to provide a clear message about their existence and portray an impressive image of the services offered have greater ability to influence the students’ enrollment decisions in their favour. Uchendu et al (2015) and Njuguna (2015) argue that marketing communication strategies adopted by schools have great influence on students’ enrollment decision, retention and ensure their long term survival. Friedman (2015) observes that enrollment management is important to schools in responding to their challenges and exploring new opportunities. Recruiting and retaining adequate number of students is good for the financial health of schools for example private schools whose budgets depend majorly on tuition fee. Optimizing students’ numbers therefore implies optimizing school revenue and portraying a positive public image to the prospective families who are later attracted to join the school. Whereas adequate students’ enrollment is considered to be the major determinant factor for school survival decreasing students’ enrollment in private secondary schools is becoming a global issue (Njuguna, 2015). Dwindling enrollment in schools is likely to lead to closure of schools if the schools do not have support from elsewhere (Hartman & Schoch, 2015; Pallegedara & Yamano, 2011). The study highlights the increasing number of private secondary schools in Mbale municipality today which has inevitably culminated into competitive environment as each school is struggling to do its best to attract students. Having adequate numbers of students is ideal for the financial health of private secondary schools that largely depend on tuition fees from parents. This is critical if they are to gain competitive advantage and survive in the current competitive market. However, a decline in students’ enrollment has been noted in a number of private secondary schools in Mbale municipality, Mbale district.
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BACHELOR OF MULTIMEDIA COMMUNICATION: (CCSSUG) under school of distance education/private mode REGULATIONS, SCHEME AND SYLLABI

BACHELOR OF MULTIMEDIA COMMUNICATION: (CCSSUG) under school of distance education/private mode REGULATIONS, SCHEME AND SYLLABI

Information technology has brought about phenomenal changes in human communication systems. Today, messages are produced differently to be delivered through a host of newer media that are far richer than their traditional cousins in their formats, domains, access mode and information-carrying capacity. Generally referred to as "multimedia products", these have become the most valued communication vehicles for sectors such as social services, commerce, industry, health care, education, governance and entertainment. Thereby, the demand for trained personnel to produce multimedia products has increased several folds. To cater to this demand, there is a need to restructure the undergraduate programme in multimedia communication under the Choice based Credit and Semester System (CCSS) being introduced by the University of Calicut from 2009-'10 academic year.
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COMPREHENSIVE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND SPECIAL ISSUES OF VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK STRATEGIES IN THE COMPUTER COMMUNICATION: A NOVEL STUDY

COMPREHENSIVE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND SPECIAL ISSUES OF VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK STRATEGIES IN THE COMPUTER COMMUNICATION: A NOVEL STUDY

Organizations historically needed to rent network capacity such as T1 lines to achieve full, secured connectivity between their office locations. With a VPN, you use public network infrastructure including the Internet to make these connections and tap into that virtual network through much cheaper local leased lines or even just broadband connections to a nearby Internet Service Provider (ISP). A VPN also can replace remote access servers and long-distance dialup network connections commonly used in the past by business travelers needing to access to their company intranet. With VPNs, the cost of maintaining servers tends to be less than other approaches because organizations can outsource the needed support from professional third-party service providers. These provides enjoy a much lower cost structure through economy of scale by servicing many business clients[11]-[23]. The cost to an organization of building a dedicated private network may be reasonable at first but increases exponentially as the organization grows. A company with two branch offices, for example, can deploy just one dedicated line to connect the two locations, but 4 branch offices require 6 lines to directly connect them to each other, 6 branch offices need 15 lines, and so on. Internet based VPNs avoid this scalability problem by simply tapping into the the public lines and network capability readily available. Particularly for remote and international locations, an Internet VPN offers superior reach and quality of service.
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Digital Culture Participation Availability on Maximizing Competition Abilities in Private Information Technology, Communication Sector-Jordan

Digital Culture Participation Availability on Maximizing Competition Abilities in Private Information Technology, Communication Sector-Jordan

Digital culture: new information technology, communication is the main part of business sectors but the digital culture is the leverage of that activities which reflect on that performance, it help (ITC) sector on improve and diversify the performance for achieving the sector goals and adapting with environment changes.

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EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMMUNICATION AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: A STUDY OF SELECTED PRIVATE ORGANIZATION AND PUBLIC CORPORATION IN LAGOS STATE

EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMMUNICATION AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: A STUDY OF SELECTED PRIVATE ORGANIZATION AND PUBLIC CORPORATION IN LAGOS STATE

174 (2006), the structure of an organization could be tall, flat, divisional or geographical and the flow of communication within an organization could be lateral, downward or upward depending on the circumstance. Robins & Judge (2007) explains that downward communication is the transfer of information from a superior to the subordinate which is commonly not done face- to- face. Therefore, the major goal of downward communication is to regulate, discipline and give direction, while upward communication is the movement of information, complaints, ideas and suggestions from subordinate to superiors. On the other hand, lateral communication is the transmission of information between employees of same level which aids co-ordination and saves time, while the transfer of information between organizations and its stakeholders is known as outward communication. Kumuyi (2007) argued that a leader puts his organization at great risk when he shy’s away from ensuring effective communication within that organization. However, “previous studies regarding the relationship between organizational communication and organizational commitment also argued that informal communication of socio-emotional content with proximate colleagues is less strongly related to levels of organizational commitment than the formal bureaucratic communication of management content with superiors (Postmes, Tanis, & De Wit 2001)”. “Ayrancı (2011) acts with a different approach and while he chooses that job satisfaction of business owners as his subject, he reveals that communication of business owners with the employees thereof is by itself a job satisfaction factor that leads to employee commitment and the fact that business owners consider communication as one of the determinants of organizational performance”. Basically, the synergy of communication and human resource management will bring about
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