An alternative to the positional approach is to compare individual worker- and firm-level characteristics. Different wage levels using this method are usually linked to the notion of human capital as a ‘set of skills’ that increase a worker’s productivity and wages (Becker, 1976; Sheffrin, 2003). These skills are perceived as a function of factors, such as gender, education, age and job experience, which explain a part of the existing differentials across individuals (Mincer, 1974). The human capital approach to assessing differences between public and privatesector earnings has been to compute equations for human capital earnings to identify the returns to different levels of human capital in terms of years of schooling, work experience and job tenure (Bender and Elliott, 2002). However, there remain substantial problems with this approach. A range of different results can be derived depending on the model specification and estimation technique used to measure pay differentials. For example, weighted or unweighted regression analyses may be used (CSO, 2013), while more complex methodologies such as propensity score matching (PSM) and Blinder–Oaxaca (B–O) decompositions have also previously been utilised and may present divergent results. 2
A simple comparison of average wages across sectors and industries does not provide sufficient grounds for deriving a conclusion that there are wage gaps between the sectors. Nor does it indicate the size of the gap because workers in different sectors have different levels of education, skills and experience. Besides, high wages may compensate for hazardous labor conditions, climate disamenities and other negative aspects of work. Finally, in choosing their occupations people are guided not only by earnings perspectives but also by personal predispositions and preferences. All this implies that dealing only with average wages aggregated for all the surveyed workers across several sectors one ends up with comparing incomparable entities. Such assessments should be treated as approximations at best. However, if one tries to take into account all the above differences what would then be the wage differential between the public and private sectors? Is it the same for all groups of workers? How different is the gap in regions with different levels of economic development? Finally, if the gap between average wages is so large, what is the reason?
Women have been entering the labour force in substantial numbers over the past few decades (see Blau and Kahn, 2007b; Scott et al., 2008 for Britain; and Baker et al., 1995 for Canada). The British experience is, however, unique in two respects. First, of the OECD member countries, Britain has the second highest proportion of part-time workers among women: roughly 2 in every 5 women work part-time (OECD, 2005). The proportion of women working part-time in Canada is close to the OECD average: roughly one in four women work part-time. Second, the labour market outcomes for women working part-time differ between Canada and Britain. Connolly and Gregory (2008 and 2009) show that women who switch from full-time employment to part-time employment experience occupational downgrading and a movement towards low-skilled jobs with consequent declines in wages. There is little evidence to suggest that the relative position of British women working part-time has improved (Manning and Peteronglo, 2008). The Canadian experience is quite different. The small aggregated gender pay gap among part-time workers may be partially due to the fact that, on the one hand, workers with fewer skills may be clustered in low-wage industries or workplaces and, on the other hand, there is a subset of part-time female workers with relatively high earnings.
This paper examines the customers’ expectations and their perceptions related to various services offered by private hospitals. The study identifies the determinants of service quality and performance in private hospitals as customer satisfaction is the top priority in the hospitals. In service sector there may be a big difference between expected and perceived service quality. Expectations of the customers with regard to the service can vary based on a range of factors such as prior experience, personal needs and what other people may have told them. The quality of service is determined on five dimensions which are: Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, Empathy and Tangibles (Appearance of physical facilities, equipment etc.). SERVQUAL method is used to find the gap between expected and perceived service quality. Customers of private hospitals in Hyderabad are the target population for the research. To minimize the sampling error and bias all the demographic segments have been included in sample size. The findings and results of the paper may be useful for private hospitals to improve their service quality.
Gregory and Borland (1999) provide a thorough review of literature on public sector labor markets. The vast majority of the public-earnings gap literature concentrates on cross- sectional differences in wages. Most studies also address the non-random sector selection. Such studies include Hartog and Oosterbeek (1993) and van Ophem (1993) for the Netherlands, Lassibille (1998) for Spain, Dustmann and van Soest (1998) and Melly (2005) for Germany, Disney and Gosling (2003) for the UK, Tansel (2005) for Turkey and Bargain and Melly (2008) for France. Lucifora and Meurs (2006) measure and decompose public-private earnings differences in the UK, France and Italy. For France and Italy they conclude that in the privatesector the use of collective bargaining and union power are substantial. This results in a pay setting system based heavily on rewarding observable characteristics such as education and experience. This can explain the substantial part of public sector earnings gap. Their results of quantile regression analysis is similar to Melly's findings for Germany. They find that as one moves up the earnings distribution, the proportion of the pay gap explained by observable factors increases. In contrast, in the lower quantiles differences in unobserved characteristics are more important in explaining pay differences. Similar results for France and Italy are also found by Ghinetti and Lucifora (2007) using European Community Household Panel data from the 2001 wave. Van Ophem (1993) uses functional form assumptions to deal with the sector selection issue. Dustmann and van Soest (1998) and Hartog and Oosterbeek (1993) use an instrumental variables approach. Further they consider only cross-sectional differences in instantaneous earnings between the public and private sectors.
The issue of organisation size is far from a trivial issue given that recently published estimates demonstrate that the inclusion of such a variable has a large impact on the magnitude of the estimated premium (Central Statistics Office (CSO) 2009, Ernst & Young and Murphy, 2007). The principal reason for this large impact relates to the fact that virtually all public sector workers in Ireland are employed in large organisations. These previous studies (CSO 2009, Ernst & Young and Murphy, 2007) also use data from the National Employment Survey (NES) and report estimates that include an organisation size variable relating to 250 or more employees 1 . The principal problem with this approach relates to the fact that almost all public sector workers in the sample are employed within organisations of more than 250 persons. For instance, in the October 2006 NES sample of full-time permanent employees used in this study here, 97.5 per cent are employed within large organisations compared to just over 30 per cent of privatesector employees. This leads us to our objection based on logic. We do not believe that there exists any basis for applying a privatesector based high productivity premium,
However, all these positive impacts must not ob- scure the problems posed by the mobile phone industry in developing countries. One particular problem is that mobile phone services represent a major expense item in the budgets of the poorest households which may then be inclined to reduce expenses for their basic needs (education, health, food, clothing). Moreover, as a result of the high cost of the services provided, penetration rates still remain limited. It is likely that the most disad- vantaged segments of the population will contin- ue to be unprofitable for the operators, and will, as a result, be excluded from this technology over the long haul. A whole host of structural constraints – the small size of markets, the high entry costs in the sector, the all too often deficiencies of regula- tory authorities and the risks inherent to invest- ments in regions that can be politically unstable – severely hamper the possibility of strengthening competition in these countries. There are de facto usually very few operators in these markets. In ad- dition, operators prefer to develop services with higher added value (for example, mobile bank- ing, mobile Internet…) rather than increase their number of subscribers. Finally, the boom in the mobile phone industry has unquestionably put a brake on the development of landlines which ... T he mobile phone industry has been mo-
Translation-Empire specialises in providing language services to public and privatesector organisations. We were established in 2001 and the volume of work we handle for private and public sector clients has grown dramatically since. On average we translate between 900,000 to one million words a month.
The section looks at training and development of the current workforce, through the development and implementation of qualifications by the Services SETA, and support to Further and Higher Education and Training Institutions, mainly through a focus on the development of partnerships to address priorities identified in the SSP. The Services SETA has recognised two types of partnerships for implementation and planning. The first type of partnership under programme four of the Services SETA Annual Performance Plan (APP), is to facilitate the allocation and contracting of discretionary grants for the enrollment of funded learners to increase the flow of new entrants into the labour market. Roleplayers are public and private training providers, community-based organisations, cooperatives and NGOs. The second type of partnership under programme five of the Services SETA APP is to facilitate relationship responsiveness with key roleplayers for the purposes of mutual information sharing with stakeholders who include government, business organisations, trade unions, constituency bodies, public bodies, employers, trade and professional bodies. Relevant contractual partnerships resulting in commitments representing beneficiaries’ constituencies will be pursued where appropriate. This section ends with links to the Strategic Plan and Annual Performance Plan.
to develop and deliver the preliminary safety report for this technology in order to provide sufficient evidence that the plasma vitrification furnace technology is suitable for use in a nuclear environment. This has allowed our senior staff to apply their existing knowledge and experience to the development of new technologies for the forthcoming challenges of the industry whilst ensuring our junior staff have the knowledge, skills and understanding to support the continuing development and application of these solutions in the future.
The advisory committee at Fresno City College, Fresno, Calif., is also critical to ensuring students who satisfactorily complete the HVAC program are well prepared for the workplace, said air
conditioning instructor Doug Barnard. “If students are willing to put in the time and effort to succeed in our program, it is a good indicator that they will be successful in the workplace. The critical thinking skills needed for troubleshooting can be tough to teach, but if we can give the student a strong enough background in the basics, the problem solving skills will come with experience.” That experience is usually the result of contractors taking the time to train new service technicians about brand-specific equipment, as well as other issues specific to that firm. “Our trade encompasses such a wide range of skills it is not possible for students to be completely proficient in all areas,” said Barnard. “I would like to see the contractors encourage their employees of all levels to be more engaged with the various trade organizations which can provide a lot of the continuing training needed by service technicians.”
Assessment of results achieved by NL across the entire Result area 4 Infrastructure development
Reasons for result achieved:
Implications for planning:
C. Results achieved poorer than planned ORIO was closed in 2014 for new project proposals due to complex implementation procedures, little attention for the non-grant financing component and for the coherence with other programmes for privatesector development. The current 65 ORIO-projects will be completed under the ORIO framework. In May 2015 the first phase of a project in Vietnam was realised providing clean drinking water to 1600 rural households.
Even the terminologies are varied across the nations, the categorization could be done under the combinations of common criteria; autonomy (independency), publicness and financial grants. These criteria could be constructed from not only in practical context but also in theoretical context. Rainey, Backoff and Bozeman (1976), in his comprehensive reviews on literatures, suggests three common dimensions of distinction; environmental factors, organization-environment transactions and internal structures and process. Within those dimensions, many variables have been discussed afterward; funding and ownership, sovereignty, the relationship between outputs and resources (Wamsley and Zald 1973), political authority and economic authority (Bozeman 1987), a combination of ownership, funding and mode of social control (Perry and Rainey 1988). Also, abundance of empirical studies has been conducted on goal complexity and goal ambiguity, organization structure (mainly formalisation and red tape), formalization of personnel and purchasing processes (Rainey and Bozeman 2000). But these are rather influential variables on organizational behaviour what Bozeman (1987) refer to goal setting, resource acquiring, transforming, motivation, structuring controlling, and effectiveness. Lane (1995) insists public-private distinction is not one distinction but several; exchange and authority, competition and hierarchy, laissez-faire and planning, market economy and command economy, capitalism and socialism, and freedom versus authority.
There is a long standing literature that argues that trust is an essential economic lubricant. For example, trust has been shown to be important for growth and development (Knack and Keefer, 1997; Zak and Knack, 2001). It is most often asserted that this operates via a reduction in transaction costs. On the other hand, corruption, the abuse of public power for private gain, has been found by many researchers to be sand in the wheels of an economy. Macro evidence suggests that corruption is detrimental to economic growth (Mauro, 1995), though perhaps only in institutional settings that are otherwise strong (Aidt et al, 2008), and to foreign direct investment inflows (Wei, 2000). Similarly, Fisman and Svensson (2007) find that bribery has a negative effect on firm growth. This paper examines the relationship between these two important social forces in that we ask if individuals who experience corruption in their dealings with the public sector are more or less likely to trust the privatesector.
We study the interaction between nonprice public rationing and prices in the private market. Under a limited budget, the public supplier uses a rationing policy. A private firm may supply the good to those consumers who are rationed by the public system. Consumers have different amounts of wealth, and costs of providing the good to them vary. We consider two regimes. First, the public supplier observes consumers’ wealth information; second, the public supplier observes both wealth and cost information. The public sup- plier chooses a rationing policy, and, simultaneously, the pri- vate firm, observing only cost but not wealth information, chooses a pricing policy. In the first regime, there is a con- tinuum of equilibria. The Pareto dominant equilibrium is a means-test equilibrium: poor consumers are supplied while rich consumers are rationed. Prices in the private market increase with the budget. In the second regime, there is a unique equilibrium. This exhibits a cost-effectiveness ra- tioning rule; consumers are supplied if and only if their cost–benefit ratios are low. Prices in the private market do not change with the budget. Equilibrium consumer utility is
On the other hand, another company, coded as Y Company, was analyzed to show the effects of public wage bill increases. The representative of the company was required to provide information on the same issues discussed with representative of X Company, as to compare the results obtained from them. Y Company, as one of the largest private companies that operate in Kosovo shows that it faces similar obstacles as the ones mentioned by X Company’s representative. Y Company has currently employed many young individuals as interns and the majority of them were offered full time jobs. This company is seeking to replace the majority of former employees with younger workers, and the main reason behind this is that they are planning to offer them lower wages as they are new workers in the company, and in doing so they plan to avoid the high labor costs that they encounter. This comes as a confirmation to the claims provided in the literature section, where Damant & Jenkins suggested that: “existing jobs in the privatesector require lower levels of education and tend to attract younger employees; thus affecting privatesector pay”(5).
Executives indicated that involvement with local schools and community colleges, as well as external training and certification programs, help them in closing the gap. Manufacturers can also engage local high schools and elementary schools to build interest in STEM skills and skilled trades to begin building a pipeline early on. Additionally, they can collaborate with non-profit organizations like The STEM Academy and Project Lead the Way that are leading providers of K-12 STEM education. Together with the internal training programs, these externally focused approaches keep a steady stream of qualified candidates job-ready and will help address the development needs of the existing workforce. The U.S. government is also actively building the pipeline of prospective manufacturing employees by partnering with state and local communities and organizations to fund education, apprenticeship programs, and workforce programs. Over the last several years, nearly $1 billion in grants have gone to community colleges to support the creation or expansion of manufacturing education programs and another $100 million is now available to establish apprenticeship programs. 26
The changing nature of work, and the ensuing need for improved workforce skills, has become a focal point for companies as they plan for their future results. When asked which factors would help improve their businesses the most over the next five years, a highly skilled and flexible workforce topped the list for manufacturers, ranking ahead of product innovation, increasing market share, low-cost producer status, and even supply chain integration with suppliers, among other factors (see Figure 10). In an era when many companies have spent significant time and resources to streamline operations and improve innovation and customer service, this result highlights the effort that should be considered by most manufacturers to combat the expected severity and impact of future skills gaps. This may be an area of concern to manufacturers since retaining, hiring, and developing that skilled workforce will likely be difficult in the face of aging demographics. As more and more older and experienced employees retire, finding younger talent to replace them has become increasingly difficult, exacerbating the talent crunch. The anticipated retirement exodus could seriously hurt manufacturers in specific workforce segments over the next five years. The areas of skilled production (machinists, operators, and technicians) and production support (industrial and manufacturing engineers, and planners) would be hardest hit according to survey respondents (see Figure 11). Manufacturers are also feeling the pinch when it comes to highly specialized and innovative employees, such as scientists and design engineers. Their shortage could affect new manufacturing processes and production development (see Figure 12 on the page 10).