In this research a sample of 160 students individually solved a problem in basic electrical circuits according to lectures previously presented on the e-learning system, which covered topics on the basics of electrical net analysis. This problem was presented on the e-learning system. The students were enrolled in a course titled "Fundamental of Electrical Circuits (or Networks) Analysis". The teacher (researcher) asking the students about the participation in this experiment describing the importance of it to them in assessing themselves abilities' (self- assessment) as well as to assess their acceptance to use e-learning system as one of the significant method of presenting subjects in education process also they informed that the results of this experiment will be used to evaluate it. According to this the students agreed to be in this experiment.
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Quoted from the results of interviews conducted by researchers at one of the VA class teachers at Lowokwaru Elementary School 2 Malang on August 24, 2018, Farid Pribadi stated that Lowokwaru 2 Elementary School Malang was one of the schools in Malang City based on Adiwiyata, so that it had potential support, one of which is in the development of learning media. All classes are equipped with LCDs and projectors that can be used to support IT-based learning. In addition, teachers and students are also familiar with technology and there are also computer laboratories and intranet network facilities that can be used in learning. However, the use of computer labs is still not optimal, this is because these laboratories are often used for ICT learning and their use in daily thematic learning is very rare. Things that can support other learning are gadgets owned by teachers that can actually be used as support in creative and innovative media design for learning, however, in reality the teachers have not been able to utilize some of the gadgets they have. Teachers often access through standard applications, for example Microsoft Word or Microsoft Power Point which are used to present material and practice questions to students in learning. This results in students still having difficulty in concretizing abstract concepts. Another problem that was found was that students in V-A class in answering questions from the teacher were still fixated in text or books, so when the teacher gave the Out of the Box questions the students still looked confused. If observed, the statement of one of the teachers interviewed was that the facilities and infrastructure contained in the school were adequate, but in application and utilization still needed innovation or development. Therefore in this study we will try to develop edmodo-based e-learning in problem-based learning to improve critical thinking skills of fifth grade students.
The goals of ‘problem-based learning’ are to help students (a) think critically, analyze, and solve complex real- world problems; (b) find, evaluate, and use learning resources; (c) work cooperatively in teams; (d) demonstrate effective communication skills; and (e) use content knowledge and intellectual skills to become continual learners (Duch, Groh, & Allen, 2001). The ‘problem-based learning process’ works as follows: Students are presented with a problem (e.g., case, videotape, a research paper); then in groups, they organize their ideas and attempt to define the broad nature of the problem, pose questions, and define and rank learning issues that they do and do not understand. Issues are assigned to each group and individuals within each group choose a particular issue to research and later teach to the other members of their group. Students and the instructor identify resources to research learning issues. The students reconvene, integrating their new knowledge into the context of the problem, and students continue to define new learning issues as they progress through the problem. (Boud & Feletti, 1997)
non-uniform) distribution χ if LWE is hard for secret s sampled from the same distribution. A concrete Cryptosystem. We give a construction of a public-key encryption scheme. One may size the magnitude to which the RP and LWE intractability contribute to the overall security of the system. The selection of parameters (e.g., modulus, dimension) offers a flexibility to fine-tune the cryptosystem’s resilience against progress in attacking the underlying RP or LWE problem or the evolution of quantum computers. Concretely, one may choose to make the scheme short, post-quantum secure, or double-hard. We discuss candidate parameter choices in Section 4.3. We remark that our construction serves the sole purpose of showcasing the possibility of designing cryptosystems based on “errors in the ex- ponent”. In practical applications, a combination of two encryption systems, say El-Gamal and Regev encryption, and each system encrypting information-theoretically a share of the message, would be given the preferred choice.
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Nowadays, information that was once only available in textbooks, conferences and journals is now making its way onto the World Wide Web. Students are now commonly regarded as consumers and come to learning institutions with expectations of a quality learning experience. If they experience anything less than what they want, there are other institutions that are willing and able to accept them. Up until recently, the used of e- learning has worked well enough for universities around the globe including Malaysia. Learning can take place anywhere and anytime through the communication tools in e-learning. With this, e-learning has a potential to be integrating in PBL learning environment. The integration of e-learning in PBL would not change the principles of PBL itself. It will, in fact, enhance the implementation process of PBL in terms of delivering a PBL case to the students and facilitate communications among students and also the lecturer.
In the review of literature for the current study, it was noted that few studies on student satisfaction define satisfaction in learning systems. The Sloan Consortium defines student satisfaction as, “Stu-dents are successful in the learning and are pleased with their experience”. A similar definition is given by Sweeney and Ingram (2001). They define satisfaction as, “the perception of enjoyment and accomplishment in the learning environment.” Both definitions focus on accomplishment and success in learning, and pleasure and enjoyment with the experience. Thurmond, Wambach, Connors, and Frey (2002) describe student satisfaction as “a concept that reflects outcomes and reciprocity that occur between students and an instructor” .
become independent learners, not only acquire knowledge about what they know, but also make them aware of what they do not know they really need. According to research conducted by AryantiNurhidayati et.al (2013), learning activity of Problem Based Instruction, has succeeded in increasing the independence in constructing student knowledge in the framework of achieving basic competence, student activeness has increased, and student's learning completeness is achieved which is shown not only from result learning, but also the learning process has centered on the student (student centered). Learning Problem Based Instruction implemented, also significantly decrease the number of students who have scores below the average even this method of learning can increase the average value of student learning outcomes. Budianto A.M and EuisEtiRohaeti in a study conducted in 2014 found that the application of Problem Based Learning method in the learning process turned out to improve the way of critical thinking in learners. In addition, in this study also obtained a relationship between the ability to think creatively with the independence of learning in which learners can show a positive perception of problem-based learning. In 2014, Arthur James Swart in his research entitled Using Problem-Based Learning to Stimulate Entrepreneurial Awareness Among Senior African Undergraduate Students reveals that so far engineering students are able and successful in the science of engineering but very lacking in terms of entrepreneurial skills which is a social science. With the implementation of problem- based learning method in engineering students for entrepreneurship skills get significant results where this method can build students' minds in making ideas and designing an effective sales poster. Further
The main learning stage, applying the PBL 2 syntax in the form of identifying the problem by finding and developing the cause. Students do literacy reading and collecting information through books, repairs and internet media. Educators train students to think critically about how to solve problems with several questions. Students should answer according to the understanding they gain from the literacy results. Next is the PBL 3 syntax: independent and group investigation in a diagnosis process. Students form groups of 5-6 people ,  and . At the engine stand, which has been set to the ignition problem, the team collaborates to find the cause. Information literacy takes place at this stage. The data obtained in group work is presented in the report. PBL stage 4 syntax: composing and presenting reports. Educators, assisted by ICT media and net modes, make reports in the form of comparative charts by comparing standard specifications and causal factors. PBL stage 5 syntax: analyzing and evaluating the process. In groups, students prepare the report with the help of laptop media and engine stand. The team leader opens the presentation and lets the members present the report results. All groups should make their presentations in front of the class. Educators ask them based on the reports to find solutions (develop creativity and innovation). Next, replace the problematic component.
No doubt content of any learning is important, but it could not be of the prime importance. Technologies underestimate what is involved in learning. For them learning is nothing but manipulation of content. Such ignorance of the process of learning results in the good combination of technology and content only. Any programme considering technology and content only may convert into merely publication of information for learning and training. Learning is more complex process. Therefore the third component the learning design is of prime importance. This components concentrates on the process of learning, understands how people learn, and how best to manage the learning process to achieve improved performance at work. In other words a good e-learning is a perfect combination of technology, meaningful content and effective learning design. One should be very alert in combining these components to make the programme effective. The learning design should make the most of the content and the technology should be able to work both the content and design. Following figure shows the interrelation between these components more precisely.
Feeling bored: For students who were less creative and did not like sketching, they showed boredom. Normally, they tried to avoid engaging in activities while engaging in other activities. However, they were bound to the number of tasks given during co-operative learning, puts head together. If the specific task given during the week was not their favourite, then the pupil would show a sense of boredom and less cheerful. Apparently, most pupils prefered ‘hands on’ activities rather than stretching activities. Only a few people dared to present themselves confidently and smoothly. Most students were passive, shy and stiff during the group's presentation session. This gave them a boredom. Similarly, if the materials to make the project wereinadequate, boredom would arise because good ideas and sketches could not be completed due to lack of materials. Although basically, the teacher provided certain equipment, in order to find a difference, students needed to prepare their own materials so that their prototype produced were more unique and creative.
Considering the methodologies used in the dissertations, it is important to note that except for a few medical schools, in none of the studies PBL was the common methodology followed and implemented through all levels and courses. In other words, PBL was implemented and the results were analyzed as part of a research, in which PBL as a constructive methodology was new to both instructors and teachers. Further, a few studies undertaken about Turkish education system has shown that neither teachers nor students were ready enough to accept or adopt the new constructivist approaches, both at theoretical and application level. Teacher training programs and in-service courses were seen insufficient; crowded classes, having difficulty at accessing sources, lack of infrastructure such as laboratories added up the problem; the teachers and students tended to continue using traditional teaching and assessment approaches more frequently [38, 39]. Additionally; Gür, Dilci and Arseven  reported that prospective (pre-service) teachers found themselves adequate in terms of theoretical knowledge, but lacked practical knowledge. Student teachers believed that deficiency originated from lack of education including enough training on constructivist applications. Aygören  suggested that even school administrators were in need of in-service training on constructivism and constructivist learning environments.
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According to Burton (1999) that learning outcomes are patterns of deeds, values, meanings, attitudes, appreciations, abilities and skills. Bloom classifies learning outcome in three domains or known as Bloom's taxonomy, they are: cognitive (knowledge) domain, affective (attitude) domain, psychomotor (skill) domain. Individual characters such as intelligence, cognitive style and personality play an important role in learning and teaching as well as the learning context that affects learning outcome (Tella, 2007). According to Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968), there is a direct relationship between how a teacher observes a student and teacher intervention affects the student’s learning outcome, while Parkison stated that the academic success and student behavior are determined by the students’ expectations. That their efforts will result in achieving the goals and that the goals are worth to be achieved. Learning outcomes are obtained from formative assessments that try to evaluate the students’ progress and on the other hand, make the effort to evaluate the student’s achievement from defined goals as the certification of students' abilities (Pettig, 2000)
This e-learning system will own the capabilities of delivering adaptable and intelligent learning to learners. The hierarchical contents structure is capable of showing the entire educational contents. For these goals, ontology is used in this paper. It can have an important role in allowing the representation, executing, sharing and reimplementation of knowledge between applications in modern web-based E-learning systems. The number of ontology-centered researches has grown dramatically, since popular ontological languages are dependent on Web technology standards, such as XML, RDF(S) and OWL(S), so as to share and reimplement it in any web-based knowledge system [13,14].
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digital collaborations using content via all electronic media, including the Internet, satellite broadcast, audio/video tape, interactive TV, and CD-ROM. Similar also to e-learning and its related terms is technology-based learning  shared that e-learning covers a wide set of applications and processes, including computer-based learning, web-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaborations. For the purpose of their report, they further customized their definition to the delivery of content via all electronic media, including the Internet, intranets, extranets, satellite broadcast, audio/video tape, interactive TV, and CD-ROM.
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The objective of this research was to know the effect of learning strategy and self-concept toward the environmental learning result about recyclable Garbage in a public elementary school, SDN 1 Tugu Selatan, North Jakarta. This research applied true experimental design with posttest-only control design. Population of the research covered all sixth grade-students of 2012/2013 whereas samples included students of class VIB as experimental (PBL) and of class VIA as control (Expository). Learning outcome of environmental health education test and self-concept scale questionnaire was employed as instruments of the research. Quantitative data consisting of score knowledge about waste recycling and self-concept scale questionnaire was collected on February until April 2012. Data was analyzed by linear variant statistical analysis (ANOVA), continued with Tukey test. Result of the research indicates that PBL does exist in the knowledge about waste recycling. Students with PBL have higher value of knowledge than those with expository of strategy. Based on this research, the researcher suggests that teachers be able to implement this strategy in education living environment learning.
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Learning pathway is described as the chosen route, taken by a learner through a range of (commonly) e-learning activities, which allows them to build knowledge progressively. With learning pathways, the control of choice moves away from the tutor to the learner. "The sequence of intermediate steps from preconceptions to target model form what Scott (1991) and Niedderer and Goldberg (1995) have called a learning pathway.
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Analysis of this curriculum was conducted on Core Competencies (KI), Basic Competencies (KD), and indicators of competency achievement for second semester junior high school mathematics material in class VII. This analysis is done to improve and to pay attention to the achievement of competencies in the learning instructions. Based on the syllabus given by the teacher especially on quadrilateral and triangle material, differences are indicators of competency achievement consisting of 6 indicators into 14 indicators and indicators of competency achievement consisting of 1 indicator into 4 indicators that aim to improve students' problem solving skills. Before the revision for one meeting, all plane regions such as meeting-2 discussed extensively for plane regions, while after revision for each meeting discussed one type of plane region for the area and the circumference of the plane. This causes the learning objectives of each meeting to change according to the indicators of achievement of competency per meeting.
Much of the early work on PBL described its use in the undergraduate setting, particularly the preclinical years. There remains little information about its use in postgraduate education (Smits et al., 2002). The issue of PBL’s effectiveness is a vexed one because of difficulties surrounding terminology—several literature reviews have discovered that many papers seemingly reporting ‘‘PBL’’ initiatives actually describe activities such as journal clubs or self directed study groups without several of the components of PBL proper (Foley et al., 1997). There are further difficulties, as with much educational research, in determining exactly what we mean by ‘‘does it work?’’ If we are asking whether PBL leads to greater participant enjoyment and enthusiasm for learning than more ‘‘traditional’’ methods of medical education, then there is plenty of evidence to support this: PBL learners feel they are being treated as mature professionals who are developing effective and clinically relevant study skills as well as useful skills in problem solving that are vital in their working life. They also value the interpersonal skills that PBL encourages and that are also key to effective clinical practice (Colliver, 2000). There is practically no evidence, however, that PBL participants demonstrate improved clinical competence or have more effective clinical consultations, although it might be argued that in becoming more confident and self aware as professional learners they will presumably become more efficient and enthusiastic in the workplace (Albanese, 2000). These remain broad assumptions, though, and the relative newness of postgraduate PBL accounts for the lack of clarity in this area.
Process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) is method that uses questions to guide a subject discussion . Usually follows three phases: exploration, concept invention and application, something close to the scien- tific method . The guide questions need to be prepared before class by an instructor. This needs to be done in a precise way, in order to the students found expected conclusions . Students are arranged in groups re- ceiving instructor supports when needed . This method is used mainly in undergraduate classes and also in laboratory experiments, mostly related to science - as biochemistry  and ecology .
The fact that there are most lecturers in learning does not involve assessment in the learning process. It is good for the learning process to be evaluated on what each student is doing, so that the learning process stimulates students to be actively involved in finding the concepts that they are learning. Physics becomes a course that requires reasoning ability, so learning requires abstract illustration abilities. Problem-based learning have to developed primarily in physics to help students develop thinking skills, problem solving, and intellectual skills that learn about the various roles of adults through their involvement in real-life experiences or simulations and become autonomous and independent learners.